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Family Asteraceae
Bungbungtit
Ethulia conyzoides Linn.

Scientific names Common names
Ethulia conyzoides Linn. Bungbungtit (Tag.)
Ethulia kraussii Walp.  
Ethulia angustifolia Bojer ex DC.  
Ethulia gracilis Delile  
Ethulia ramosa Roxb.  
Dou li ju (Chin.)  

Botany
Bungbungtit is an erect, smooth or somewhat hairy, leafy herb, 30 to 120 centimeters in height. Leaves are narrowly or broadly elliptic-lanceolate, 4 to 9 centimeters long, pointed at both ends, glandular-dotted, and toothed on the margins. Flowering heads are very numerous, 4 to 6 millimeters in diameter, peduncled, with purplish or reddish flowers.

Distribution
- In thickets, in stream depressions, and in mossy forests at an altitude of 1,300 to 2,300 meters, in Lepanto and Benguet Subprovinces in Luzon.
- Occurs in India to eastern Africa and to Malaya.

Constituents
- Study isolated a novel spiro-monoterpene-5-methylcoumarin, named spiro-ethuliacoumarin, from the aerial parts.
- Phytochemical screening yielded tannins and flavonoids.
- Study yielded 5-methylcoumarin derivatives: isoethuliacoumarin A, B, and C, ethuliconyzone, and 5-methycoumarin glucoside.

Parts used
Leaves, whole plant.

Uses

Folkloric
- In Liberia, juice is squeezed in to the eyes for headache; root, along with red peppers, given by enema for constipation; leaves eaten by pregnant women to prevent abortion.
- Zulus use the plant as a remedy for intestinal parasites, for abdominal disorders and for colic.
- In Madagascar, infusion of the plant used for dysentery, hemoptysis and bruises.
- In Brazil, plant used for flu, bronchitis, cough; as anthelmintic; for respiratory and back problems.
- Pounded leaves applied over sprains and fractures.
- Boiled leaves used for wounds and traumatic hemorrhages.
- Used for treatment of scabies.
- In Madagascar and Southern Western Nigeria leaves used as remedy for cancer.
- In South Western Nigeria,


Studies
Coumarins / Antimicrobial:
Study of methanol extract of aerial parts yielded 2 new monoterpene coumarins: 9-hydroxyethuliacoumarin and 1′,2′-epoxyethuliacoumarin. Antibacterial activity was determined against E Coli, Pseudomonas and Serratia spp and Bacilus cereus and S. aureus. (1)
Molluscicidal: Study identified the molluscicidal principles of Ethulia conyzoides as ethuliacoumarin A and isoethuliacoumarin A. Ethuliacoumarin A was also found to be cercaricidal and ovicidal. (3)
Anthelmintic: Study of the alcoholic extract of aerial parts of E. conyzoides var. gracilis Asch. & Schweinf. exhibited significant anthelmintic activity invitro against Ascaris lumbricoides. Ethuliacoumarin A was found responsible for the anthelmintic activity. (4)
Cytotoxicity: In a study investigating the cytotoxic activity on HeLa cell line of the ethanolic extracts of 16 Nigerian plants used for the treatment of cancer, Ethulia conyzoides showed moderate cytotoxic activity. (5)
Free Radical Scavenging / Antioxidant: A methanol extract was evaluated for antioxidant activity using the free radical scavenging activity of DPPH, TAC, and estimation of total phenolic content. Results showed a concentration-dependent antioxidant activity. Tannin and flavonoid content may be responsible for the high antioxidant activity. (7)

Availability
Wild-crafted.


Last Update July 2014

IMAGE SOURCE: Asteraceae - Vernonia madagascariensis - Ethulia conyzoides. / From: The botanical register by Sydenham Teast Edwards and others. / London, James Ridgeway, 1823, volume 9 (plate 695) / Hand-coloured engraving by S. Watts after M. Hart / 1897 / Meemelink / Modifications by G. Stuart

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Antibacterial activity of two new monoterpene coumarins from Ethulia conyzoides / El-Bassuony, AA / Journal of Pharmacy Research, vol 2, no 4,pp 582-584, 2009
(2)
Structure of a novel spiro-monoterpene-coumarin in Ethulia conyzoides / Ahmed Mahmoud, Ahmed Ahmed et al / Tetrahedron Letters, Volume 35, Issue 35, 29 August 1994, Pages 6517-6520
(3)
The molluscicidal activity of coumarins from Ethulia conyzoides and of dicumarol /
Kady MM, Brimer L, Furu P et al / Planta Med. 1992 Aug;58(4):334-7.
(4)
Anthelmintic coumarin from Ethulia conyzoides var. gracilis Asch. & Schweinf. /
Mahmoud ZF, Sarg TM, Amer ME, Khafagy SM. / Pharmazie. 1983 Jul;38(7):486-7.
(5)
CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF SELECTED NIGERIAN PLANTS / A Sowemimo, M van der Venter et al / African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, Vol. 6, No. 4, 2009, pp. 526-528
(6)
Ethulia conyzoides L. / Catalogue of Life, China
(7)
Free radical scavenging and total antioxidant capacity of methanol extract of Ethulia conyzoides growing in Nigeria / ALIYU, A.B., IBRAHIM, M.A., IBRAHIM, H., MUSA, A.M., LAWAL, A.Y. OSHANIMI, J.A., USMAN, M., ABDULKADIR, I.E., OYEWALE, A.O., AMUPITAN, J.O. / Romanian Biotechnological Letters, Vol. 17, No. 4, 2012


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