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Family Arecaceae / Palmae
African oil palm
Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

You zong

Scientific names Common names
Elaeis dybowskii Hua African oil palm (Engl.)
Elaeis guineensis Jacq. Macaw fat tree (Engl.)
Elaeis guineensis subsp. nigrescens A.Chev. Oil palm tree (Engl.)
Elaeis macrophylla A.Chev.                              Palm kernel oil (Engl.)
Elaeis madagascariensis (Jum. & H.Perrier) Becc. Palm oil (Engl.)
Elaeis melanococca Gaertn.  
Elaeis nigrescens (A.Chev.) Prain  
Elaeis virescens (A.Chev.) Prain  
Palma oleosa Mill.  
Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is an accepted name. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Nakhlet ez zayt.
BURMESE: Si htan, Si ohn.
CAMBODINA: Doong preeng.
CHINESE: You zong, You ye zu.
COOK ISLANDS: Nu tamara.
DANISH: Oliepalme.
FINNISH: Öljypalmu.
FRENCH: Palmier à huile, Palmier à huile d'Afrique.
GERMAN: Afrikanische Ölpalme, Oelpalme.
INDONESIA: Kelapa sawit; Salak minyak, Kalapa ciung, Kalapa minyak.
ITALIAN: Palma avoira, Palma da olio, Palma oleaginosa africana.
JAPANESE: Abura yashi.
MALAY: Kelapa sawit, Kelapa sawit Bali.
PORTUGUESE: Caiaué (Brazil), Dendenzeiro, Palmera dendém.
RUSSIAN: Gvineiskaia, Maslichnaia pal'ma, Pal'ma maslichnaia.
SPANISH: Corojo de Guinea, Palma africana, Palma oleaginosa africana, Palmera de aceite.
SWAHILI: Mchikichi, Miwesi, Mjenga.
SWEDISH: Oljepalm.
THAI: Paam nam man.
VIETNAMESE: Co dau; Dua da.

Gen info
- Elaeis guineensis is the principal source of palm oil.
- Human use of oil palms may date as far back as 5,000 years in Egypt. In the late 1800a, archaeologists found palm oil in a tomb at Abydos dating back to 3000 BCE. (36)
- The first Western to describe it and bring back seeds was French naturalist Michael Adanson. (36)
- Each hectare of oil palm, which is harvested year round, yields an annual production average of 20 tonnes of fruit, yielded 4,000 kg of palm oil and 750 kg of seed kernels yielding 500 kg of high-quality palm kernel oil, along with 600 kg of kernel meal, which is processed for livestock feed. (36)
- The genus name Elaeis is Greek for 'oil'. The specific epithet guineensis refers to the name for the area, Guinea, not to the modern country bearing that name.

Oil palm tree has an erect trunk reaching a height of 4 to 10 meters. Leaves are numerous, 3 to 4.5 meters long. Petioles are broad, armed on the sides with spinescent, reduced leaves. Leaflets are numerous, linear-lanceolate, nearly 1 meter long, 2 to 4 centimeters wide. Male inflorescence is dense, having numerous, cylindric spikes which are 7 to 12 centimeters long and about 1 centimeter in diameter; the rachises excurrent as a stout awn. Female inflorescence is dense, branched, 20 to 30 centimeters long, the flowers densely disposed. Fruit is borne in large dense masses.

- Introduced sometime in the middle of 19th century.
- Ornamental cultivation in Manila and larger towns.

- Seeds of improved strain introduced by Dr. Eduardo Quisumbing in 1938 from Kuala Lumpur.
- Grown extensively in West Africa, its original home, and in Malaya, Sumatra, Java, India, and the United States.

- Palm yields two kinds of oil: the palm oil and palm-kernel oil.
- Palm oil consists principally of palmitin and olein, used primarily in the manufacture of soaps and candles.
- The palm kernel oil consists chiefly of glyceride of lauric acid, together with palmitic, oleic and myristic acids, some caprylic acid, capric acid and phytosterin, and used for making vegetable butter.
- Phytochemical screening of oil palm leaves yielded phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, steroids, and carbohydrates. (see study below) (17)
- Proximate analysis of methanolic extracts showed flavonoids as main constituents highest in oil palm leaves (257.00 ± 3.055 mg QE/g DW). (see study below) (17)
- Analysis of lipid and sterol composition of the pollen yielded triglycerides, esterified and free sterols and trace amounts of hydrocarbons from the neutral lipid fraction. Major fatty acids were linoleic, palmitic, linolenic acids with small to trace amounts of oleic, stearic, arachidic, myristic, lauric, palmitoleic and margaric acids.
- Phytochemical analysis of leaf extracts yielded secondary metabolites including alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, and saponins. Flavonoids was highest in the methanol extract (118.03 ± 0.29) and least in the hexane extract (8.00). (see study below) (32)
- Study of methanolic extract of shell waste yielded phenolics (11.4 ± 0.2 g/100g), flavonoids (5.67 ± 0.23 g/100g), tannins (6.67 ± 0.12 g/100g),  terpenoids (4.53 ± 0.12 g/100g), saponins (1.99 ±0.01 g/100g), and alkaloids (1.81 0.03 g/100g).

- Considered vulnerary, laxative, diuretic.
- Antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, hepatoprotective, wound healing.
- Studies have suggest antimicrobial, wound healing, hepatoprotective, antihypertensive, antioxidant, renoprotective, anticancer, antiaging, antidiabetic, antimalarial properties.

Parts used
Oil, fruits, roots, sap.


- Edible palm heart and fruit.
- Sap from inflorescence used to make wine and sugar.
- Not known medicinally in the Philippines.
- In Guinea, oil is applied to wounds as a vulnerary.
- Used as a liniment for rheumatism.
- Decoction of root or burnt powder of root taken orally to treat epilepsy.
- Infructesence mixed with ginger burned and applied as enema to young children to encourage walking at an early age.
- The Bubis of the Island of Fernando Po make a poultice made from oil which is applied to wounds.
- In traditional African medicine, various plant parts used for treating gonorrhea, menorrhagia, rheumatism, bronchitis, headache, skin infections, and to promote wound healing. (25)
- In Ghana, roots used for sexual impotence, as aphrodisiac
- In Equatorial West African, roots used as diuretic and fresh sap as laxative.
- In South Eastern Nigeria, used for treatment of boils and skin infections. Also used as vermifuge, diuretic, and poison antidote. Roots, stems bark, kernel and palm oil used for treatment of malaria, diarrhea, asthma, measles, mental disorder, and convulsions. (25) Sap from palm oil tree used by Igbo mothers planning to breastfeed to induce and sustain lactation a few hours after delivery. (
- In the Jola of the Garmba, West Africa, oil used for snake bites.
- In Ghana, used for the treatment of malaria.
- Oil: Palm oil chiefly used in the manufacture of soaps and candles. The palm-kernel oil is used for making vegetable butter.
- Wine: In Africa, wine made from the trees.

- Ritual / Superstition: Inflorescence burned to drive away bad spirits. Seed nut used in oracle rituals for diagnosis of illness and fate dreams. (17) In southwest Nigeria, traditional healers believe in the power of the shell for the treatment of illnesses attributed to god of Satan (esu). (35)
- Repellent: In the Jola of the Gambia, West Africa, male flower is burned to repel mosquitoes. (18)
- Fodder: Kernel meat provides livestock feed.
- Others: Palm parts used for making brooms and fish traps.

Palm oil
• Oil palm is considered the highest yielding oil-bearing crop.
• Oil is extracted from the fruit pulp (palm oil) and the kernel (palm kernel oil). For every 100 kg of fruit bunches, 22 kg of palm oil and 1.6 kg of palm kernel oil can be extracted.
• It has a high oil yield (7,259 liters per hectare per year), high levels of natural antioxidant, and comparatively cheaper pricing.
• It has more saturated fats than canola, corn linseed, soybean, safflower and sunflower oils and can withstand deep-fry heat, with a resistance to oxidation.

Wound Healing / Antimicrobial:
Phytochemical screening yielded tannins, alkaloids, steroids, saponins, terpenoids and flavonoids. The extract showed significant activity against C albicans. Results show a potent wound healing capacity as evidenced by better wound closures, improved tissue regeneration and histopath evidence, with a significant reduction of microbial count. (2)
Traditionally extracted palm oil and palm kernel oil, tested individually on five microorganisms - S aureus, E coli, P aeruginosa, C albicans and A niger
- showed inhibition. When the extracts were mixed, only E coli was minimally inhibited. (3) Study methanol extract of oil palm leaf for showed significant antimicrobial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and yeast and fungi tested. (18)
Lipid Oxidation: Supplementation of palm oil as an antioxidant to a certain extent reduced lipid oxidation in healthy rats; but worsened or not significantly inhibited in diabetic rats. (4)
Hepatoprotective / Paracetamol Toxicity / Leaves: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of E. guineensis against paracetamol- induced liver injury in mice through serum analysis. Mice treated with leaf extract showed significant decline in ALT, AST, and bilirubin levels. The hepatoprotection was attributed to an antioxidant activity.   (8)
Wound Healing / Leaf Extract Ointment: Study of E. guineensis leaf extract showed potent wound healing capacity as evidenced by better wound closure, improved tissue regeneration, together with histopath improvement. (10)
Antihypertensive and Cardiovascular Effects / Catechin-Rich: Study evaluated the catechin-rich oil palm leaf extract (OPLE) for antioxidant, antihypertensive, and cardiovascular effects in normal and NO-deficient hypertensive rats. Results showed significant attenuation of blood pressure increases, increased serum NO, reduced lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant effects. (11)
Cytotoxicity / Anti-Cancer: Study evaluated the cytotoxic effects of a methanol extract on MCF-7 and Vero cell. Results showed significant cytotoxic effects on MCF-7, suggesting a potential use of the extract in preparing recipes for cancer-related ailments. (12)
Antioxidant / Renoprotection in Diabetes: Results of study of oil palm leaf extract (OPLE) showed improvement in renal dysfunction and pathology in diabetes. Renoprotection was via catechin-rich OPLE modulation of oxidative stress caused by hyperglycemic-induced generation of free radicals in the diabetic kidney and prevention of renal dysfunction and structural injury. (13)
Acute Toxicity Study / Brine-Shrimp Lethality: Acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract was tested. Results showed E. guineensis is nontoxic and safe for commercial utilization. (14)
Antioxidant / Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study evaluated extracts of oil palm leaves for antioxidant and antibacterial activity. Antioxidant evaluation using DPPH assay showed great antioxidant activity from the methanolic extracts with IC50 value of 0.646 mg/mL. Antibacterial activity showed the methanol extract to have broad spectrum activity against all tested bacteria with inhibition zone of 7.7-11.3 ± 0.0 -1.0 mm. (see constituents above) (16)
Anti-Aging / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study screened methanol extracts of leaves for antioxidant activity by DPPH (IC50 814 µg/ml), XOI (534.04 µg/mL), NOS 37.48 µg/mL), and HPSA (1052.02 µg/mL) assays. Total phenolic content was o.33 mg gallic equivalent (GAE) per gram of dry extract. Results suggest a potential as an anti-aging agent, with high bioaccessibility and bioavailabiity throughout the country. (19)
Toxicity Study / Leaves: Study evaluated the acute toxicity of a catechin-rich oil palm (E. guineensis) leaf extract. No observed adverse effects were seen at 2 gm dose. There was no death even at 5 g dose, and the acute toxic injuries appeared reversible. (20)
Antioxidant / Pro-Oxidant Effects / Leaves: Study evaluated the antioxidant and pro-oxidant effects of chronically administered high doses (1000 mg kg) of leaf extract in an animal model of diabetic nephropathy. Results showed chronic administration for four weeks attenuated renal dysfunction and development of glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, features that are associated with DN. Suppression of increases in oxidative stress markers and fibrotic cytokine was observed. In contrast, OPLE administered for 12 weeks caused worsening of renal dysfunction, accompanied by an increase expression of one of the NADPH oxidase subunits p22phcx. Results suggest the unfavorable effects of prolonged treatment with 1000 mg/kg were accompanied by increase expression of one of the NADPH oxidase subunits. (21)
Wound Healing / Staphylococcus aureus Infection / Leaves: Study evaluated the wound healing potential of E. guineensis leaves against S. aureus infections in Sprague Dawley male rate model using excision and infected wound models.  Results showed potent wound healing ability as evidenced by improved wound closure and tissue regeneration supported by histopathological parameters and significant reduction in microbial count, along with expression of matrix metalloproteinases. (23)
Hepatoprotective / Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity / Oil from Fruit: Study evaluated the protective effect of red palm oil (RPO) against CCl4 toxicity in rats treated with intraperitoneal RPO diluted in olive oil. Treated rats with RPO exhibited significant (p<0.05) increase in packed cell volume hemoglobin and platelet, and dose-dependent decrease in liver enzymes (AST, ALT, ALKP) activities. Noted was significant increases (p<0.05) in GSH, SOD, and CAT in RPO treated groups. Results showed hepatoprotective effect with potential to abate the toxic effects of CCl4 on hepatorenal and hematopoietic organs in wistar rats. (24)
Hepatoprotective / t-BHP-Induced Oxidative Hepatotoxicity: Study suggest that aqueous rooibus extract (Aspalathus linearis) and red palm oil (RPO) (Elaeis guineensis), either supplemented alone or combined, are capable of alleviating t-BPH-induced oxidative hepatotoxicity. The mechanism of protection may involved inhibition of lipid peroxidation and modulation of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione status. (26)
Antimalarial against Plasmodium falciparum / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-plasmodial activity of ethanolic extracts of Elaeis guaneensis leaves, A. cissampeloides stem, T. ivorensis stem bark against chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Results showed antimalarial activity with Elaeis guineensis showing IC50 of 1.195 µg/mL, compared to artesunate with IC50 of 0.031 µg/mL. (27)
Effect on Reproductive Indices of Male Rats / Oil Palm Sap: Study evaluated the effect of oil palm tree sap of Elaeis guineensis on reproductive indices of 30 male Wistar rats.  Results demonstrated that the intake of frozen palm sap improved fertility in male animals, but long term administration led to necrotic changes in the testes, whereas pasteurization of palm sap impacted negatively on the reproductive indices of male animals. (28)
Diuretic / Leaves: Study evaluated the diuretic and natridiuretic activities and toxicity of aqueous extract of E. guineensis leaves in Wistar rats. Results showed a significant diuretic effect (157.16% and 169.25%) in rats treated respectively with 135 mg/kg of extract and furosemide (20 mg/kg) and a modest diuretic activity (146.32%) with dose of 202.50 mg/kg of extract. The dose of 135 mg/kg was considered best in terms of diuretic and natridiuretic activities. (29)
Effect in Pre-Diabetes / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of leaf extracts of E. guineensis and F. deltoidea on patients with pre-diabetes. An 8-week intervention using 500 or 1000 mg of EG and 1000 mg of FD leaf extract decreased fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels, glucose and insulin areas under the curve, and insulin resistance, and increased insulin sensitivity. The 500 mg dose of E. guineensis showed a more consistent effect on reducing glycemia than the 1000 mg dose. Results showed positive effects on glucose and lipid levels and safety for use in humans. (31)
Antimicrobial against Salmonella Strains / in Pre-Diabetes / Leaves: Study evaluated the in vitro anti-salmonella effect of E. guineensis on Salmonella species isolated from clinically suspected typhoid fever patients and its use as alternative treatment of salmonellosis and gastroenteritis. The highest zone of inhibition (21.67 ± 1.20 mm) was observed with a methanol extract at concentration of 100 mg/;mL for Salmonella typhimurium. Ciprofloxacin showed 23.00 zone of inhibition, augmentin 4 mm. Results suggest E. guineensis is a potential source of phytotherapy in combating salmonellosis and gastroenteritis. (see constituents above) (32)
Effect of Lactobacillus spp. on Cellular and Innate Immunity / Sap of Fresh Palm Wine: Study isolated, characterized, and evaluated Lactobacillus spp. from fresh palm wine on its in vivo effects on innate and cellular immune system using two models, namely: in vivo leukocyte mobilization rate (LMR) and delayed type hypersensitivity response (DTHR). Phenotypic characterizations showed presence of Lactobacillus brevis, L. paracasei subsp. Tolerans, L paracasei, and L. yonginensis. Results showed the four lactobacillus spp. isolated from fresh palm wine significantly affected the innate and cellular component of the immune system positively. (33)
Vasodilatory / Leaves: Study evaluated the vasodilatory effect of aqueous crude extract of dried and powdered leaves in porcine coronary artery. Results showed the extract induces pronounced endothelium-dependent relaxations of the porcine coronary artery, which predominantly involved NO. The stimulatory effect of EGE on eNOS involves the redox-sensitive phosphorylation of ENOS at Ser1177, most likely via the PI3-kinase pathway. (34)
Biologic Potential of Shell Waste: Study evaluated the phytochemical contents of methanolic extract of E. guineensis shell waste. Results nullifies the traditional herbalist superstitious belief about E. guineensis shell waste. The extract yielded phytochemicals that possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and astringent properties that could be used in traditional wound management. (see constituents above) (35)

Commercially, as oil products.
Pellets, tinctures, dilutions in the cybermarkets.

Updated January 2023 / May 2019 / February 2016

IMAGE SOURCE / Public Domain / File:Koeh-056.jpg / Franz Eugen Köhler / Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen / 1897 / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo of (1) tree and (2) Cross section of an oil palm fruitlet from: ./etawau.com/OilPalm/Elaeis_guineens.htm / Click on image to go to source page
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Oil palm fruit / Bongoman / CC by SA 3.0 / Click on image to go to source page / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Oil palm fruit / T K Naliaka / CC by SA 4.0 International / Click on image to go to source page / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Palm Oil / Wikipedia
Wound Healing Potential of Elaeis guineensis Jacq Leaves in an Infected Albino Rat Model / Sreenivasan Sasidharan, Rajoo Nilawatyi et al / Molecules 2010, 15(5), 3186-3199; doi:10.3390/molecules15053186
ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECTS OF PALM KERNEL OIL AND PALM OIL / Ekwenye, U N and Ijeomah C A / KMITL Sci. J. Vol. 5 No. 2 Jan-Jun 2005
EFFECTS OF THE OIL PALM (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) ON LIPID OXIDATION IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS/ Lim Chin Choon / International Islamic Univerisity Malaysia / 2008
Lipid and sterol composition of the pollen of the west african oilpalm, Elaeis guineensis / F I Opute / Phytochemistry, Volume 14, Issue 4, April 1975, Pages 1023-1026 / doi:10.1016/0031-9422(75)85180-6
Edible Palms and Their Uses / Jody Haynes & John McLaughlin / Quisqualis
Sorting Elaeis names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / The University of Melbourne. Australia / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
Hepatoprotective Potential of Elaeis Guineensis Leaf Against Paracetamol Induced Damage in Mice: A Serum Analysis / Sreenivasan Sasidharan+, Soundararajan Vijayarathna, Subramanion L Jothy, Kwan Yuet Ping and Lachimanan Yoga Latha / 2012 International Conference on Nutrition and Food Sciences IPCBEE vol. 39 (2012) © (2012)
Elaeis guineensis Jacquem. / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, Chiina
Wound Healing Activity of Elaeis guineensis Leaf Extract Ointment / Sreenivasan Sasidharan,* Selvarasoo Logeswaran, and Lachimanan Yoga Latha / Int J Mol Sci. 2012; 13(1): pp 336–347 /
DOI: 10.3390/ijms13010336
Antihypertensive and Cardiovascular Effects of Catechin-Rich Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) Leaf Extract in Nitric Oxide–Deficient Rats / Juliana M. Jaffri, Suhaila Mohamed, Nordanial Rohimi, Intan N. Ahmad, M. Mustapha Noordin, and Yazid A. Manap/ JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL FOOD J Med Food, 2011; 14(7-8): pp 775–783 / DOI: 10.1089/jmf.2010.1170
Cytotoxicity of methanol extracts of Elaeis guineensis on MCF-7 and Vero cell lines /
Soundararajan Vijayarathna, Sreenivasan Sasidharan* / 826 Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012; 2(10): 826-829 / doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60237-8
Chronic Administration of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) Leaves Extract Attenuates Hyperglycaemic-Induced Oxidative Stress and Improves Renal Histopathology and Function in Experimental Diabetes / Varatharajan Rajavel, Munavvar Zubaid Abdul Sattar, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla, Normadiah M. Kassim and Nor Azizan Abdullah / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2012 (2012), / doi:10.1155/2012/195367
Acute Oral Toxicity and Brine Shrimp Lethality of Elaeis guineensis Jacq., (Oil Palm Leaf) Methanol Extract
/  Abdul Rani Muhamad Syahmi, Soundararajan Vijayarathna, Sreenivasan Sasidharan,* Lachimanan Yoga Latha, Yuet Ping Kwan, Yee Ling Lau, Lai Ngit Shin and Yeng Chen / Molecules 2010, 15: pp 8111-8121 / DOI:10.3390/molecules15118111
Elaeis guineensis Jacq. / Synonyms / The Plant List
Ritual uses of palms in traditional medicine in sub-Saharan Africa: a review
/ Marta Gruca, Tinde R van Andel and Henrik Balslev / Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine201410:60 / DOI: 10.1186/1746-4269-10-60
Antimicrobial Activity of Elaeis Guineensis Leaf / K.H. Chong, Z. Zuraini, S. Sasidharan,*, P.V. Kalnisha Devi / L. Yoga Latha and S. Ramanathan / Pharmacologyonline 3: 379-386 (2008)
Antioxidant Activity of Elaeis guineensis Leaf Extract: An Alternative Nutraceutical Approach in Impeding Aging / Vijayarathna Soundararajan, Sasidharan Sreenivasan / APCBEE Procedia, Volume 2, 2012, Pages 153–159
Acute toxicity and safety assessment of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) leaf extract in rats / Victor Uchenna Anyanji*, Suhaila Mohamed and Hair Bin Bejo / Journal of Medical Plant Research, 2013; 7(16): pp 1022-1029 / DOI 10.5897/JMPR12.0001
Antioxidant and pro-oxidant effects of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) leaves extract in experimental diabetic nephropathy: a duration-dependent outcome / Rajavel Varatharajan, Munavvar Zubaid Abdul Sattar, Ivy Chung, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla, Normadiah M Kassim and Nor Azizan Abdullah / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013, 13:242 / DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-13-242
Therapeutic landscapes of the Jola, The Gambia, West Africa / Clare Madge / Health & Place, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 293-311, 1998
Formulation and evaluation of wound healing activity of Elaeis guineensis Jacq leaves in Staphylococcus aureus infected Sprague Dawley rat model / Amala Rajoo, Surash Ramanathan, Sharif M Mansor, Sreenivasan Sasidhara et al /  Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2021; Vol 266: 113414 /
DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2020.113414
Pretreatment of red palm oil extracted from palm fruit   (Elaeis guineensis) attenuates carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity in Wistar rats / Okezie Emmanuel, Ugochukwu M Okezie, Emeka J Iweala, Eziuche A Ugbogu / Phytomedicine Plus, 2021; 1(4): 100079 /; DOI: 10.1016/j.phyplu.2021.100079
Indigenous Traditionall Knowledge on Health and Equitable Benefits of Oil Palm (Elais spp.) / Medagam Thirupathi Reddy, Motha Kalpana, Neelam Sunil et al / Open Access Library Journal, 2019; 6(1): Article ID 90022 / DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105103
Protective Effects of Rooibus (Aspalathus linearis) and/or Red Palm Oil (Elaeis guineensis) Supplementation on tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Oxidative Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats / Olawale R Ajuwon, Emma Katengua-Thamahane, Jeanine L Marnewick et al / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2013; Article ID 984273 / DOI: 10.1155/2013/984273
In vitro anti-plasmodial activity of three herbal remedies for malaria in Ghana: Adenia cissampeloides (Planch.) Harms., Termina liaivorensis A. Chev, and Elaeis guineensis Jacq. / Kofi Annan, K Sarpong, C Asare, R Dickson, K I Amponsah, B Gyan, M Ofori, SY Gbedema / Pharmacognosy Research, 2012; 4(4): pp 225-229 /  DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.102270
Effect of Preservation Methods of Oil Palm Sap (Elaeis guineensis) on the Reproductive Indices of Male Wistar Rats / Theophilus Maduabuchukwu Ikegwu, Gabriel Ifeanyi Okafor Izuchukwu Shedrack Ochiogu / Journal of Medicinal Food, 2014; 17(12) / DOI: 10.1089/jmf.2013.0087
Evaluation of diuretic properties from Elaeis guineensis Jacq. (Arecaceae) leaves aqueous extract in Wistar rat / Fidele M Assogba, Chouaibou Aderomou, Joachim D Gbenou et al / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2015; 7(3): pp 2457-2462 / ISSN: 0975-7384 / CODEN(USA): JCPRC5
Ethnographic Study of Perspective and Attitude of Breastfeeding Mothers Towards the Use of Elaeis guineensis Sap as Galactagogue among Igbo Women of Southeastern Nigeria / Okamkpa Jude Chikezie, Anibeze Ikechukwu Chike, Ozor Ikemefuna Ignantius, Ikenna Kingsely Ndu, Uchenna Anthony Umeh / GORM: Gynecology, Obstetrics & Reproductive Medicine, 2022; 28(1) / DOI: 10.21613/GORM.2021.1148
Efficacy and safety of Elaeis guineensis and Ficus deltoidea leaf extracts in adults with pre-diabetes / Douglas S Kalman, Howard Schwartz, Samantha Feldman, Diane R Krieger / Nutrition Journal, 2013; 12(36) / DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-12-36
Antimicrobial Screening and Phytochemical Analysis of Elaeis guineensis (Ewe Igi Ope) against Salmonella Strains / O E Ajayi, S I Awala, A G Ogunleye, F N Okogbue / British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2016; 10(3): pp 1-9 / ISSN: 2231-2919 / NLM ID: 101631759
Effects of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from the sap of palm tree Elaeis guineensis (palm wine) on cellular and innate immunity / Eze Christopher Osita, Berebon Dinebari Philip et al / African Journal of Microbiology Research, 2019; 13(2): pp 33-39 / DOI: 10.5897/AJMR2018.8995 / Article No 401717059818 / ISSN: 1996-0808
Mechanisms underlying the endothelium-dependent vasodilatory effect of an aqueous extract of Elaeis guineensis Jacq. (Arecaceae) in porcine coronary artery rings / M Ndiaye, E Anselm, M Sene, W Diatta,
A Dieye, B Faye, V Schini-Kerth / African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 2012; 7(2) / DOI: 10.4314/ajtcam.v7i2.50869
Extraction and phytochemical screening of Elaeis guineensis shell waste / Stephen Sunday Emmanuel, Ademidun Adeola Adesibikan / International Journal of Recent Research in Physics and Chemical Sciences, 2020; 7(1): ppp 1-8 / ISSN: 2350-1030
Elaeis guineensis / Wikipedia

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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