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Family Ulmaceae / Cannabaceae
Trema orientalis Blume

Yi se shan huang ma

Scientific names Common names
Celtis commersonii Brogn. Agandang (Ibn.)
Celtis discolor Brogn. Alindagon (Sul.)
Celtis glomerata Hochst. Anabiong (Bis., Tag.)
Celtis guineensis Schumach. & Thonn. Anadung (Bon.)
Celtis madagascariensis Bojer Anagdung (P. Bis.)
Celtis orientalis Linn. Anagum (Bik.)
Colubrina leschenaultii (DC.) G.Don Anariong (Iv.)
Sponia andaresa Commerson ex Lamarck Anadung (Bon.)
Sponia argentea Planch. Anarong (Sbl.)  
Sponia commersonii Decaisne ex Planchon Anaduiong (Buk.)  
Sponia glorerata Hochst. Arandon (Ilk.) 
Sponia guineensis (Schumach. & Thonn.) Planch Du-ung (Sul.) 
Sponia orientais (L.) Decne. Hagod (Tag.) 
Sponia wightii Planch. Hanadiong (Tag.) 
Trema africana Blume Hanadgong (Bik., S. L. Bis.)
Trema commersonii (Decaisne ex Planchon) Blume Hanagdon (Tag.)
Trema grevel Baill. Hanagdong (Tag.)
Trema grisea Baker Hanarion (Tag.)
Trema guineensis (Schum. & Thonn.) Ficalho Hinagdung (Tag.)
Trema hochstetteri Engl. Hinlalaong (Pamp.)
Trema nitens Blume Hubulos (Bon.)
Trema orientalis Blume Inandong (Tag.)
Trema polygama Z.M.Wu & J.Y.Lin Indai luging (Lan.)
Trema wightii Blume Inugdon (Tag., Bis.)
  Lagod (Tag.)
  Lamai (Ilk.)
  Langong (Sub.)
  Malarurung (Tag.)
  Malarurang (Tag.)
  Malasiking durong (Pamp.)
  Mandalogon (Bag.)
  Nagdon (P. Bis.)
  Pangarandongen (Ilk.)
  Pañgaranduñgin (Ilk.)
  Pitidan (Ig.)
  Pitikan (Ig.)
  Tatagtag (P. Bis.)
  Charcoal tree (Engl.)
  Gunpowder tree (Engl.)
  Hop out )Engl.)
  Indian charcoal tree (Engl.)
  Indian nettle tree (Engl.)
  Pigeon wood (Engl.)
  Oriental trema (Engl.)
Anabiong is a local name shared by (1) Artocarpus rubrovenia, kalulot, and (2) Tremna orientalis, hanadiong.
Trema orientalis (L.) Blume is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BEMBA: Mutumpu.
BENGALI: Chickan, Chikan, Jiban, Jibon
CHINESE: Yi se shan huang ma
INDONESIAN: Aanggerung, Kuray, Lenggung.
JAPANESE: Urajiro enoki.
JAVANESE: Anggerung.
KENYA: Muhethu, Poponet, Musakala.
KHMER: Srô:l.
LAO: Po, Hu.
MALAY: Menarong, Mengkirai, Randagong.
SANSKRIT: Jivanti.
SRI LANKAN: Gedumba.
SWAHILI: Mgendagenda, Mpesi, Msasa, Mzunguzungu.
TAMIL: Ambaratthi, Chenkolam, Oma, Oman.
THAI: Padang Po-haek, Takhai.
TONGAN: Mululwe.
VIETNAMESE: Hu dai, Hu l[as] nh[or], Hu las nhor.
YORUBA: Afefe,

- The generic name Trema derives from the Greek word for hole alluding to the pitted seeds. The specific name orientalis is Latin for orient or eastern.

Anabiong is a small tree, 5 to 8 meters high, with elongated branches. Leaves are distichous, the upper surface rough; the lower, pale and covered with soft dense hairs, oblong-ovate to lanceolate, 8 to 15 centimeters long, with the base frequently unequal, broad and heart-shaped, and the apex long and thinly pointed, and prominently 3-nerved with finely toothed margins. Cymes are dense, hairy, 1 to 2.5 centimeters long. White flowers are numerous, about 3 millimeters long. Fruit is ovoid, about 3.5 centimeters long.

- In deserted clearings, thickets, and second-growth forests, often abundant, and found throughout the Philippines, at low and medium altitudes, in some places ascending to 2,000 meters.
- Also occurs in India to southern China and southward to northeastern Australia and Polynesia.

- Often planted as a shade-tree.

- Bark contains a little tannin.
- Study of extracts of trunk bark and root bark isolated three new compounds: (9S*,10S*)-3-[7-(3,10-dihydroxy-9-hydroxymethyl-2,5-dimethoxy)-9,10-dihydrophenanthrenyl] propenal (1), (9S*,10S*)-3-[7-(5-O-β-glucopyranosyl-10-hydroxy-9-hydroxymethyl-2,6-dimethoxy)-9,10-dihydrophenanthrenyl] propenal (2), and (3R*,3aR*,4R*,5S*)-6-O-α-arabinopyranosyl-8-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,3a-dihydrocyclopenta[1,2,3-de]isobenzopyran-1-one (3, orientoside A).(
- Study yielded the presence of tannins and phenolic compounds, fixed oils, fats, phytosterols, and flavonoids.
- Study yielded 8 compounds: ampelopsin F, (-) epicatechin, (+)-catechin, (+) syringaresinol, cinnamic acid among others.

- Study of extracts of trunk and root barks isolated 16 compounds. Spectral analysis identified them as Methylswertianin, decussatin, glycosides of decussatin, sweroside, scopoletin, (-)- epicatechin, lupeol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxy- benzoic acid, adian-5-en-3-one, 2a, 3a, 23-trihydroxyurs- 12-en-28-oic acid, 2a, 3b-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid, ß-sitosterol, 3-O-b-glucopyranosyl-b-sitosterol and hexacosanoic acid. (1)
- Study isolated from stem-bark of TO a new pentacyclic triterpenoid alcohol, trematol. (3)
- Phytochemical screening of powdered sample of plant yielded alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and cardiac glycosides. Proximate analysis yielded crude protein 4.20 ±1.00%, crude fiber 13.00 ±1.00%, ether extract 12.00 ±10.00%, ash 8.00 ±1.00%, dry matter 89.00 ±10.00%. (22 )
- Phytochemical screening of petroleum ether and methanolic extracts of whole plant (stem, bark, leaves, roots) of T. orientalis yielded phytosterols, triterpenoids, fixed oils and fats, tannins, phenolics, flavonoids, and carbohydrates. (see study below) (33 )

- Studies have shown antibacterial, glucose-lowering, anticonvulsive, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, iron- chelating properties.

Parts used
Bark, leaves, seeds, stems, twigs.

• Leaves and fruit reportedly eaten in African countries.
• Young leaves eaten as spinach by the Zulus.
• In the Philippines, juice obtained from macerating the soft wood is used for poulticing swellings.
• Fruit, leaves, bark, stems, twigs and seeds are used in traditional East and West Africa, Tanzania and Madagascar medicine.
• In various folk medicine, root used for treatment of trauma, hematuria, gastrointestinal bleeding, blood stasis; stem bark decoction used as vermifuge and antidysenteric; stem bark and leaf decoction used for treatment of malaria, muscle pain, bone pain, and venereal diseases; stem bark and leaf decoction used as gargle, and relief of toothache. (
• Leaves and bark used to treat cough, asthma, bronchitis, toothache, sore throat. Also used for gonorrhea, yellow fever, and as antidote to poisoning.
• Bark infusion used for dysentery.
• Stem bark used as vermifuge.
• Decoction of leaves mixed with leaves of Bidens pilosa, Citrus aurantifolia and peels of unripe pineapple used for jaundice. Macerated leaves in lemon juice used for cough. Leaf decoction used as anthelmintic for roundworm and hookworm. (17)
• In Cote-d'Ivoire, leaf decoction used for hypertension.
• In southwest Nigeria, bark used as hematinic. Decoction of a mixture of T. orientalis bark, X. aethiopica fruits, T. alnifolia bark , and H. madagascariensis bark drunk twice daily for anemia.
• Zulus use the roots and bark as traditional medicine.
- In Nigeria, used for treatment of malaria. (
- In Africa, used for diarrhea, arthritis, and neuralgia; in mixed preparations with Cordyline terminalia and Ricinus communis oil for diarrhea, arthritis, neuralgia, rheumatism, sprain; and fracture. (
- Oil: Seed yields a dark green fixed oil.
- Rope
: The bast used in making string or rope.
- Craft: The wood which is soft is used in making wooden shoes. Light wood used for making fruit boxes.
- Dye: Leaves yield a coffee-colored dye. Bark yields a dark brown to black dye. Tannin used in roughening and coloring fishing lines.
- Veterinary:
Leaf decoction used to deworm dogs. (•) In Zambia, T. orientalis is component of concoction of roots, bark and leaves given to cattle as a drench for Corridor disease (Theileriosis), foot and mouth disease, black leg, lumpy skin disease, coughing, bloating, and worms in cattle.(32)
- Fodder:
Leaves, pods, and seeds used as fodder. In the Philippines, fed to cattle, goats, and water buffalo. High fiber content and toxins limit the use of leaf meal in feeds—the limitation can be overcome by extracting protein from the leaves. (1
- Fuel:
Coppices to provide for firewood and charcoal. (1
- Fiber: Appropriate for paper and pulp production. Paper has good tensile strength and folding endurance. (1


Ethnobotanical Study / Blood Pressure Lowering:
Trema orientalis was one of 33 species of plants used for treatment of hypertension. Used as a leaf decoction, its effect was attributed to polyphenols, potassium retention and the promotion of diuresis. (4)
Anti-Convulsive Effect:
Study of a methanol extract from dried leaves showed anticonvulsive activity on tonic flexion and tonic extension. (6)
Glucose-Lowering: Study was done on the glucose-lowering effect of the aqueous stem bark extract in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Results showed T. orientalis stem bark extract significantly reduces blood glucose in STZ-induced diabetic rats by a mechanism different from the of sulfonylurea agents. (7)
Chromium and Nickel Tolerance: Callus from contaminated and uncontaminated sources of Trema orientalis were tested in vitro for tolerance to chromium and nickel. Results showed seeds from contaminated sites were tolerant to chromium and nickel, suggesting a potential for use in sustainable revegetation programmes on chromiferous mine wastes. (9)
Antibacterial / Bark Extracts: Study evaluated the antibacterial efficacy of aqueous bark extracts of T. orientalis on six selected bacterial strains. Results showed the selected bacterial strains were highly susceptible to the test materials, and corroborates its application in traditional medicine. (10)
Reinforcement of Jute Pulp with Trema Orientalis Pulp: The addition of jute fiber pulp to the T. orientalis pulp increased tear strength. The pulp blends showed increased sheet density. Tensile index and burst index of blended pulp increased with beating degree and proportion of T. orientalis increased. (1
Iron Chelating / Antiradical Activity / Leaves: A methanol soluble fraction extracted from leaves showed antiradical activity of 69.73% on a DPPH assay, almost similar to ascorbic acid. Iron chelating activity was 40.74%. The results suggest a potential for processing industries and a good source for an iron chelator. (1
Black Powder for Blasting and Fireworks Purposes: Study of generated flames exhibited characteristics of black powder used for blasting purposes. The flames from ignition of black powder of Trema orientalis were comparable to that of foreign black powder. Results showed a potential for use of T. orientalis black powder for blasting in dimensional stone quarries, sporting and fireworks uses. (1
Anti-Sickling Powder for Blasting and Fireworks Purposes: Study evaluated the effect of anthocyanins extracts from T. orientalis on sickle cells. The anthocyanin extracts exhibited antisickling activity, possible through interference with intracellular polymerization of HbS or scavenging of free radicals preventing erythrocyte sickling or hemolysis. (1
Safety / Genotoxicity Testing: Study evaluated the safety of five plants widely distributed in Africa. Using bacterial reverse mutation, T. orientalis was one of four that showed negative results, suggesting potential safety of the plants for use as supplements in high doses. (1
Laxative Effect: Aqueous extract was shown to have a laxative effect, inducing stimulation of rabbit duodenum contractility. Also, an aqueous extract exerted cholinimimetic and anticholinesterase effects. (17)
Mosquito Larvicidal Potential: In a study of four plants for mosquito larvicidal potential against Culex quinquefasciatus, a crude extract of Trema orientalis showed an LC50 2.95%. (18)
Analgesic / Antidiarrheal: Study evaluated the potential analgesic and anti-diarrheal activity of methanol and aqueous extracts of leaves in experimental acetic acid induced writhing and castor oil induced diarrhea in mice. The aqueous extract showed significant (p<0.001) analgesic effect. In anti-diarrheal screening, both extracts increased latent period (p<0.025) and decreased the number of stools (p<0.025) comparable to standard loperamide. (
In Vitro Thrombolysis / Clot Lysis Effect: Study evaluated the clot lysis effect of crude extracts of five Bangladesh plants viz., Trema orientalis, B. monnieri, C. frutescens, B. oleracea and U. sinuata in an invitro thrombolytic model using streptokinase as positive control. Chloroform fractions showed the highest clot lysis activity with T. orientalis at 46.44 ± 2.44%, compared to streptokinase at 80.77 ±1.12%. (
Antioxidant / Phenol Content: In a study of Ivory Coast medicinal plants, Trema orientalis showed the highest total phenol content (240.73 ±47.31 mgGAE/g). The extract showed dose dependent DPPH radical scavenging activity. Phytochemical screening yielded steroids and polyterpenes, polyphenols, flavonoids, lucoanthocyanins, gallic, catechins, quinones, coumarins, cardiotonic glycoside, saponins.

Antibacterial / Leaves: Study evaluated methanol and aqueous extract of leaves for antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Results showed strong antioxidant activity by DPPH assay with methanol extract IC50 of 110.25 µg/mL. Both extracts showed antibacterial activity at low concentrations. (
Antitrypanosomal / Leaves: In an in vitro antitrypanosomal study of 36 plant extracts from 10 plant species, Trema orientalis was one of the species that showed remarkable antitrypanosomal activity with high selectivity for trypanosomes. (
Antidiabetic / Leaves: Study evaluated the antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of Trema orientalis leaves in an in vivo model of diabetic rats. Extract treatment showed reduction of fasting blood glucose, along with reduction of total cholesterol and serum triglycerides and increase in HDL cholesterol levels. (
Antipyretic / Antiulcer / Leaves: Study evaluated the antipyretic and antiulcer activities of Trema orientalis leaves on albino Wistar rats using brewer's yeast induced pyrexia and ethanol induced ulcer model. Results showed significant antipyretic and antiulcer activity when compared with standard paracetamol and pantoprazole. (
Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicity Studies / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the acute and sub-acute toxicity of powder extract aerial parts of Trema orientalis. Results showed o major changes in body weight and biochemical parameters (ALP, SGPT, SGOT, TP, globulin, albumin, and bilirubin). Results suggest the methanolic extract is safe in lower dose for pharmaceutical analysis. (
Anti-Malarial / Leaf and Bark: Study evaluated the in vivo antiplasmodial activity of aqueous leaf and bark extracts of T. orientalis in a Swiss albino mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. The lethal dose based on toxicity signs and death was estimated to be greater than 5000 m/kg. Chloroquine was used as positive control. Parasitemia, parasite inhibition, body weight and packed cell volume (PCV) were determined. Extract was effective in suppressing parasitemia and in protecting infected animals from parasite induced PCV reduction. Results showed promising antiplasmodial activity which validates its folkloric use. (
Intoxication in Goats / Hepatotoxicity: While considered edible and medicinal, there have been reported suspected cases of T. orientalis intoxication in Taiwan, with lesions similar to those caused by Trema aspera, well known for its hepatotoxicity in herbivores in Australia. This study evaluated the possible toxicity of T. orientalis in goats in measures of clinical signs, hematology and blood chemistries, and pathology studies in short- and long-term feeding studies. There were severe depression, anorexia and weight loss in goats fed leaves at10 g/ kbw or higher. No significant clinical signs were noted at 4g/kbw/day. In higher doses, the hepatic lesion were extensive, sparing only hepatocytes in the periportal area. In lower dose, lesions were more localized in the centrilobular area. Study demonstrated T. orientalis is indeed poisonous to goats with liver as a major target organ. Animals may suffer from acute liver damage and die after feeding on large amounts of leaves (10g/kbw/day). However, the toxic effect is not cumulative as no significant hepatocellular injury was noted, functionally or morphologically, after low level of leaf consumption at 50g/goat/day for a long period of time. The hepatiocellular injury may be due to irreversible disturbance of energy metabolism which leads to hepatocellular necrosis. (
Antiepileptic / Whole Plant: Study evaluated the antiepileptic potential of petroleum ether and methanol extracts f whole plant (roots, leaves, stem, and bark) of T. orientalis using Picrotoxin Isoniazid, and NMDA induced convulsion models in rats and mice. PE and ME extracts at doses of 200 and 500 mg/kg showed significant increase (p<0.001) in the onset of convulsions. The amount of lupeol in the PE extract was estimated at 8.7 µg/ml. The antiepileptic activity was attributed to an increase in the brain GABA levels. (
Antimalarial / Leaves: Study evaluated the antiplasmodial activity of acetone extract of T. orientalis leaves. Treatment with graded doses of acetone extract resulted in significant chemosuppression of parasitic growth ranging from 44.0 to 83.8%. The most active fraction, M6, showed significant schizontocidal activity (p<0.001), and data suggested it contained flavonoids. (
Antiplasmodial / Toxicity Assessment: Study evaluated the antiplasmodial activity and toxicity assessment of 30 plant extracts from eight Nigerian medicinal plants used for treatment of febrile diseases. The EA extract of leaves of Ocimum gratissimum and hexane extract of stem bark of Trema orientalis showed highest antiplasmodial activity (IC50 1.8-1.93 µg/mL) against P. falcifarum K1 strain but elicited low cytotoxicity (selective index >10). (
Antitumor / Cytotoxic Effect: Study evaluated the antitumor and cytotoxic actions of solvent-solvent partitioned fraction (n-hexane, ethyl acetate and hydro-methanol) of a methanol extract of root of Trema orientalis. In cytotoxicity study by brine shrimp lethality bioassay, the LD50 of the n-hexane, EA, and HM fractions was 1377.03, 11.67, and48.62 µg/ml, respectively. The EA and HM fractions showed high antitumor and cytotoxic effect. (


Last Update June 2016

Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: CLOSE UP / Trema orientalis (Pigeon Wood) / File:Trema orientalis (Pigeon Wood) W2 IMG 2236.jpg / / J M Garg / 28.09.09 / GNU Free Documentaion License / click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Xanthones and Other Constituents of Trema orientalis / D. Noungou Tchamo et al / Pharmaceutical Biology, 2001; Vol 39, No 3: pp 202-205
CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF TREMA ORIENTALIS / Wen-Lung Kuo et al / J Chin Med 18(1,2): 27-36, 2007 27
A new triterpenoid alcohol from Trema orientalis / L Ogunkoya et al / Phytochemistry • Volume 16, Issue 10, 1977, Pages 1606-1608 • doi:10.1016/0031-9422(77)84037-5
Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used to Treat Arterial Hypertension, in Traditional Medicine, by Abbey and Krobou Populations of Agboville (Côte-d’Ivoire) / N'guessan Koffi / European Journal of Scientific Research • ISSN 1450-216X Vol.35 No.1 (2009), pp 85-98
New Dihydrophenanthrene and Phenyldihydroisocoumarin Constituents of Trema orientalis / M. Genevieve Dijoux-Franca, Diderot Noungoue Tchamo et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2001; 64 (6): pp 832–835 /
DOI: 10.1021/np000275s
Anti-convulsion activity of leaf of Trema orientalis / Panchal Hiteksha S, Master Stavan M et al / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2010; Volume 2, Issue 4: pp53-55
Glucose lowering efficacy of the aqueous stem bark extract of Trema orientalis (Linn) Blume in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats / T Dimo, F T Ngueguim et al / Pharmazie,
March 2006; Vol 61, No 3,
Common names / AgroForestryTree Database
Chromium and nickel tolerance of Trema orientalis (Blume) L. in tissue culture
/ Sanghamitra Samantaray, Gyana Ranjan Rout, Premananda Das / Acta Physiologiae Plantarum1999, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 27-35
Antibacterial Efficacy of Bark extracts of an Ethnomedicinal plant Trema orientalis Blume / Jayashree Rout*, Albert L. Sajem, Minaram Nath and Mahuya Sengupta / Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy, 31 Oct 2012, Vol 6, No 4: pp 464-471

IRON CHELATING AND ANTIRADICAL ACTIVITY OF KAYU MANIK LEAVES (Trema orientalis) / Salprima Yudha S.*, Eka Angasa1, Sri Ningsih, Syalfinaf Manaf, Suli Anggria Murni, and Fatan Umbara / Indo. J. Chem., 2011, 11 (2), 196 - 199
Anti Sickle Erythrocytes Haemolysis Properties and Inhibitory Effect of Anthocyanins Extracts of Trema orientalis (Ulmaceae) on the Aggregation of Human Deoxyhemoglobin S in vitro
/ P.T. Mpiana, K.N. Ngbolua, V. Mudogo, D.S.T. Tshibangu, E.K. Atibu, D.D. Tshilanda and N.M. Misengabu / Journal of Medical Sciences, 2011; Vol 11, Issue 3: pp 129-137 / DOI: 10.3923/jms.2011.129.137
Genotoxicity detection of five medicinal plants in Nigeria.
/ Hong CE, Lyu SY. / J. Toxicol Sci. 2011 Jan; 36(1): pp 87-93
Trema orientalis / Synonyms / The Plant List
Trema orientalis Linn. Blume: A potential for prospecting for drugs for various uses / Michael Buenor Adinortey, Isaac K. Galyuon, and Nicholas Oteng Asamoah / Pharmacogn Rev. 2013 Jan-Jun; 7(13): 67-72 / DOI: 10.4103/0973-7847.112852
Mosquito larvicidal potential of four common medicinal plants of India / Anjali Rawani, Anupam Ghosh* & Goutam Chandra / Indian J Med Res., July 2014; 140: pp 102-108 / PMID: 25222784
Trema orientalis /
Agroforestry Database 4.0 (Orwa et al.2009)
Analgesic and antidiarrheal activities of Trema orientalis Linn. in mice / Sarder Nasir Uddin, Khan Mohammad Ahsan Uddin and Firoz Ahmed / Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine 2008, 8(2) / DOI 10.3742/OPEM.2008.8.2.001
Effects of organic extracts and their different fractions of five Bangladeshi plants on in vitro thrombolysis
/ Talha Bin Emran, Atiar Rahman, Mir Muhammad Nasir Uddin, Chadny Layzu / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, April 2015; 15(128): pp 1-8 ·
Nutritional Composition of Ten Ethnobotanicals Used for the Treatment of Anaemia in Southwest Nigeria / I. T. Gbadamosi*, J. O. Moody and A. O.Yekini / European Journal of Medicinal Plants 2(2): 140-150, 2012
Antioxidant activities and estimation of the phenols and flavonoids content in the extracts of medicinal plants used to treat malaria in Ivory Coast / Tuo, Karim; Béourou, Sylvain; Touré, A. Offianan; Ouattara, Karamako; Meité, Souleymane; Ako, Ako Aristide B; Yao, S. Stephane; Koffi, David; Coulibay, Baba; Coulibaly, Adama and Djaman A. Joseph / International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, Volume 4 Number 1 (2015) pp. 862-874
Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Trema orientalis Linn: an indigenous medicinal plant of indian subcontinent / Uddin, Sarder Nasir / Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine, Vol 8, Issue 4 (2008) pp 395-399 / DOI : 10.3742/OPEM.2008.8.4.395
Antitrypanosomal activity of some medicinal plants from Nigerian ethnomedicine / Oyindamola O. Abiodun, Grace O. Gbotosho, Edith O. Ajaiyeoba, Reto Brun, Ayoade M. Oduola / Parasitology Research
February 2012, Volume 110, Issue 2, pp 521-526
Trema orientalis Linn. Blume: A potential for prospecting for drugs for various uses / Michael Buenor Adinortey, Isaac K Galyuon, Nicholas Oteng Asamoah / Pharmacognosy Review, 2013; Jan-Jun 2013; 7(13): pp 67-72 / doi: 10.4103/0973-7847.112852 / PMCID: PMC3731882 / PMID: 23922459
Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Trema Orientalis (L.) Blume Leaves. / Jiji .K.N, Pramod.C, Boby S Prasad, DR.P.Muralidharan / Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences (IOSR-JPBS), Sept-Oct 2016); Volume 11, Issue 5, Ver. I: pp 17-26
EVALUATION OF ANTIPYRETIC AND ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF TREMA ORIENTALIS L. IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS / Vanita G Kanase, Jyoti Singh, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Dec 2019; 12(12) / DOI https://doi.org/10.22159/ajpcr.2019.v12i12.35808
Acute and sub-acute toxicity study of Trema orientalis (L.) Bl. methanol extract in rats / T Hemalatha, D Ahino Mary, A Saravana Ganthi / Journal of Drug Delivery & Therapeutics, Jan-Feb 2019; 9(1S) / DOI  https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v9i1-s.2353
In-vivo antimalarial activity of aqueous leaf and bark extracts of Trema orientalis against Plasmodium berghei in mice. / Oyebola O E, Morenikeji O A, Ademola I O / Journal of Parasitic Diseases,  07 Jul 2016; 41(2): pp 398-404 / DOI: 10.1007/s12639-016-0815-0 / PMID: 28615849 PMCID: PMC5447592
Trema Orientalis Intoxication in Goats / Ching-Yao Huang et al . National Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations in Taiwan / http://ndltd.ncl.edu.tw/handle/80495801606309731013
Ethnoveterinary treatments for common cattle diseases in four districts of the Southern Province, Zambia / Michelo Syakalima, Martin Simuunza and Victor Chisha Zulu / Veterinary World. Feb 2018; Vol 11
PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS AND ANTIEPILEPTIC ACTIVITY OF TREMA ORIENTALIS (LINN.) EXTRACTS / K M Geetha, K Vishnnupriya, F Jaferi and V Murugan / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 2017; 55: pp 397-3962  10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.10(8).3957-62
Bioguided investigation of the antimalarial activities of Trema orientalis (L.) Blume leaves / Samuel Babatunde, Oluyemi Wande Michael and Abiodun Oyindamola / African Journal of Biotechnology, Oct 2015; 14(43): pp 2966-2971 / DOI: 10.5897/AJB2015.14551
In vitro antiplasmodial activity and toxicity assessment of some plants from Nigerian ethnomedicine / Oyindamola Abiodun, Grace Gbotosho, Edith Ajaiyeoba et al / Pharmaceutical Biology, 2011; 49(1) / https://doi.org/10.3109/13880209.2010.490224
Ethnopharmacological Survey of Plants Used in the Traditional Treatment of Gastrointestinal Pain, Inflammation and Diarrhea in Africa: Future Perspectives for Integration into Modern Medicine / Timo D. Stark, Dorah J. Mtui and Onesmo B. Balemba / Animals 2013, 3: pp 158-227 / doi:10.3390/ani3010158
ANTITUMOR AND CYTOTOXIC EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PARTITIONATES OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF TREMA ORIENTALIS: A PRELIMINARY IN-VITRO STUDY / Md Riadh Hasan Rana, Md Shah Amran, Abu Asad Chowhury / Journal of Ayurveda and Integrated Medicinal Sciences, July-August 2018; 3(4): pp 44-50 / doi: https://doi.org/10.21760/jaims.v3i4.13283.


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