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Family Ebenaceae
Bolongeta
Diospyros pilosanthera Blanco
MACASAS EBONY

Scientific names Common names
Diospyros carthei Hiern Alintautau (Tag.)
Diospyros cubica Bakh. Amaga (Bik.)
Diospyros elmeri Merr. Apopayot (Ibn.)
Diospyros helferi C.B.Clarke Ata-ata (Bik.)
Diospyros hiernii Koord. Atilma (Tag.)
Diospyros moonii Hiern Baganito (Bik., S. L. Bis.)
Diospyros nidus-avis Kosterm. Balatinau (Tag.)
Diospyros pilosanthera Blanco Balingagta (Ibn., Ilk., Ig.)
Diospyros plicata Merr. Balitinan (Ilk.)
Diospyros polyalthioides Hiern Bantolinau (Bis., Tag.)
Diospyros rubescens Koord. & Valeton Batolinau (Ibn.)
Diospyros tayabensis Merr. Bolongeta (Ibn., Tag., Sbl.)
  Dalondong (Bik.)
  Dambuhala (Tag.)
  Ditman (Klg.)
  Galorigar (Pang.)
  Katilma (Tag.)
  Mabolo-ti-bakir (Ilk.)
  Malapuyan (Tag.)
  Malatalang (Pang.)
  Marabikar (Bik.)
  Talang-gubat (Tag.)
  Tanaylan (P. Bis.)
  Black ebony (Engl.)
  Coromandel ebony (Engl.)
  Ebony tree (Engl.)
  Macassar ebony (Engl.)
Diospyros pilosanthera Blanco is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
FRENCH: Ebene macassar.
GERMANY: Ebenholz makassar.
INDIA: Tuki.
INDONESIAN: Kayu arang, Kayu hitam, Balun injuk, Semetik, Sora.
ITALIAN: Ebano di macassar.
MALASIA: Kumu, Kayu arang, Buey.
NETHERLANDS: Makassar ebben.
SRI LANKAN: Tendu, Ceylon ebony.
THAI: Kaling, Damdong, Nian.
VIETNAMESE: Thi nhum.

Gen info
Family Ebenaceae consists of three genera and about 500 species, the majority are native to the tropics, with only a few extending into the temperate region.

Botany
Bolongeta is a medium-sized tree growing to a height of 27 meters. Bark is blackish, cracked and fissured. Leaves are numerous, alternate, leathery, smooth when old, oblong or oblong-ovate, sometimes subelliptic, about 12 centimeters long, and 5.5 centimeters wide, with pointed tip and usually rounded base. Flower are dioecious, white, female flowers usually solitary, the male flower in axillary cymes. Fruit is a berry, subellipsoid, about 2 centimeters across, and subtended by an enlarged persistent woody calyx.

Distribution
- In primary forests at low altitudes from northern Luzon (Cagayan) to Palawan and Mindanao, in most and all islands and provinces.
- Also reported in Burma, Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Borneo, and Moluccas.

Constituents
- Phytochemical analysis yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, triterpenes, and phenolic compounds. (see study below) (4)

Properties
- Studies have shown antidiabetic, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective properties.

Parts used
Bark.

Uses

Edibility
- Fruit reportedly edible.
Folkloric
- Moros in Jolo used a decoction of the bark for coughs.
Others
- Wood: Heartwood is black with brownish or reddish streaks, clearly separated from the wideband of sapwood which is pnk or reddish. Small trees with little or no heartwood used for posts, beams, joists, rafters, window sills, components of agricultural implements. Heartwood used for cabinetry, musical instruments, tool handles, canes, etc. (2)

Studies
Anti-Diabetic / Antioxidant / Hepatoprotective:
Study evaluated the antidiabetic, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective properties of D. pilosanthera in STZ-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats. In in-vivo antidiabetic and antioxidant study, a 1000 mg/kg extract was most effective, comparable to glibenclamide in blood sugar lowering capacity. The same extract dose showed significant hepatoprotectie activity comparable with silymarin, as evidenced by marked obviation of increases in ALT, AST, and ALP while averting significant decreases in reduced glutathione and catalase enzyme levels. Stability of the extract was shown to be time- and temperature-dependent. The presence of rutin could be responsible for the pharmacologic properties. (see constituents above) (4) (5)
• Antioxidant / Hepatoprotective in DENA Induced Toxicity: Study showed an ethanolic extract of D. pilosanthera to possess good anitioxidant activity and hepatoprotective activity in DENA-induced liver toxicity. (5)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Last Update February 2017

IMAGE SOURCE: Type of Diospyros pilosanthera Blanco var. nurii Ng [family EBENACEAE] / Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (K), K000792586 / JSTOR
IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph / Flowers / Diospyros pilosanthera / Loupok / Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License / click on image to go to source page / Useful Tropical Plants

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Diospyros pilosanthera Blanco / The Plant List
(2)
Diospyros pilosanthera / Useful Tropical Plants
(3)
Black ebody: Diospyros pilosanthera / Common names / Tropical Timber
(4)
ANTIDIABETIC, ANTIOXIDANT AND HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITIES OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF DIOSPYROS PILOSANTHERA BLANCO (FAMILY: EBENACEAE) AND ITS PREFORMULATION DEVELOPMENT / Mayrose L. Quezon, Mafel C. Ysrael / Int. J. Res. Dev. Pharm. L. Sci., Vol 3, No 6, Oct-Nove 2014, pp 1266-1279
(5)
ANTIOXIDANT AND HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITIES OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF DIOSPYROS PILOSANTHERA BLANCO (FAMILY EBENACEAE) IN DIETHYLNITROSOAMINE-INDUCED RAT LIVER TOXICITY / Mayrose L. Quezon*and Dr. Mafel C. Ysrael / World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Vol 3, No 8, 2014, pp842-862

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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