Bungbungtit is an erect, smooth or somewhat hairy, leafy herb, 30 to 120 centimeters in height. Leaves are narrowly or broadly elliptic-lanceolate, 4 to 9 centimeters long, pointed at both ends, glandular-dotted, and toothed on the margins. Flowering heads are very numerous, 4 to 6 millimeters in diameter, peduncled, with purplish or reddish flowers.
- In thickets, in stream depressions, and in mossy forests at an altitude of 1,300 to 2,300 meters, in Lepanto and Benguet Subprovinces in Luzon.
- Occurs in India to eastern Africa and to Malaya.
- Study isolated a novel spiro-monoterpene-5-methylcoumarin, named spiro-ethuliacoumarin, from the aerial parts.
- Phytochemical screening yielded tannins and flavonoids.
- Study yielded 5-methylcoumarin derivatives: isoethuliacoumarin A, B, and C, ethuliconyzone, and 5-methycoumarin glucoside.
Leaves, whole plant.
- In Liberia, juice is squeezed in to the eyes for headache; root, along with red peppers, given by enema for constipation; leaves eaten by pregnant women to prevent abortion.
- Zulus use the plant as a remedy for intestinal parasites, for abdominal disorders and for colic.
- In Madagascar, infusion of the plant used for dysentery, hemoptysis and bruises.
- In Brazil, plant used for flu, bronchitis, cough; as anthelmintic; for respiratory and back problems.
- Pounded leaves applied over sprains and fractures.
- Boiled leaves used for wounds and traumatic hemorrhages.
- Used for treatment of scabies.
- In Madagascar and Southern Western Nigeria leaves used as remedy for cancer.
- In South Western Nigeria,
• Coumarins / Antimicrobial: Study of methanol extract of aerial parts yielded 2 new monoterpene coumarins: 9-hydroxyethuliacoumarin and 1′,2′-epoxyethuliacoumarin. Antibacterial activity was determined against E Coli, Pseudomonas and Serratia spp and Bacilus cereus and S. aureus. (1)
• Molluscicidal: Study identified the molluscicidal principles of Ethulia conyzoides as ethuliacoumarin A and isoethuliacoumarin A. Ethuliacoumarin A was also found to be cercaricidal and ovicidal. (3)
• Anthelmintic: Study of the alcoholic extract of aerial parts of E. conyzoides var. gracilis Asch. & Schweinf. exhibited significant anthelmintic activity invitro against Ascaris lumbricoides. Ethuliacoumarin A was found responsible for the anthelmintic activity. (4)
• Cytotoxicity: In a study investigating the cytotoxic activity on HeLa cell line of the ethanolic extracts of 16 Nigerian plants used for the treatment of cancer, Ethulia conyzoides showed moderate cytotoxic activity. (5)
• Free Radical Scavenging / Antioxidant: A methanol extract was evaluated for antioxidant activity using the free radical scavenging activity of DPPH, TAC, and estimation of total phenolic content. Results showed a concentration-dependent antioxidant activity. Tannin and flavonoid content may be responsible for the high antioxidant activity. (7)