Tridax procumbens is a leafy, upright annual. Leaves are arrow-shaped, coarsely and irregularly toothed, yellowish-greenish, pointed, opposite, with hairs on the leaf margins and stems. Flowers are white with three-toothed ray florets. Fruit is a hard achene covered with stiff hairs, with a feathery, plume-like white pappus at one end.
- A widespread weed and pest plant.
- In fields, meadows, lawns, roadsides.
- Found in may tropical and subtropical climates.
- Found in profusion in the Tiaong, Quezon area.
- Proximate composition (% DW) of stem (S) and leaves (L) showed total ash 4.27±0.09 S, 2.01±0.20 L; crude protein 37.44±0.26 S, 34.57±0.00 L; crude lipid 0.10±0.01 S, 6.03±0.20 L; total carbohydrate 41.03±0.09 S, 51.26±0.20 L; crude fiber 1.92±0.03 S, 6.13±0.40 L; and total metabolizable energy (kcal/100g) 321.54±5.21 S, 397.59±2.61 L. (7)
- Various leaf extracts yielded carbohydrates, proteins, tannins, steroids, alkaloids, and purines. (see study below) (9)
Study yielded glucoside, amino acids, flavanol, synergic acid, tannin, steroids, polysaccharides, pectin, hemicellusose, phenols, alkaloids, fats and volatile oil, plus elements sulphur, iron, sodium, and chlorine. (10)
- Study of ethyl acetate extract of aerial parts yielded two compounds: β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and 3′,5-dihydroxy-4′,3,6-trimethoxyflavone- 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2). (see study below) (15)
- Study of leaves for bioactive molecules yielded high flavonoids, alkaloids, hydroxycinnamates, tannins and phytosterols, moderate benzoic acid derivatives ad lignans, and low carotenoid contents.
Also detected were 39 known alkaloids (mainly akuammidine, 68.756%), twenty three known flavonoids (mainly kaempferol 17.593% and (-)-epicatechin 12.538%), five known caroteoids (mainly lutein, 62.608%), four known benzoic acid derivatives (mainly ferulic acid, 46.091%), two phytosterols (mainly stigmasterol, 80.853%), and six known lignans (mainly galgravin, 77.326%). (see study below) (19)
- Chloroform extract of leaves showed the presence of steroid, saponin, coumarins, alkaloids, amino acids, diterpenes, phenol and flavonoids.
- Invasive; plant produces so many achenes, up to 1500 per plant; each achene easily caught by the wind and carried some distance.
- Considered anti-inflammatory and vulnerary.
- Studies have shown antibacterial, hypotensive, bradycardic, hypoglycemic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, vasorelaxant, CNS depressant properties.
Leaves, stems, flowers.
- No known folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
In Indian traditional medicine, used as antifungal, anticoagulant, repellent, antidiarrheal, antidysenteric.
- In India, leaf juice use on fresh wounds, to stop bleeding, and as hair tonic.
- In Nigeria, local Yoruba population use the leaves for treatment to reduce blood pressure.
• Antibacterial / Flowers and Aerial Parts: n-Hexane extract of flowers showed activity against E. coli. Extract of aerial parts showed activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis, E. coli, Salmonella group C and Salmonella paratyphi. Ethyl acetate extract of flowers showed activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis and Staphylococcus aureus. None of the extract showed activity against fungi. (3)
• Antibacterial / Nosocomial Pathogens: Study evaluated aqueous and ethanolic extracts of T. procumbens against various bacterial pathogens including community acquired and nosocomial infections. The alcoholic extract showed significant antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with greater activity against nosocomial strains of Pseudomonas compared to augmentin, cefotaxime, and ciprofloxacin. The aqueous extract showed no antibacterial activity. (4)
• Hypotensive / Bradycardic Effect / Leaves: Study investigated the cardiovascular effects of aqueous leaf extract of Tridax procumbens on anaesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Results showed significant decreases in mean arterial blood pressure in dose related manner. At higher doses, significant reduction in heart rate was noted. Results showed hypotensive effect probably through activation of muscarinic cholinergic receptors. (5)
• Comparative Antimicrobial Effect / Waterborne Pathogens: Study evaluated the bactericidal effect of T. procumbens against water borne bacterial pathogens i.e., E. coli, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhimurium and Klebsiella pneumonia which are causative in serious diarrheic diseases. Results suggest bactericidal effect. The acetone extract was found effective against E. coli and V. cholerae; a 50% ethanolic extract was effective against K. pneumonia; and a methanolic extract was found effective only against V. cholerae. (6)
• Antidiabetic: Study evaluated a 50% methanolic extract for acute and subchronic antihyperglycemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Results showed a significant (p<0.05) reduction in fasting blood glucose levels in diabetic rats. The antidiabetic effect were compared to reference drug Glibenclamide. There were no visible signs or symptoms of toxicity in normal rats indicting a high margin of safety. (8) Study of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of leaves in alloxan induced diabetic Wistar rats showed significant blood glucose reduction. (11)
• Antibacterial / Leaves: Study of various extracts of leaves showed antibacterial activity. The chloroform extract showed more effective antibacterial activity comparable to standard drug ampicillin. (see constituents above) (9)
• Glucose Lowering / AMPK Activation / Suppression of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis: Study showed T. procumbens extract exhibits strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Activation of AMPK and suppression of hepatic glucose production may be one mechanism that contributes to the glucose lowering property of T. procumbens. (12)
• Microbial Symbionts / Antimicrobial: Study evaluated crude ethyl acetate extract for antimicrobial activity against a panel of test pathogens. Results add knowledge to the growing research towards development of new antimicrobial agents to combat drug resistant microorganisms. Study also contributes to the isolation of potent endophytes from T. procumbens with its scanty reports on microbial symbionts. Results showed significant activity against Shigella flexneri and Methicillin-resistant S. aureus suggesting the fraction is more potent as bactericidal agent than as antifungal. (13)
• Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Study: Study evaluated the toxicity of ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens. Results showed moderate toxicity at 2100 mg/kg body weight. In sub-chronic study, all animals gained body weight and organ/body weight ration, with significant decreases in glucose levels and significant increases in ALT, AST. Histopathological exam showed endothelial toxicity at high dose level with hemorrhage indicated by hemosiderin deposition throughout the kidney and liver parenchyma. (14)
• Anticancer on A549 ad HepG2 Cell Lines / Leaves: Study evaluated the anticancer activity of various extracts of leaves of T. procumbens against A549 (human lung cancer cell line) and HepG2 (human liver carcinoma) cell line. Potent anticancer activity was shown by acetone and ethanol leaf extracts on A549 and Hep Ge cell lines. An aqueous leaf extract showed no anticancer activity. (15)
• Antibacterial / Anti-Inflammatory / Antioxidant / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the bioactivities of extracts and compounds from aerial parts of Tridax procumbens. An ethyl acetate extract showed antibacterial activity against E. coli and P. aeruginosa. The EA extract showed antioxidant activity with an EC50 of 0.52 mg/mL and significant anti-inflammatory activity on mice paw edema. (see constituents above) (15)
• Vasorelaxant: Previous studies have shown T. procumbens is capable of lowering blood pressure of rats through endothelial-dependent and -independent mechanisms in aortic rings isolated from rats. This study in investigated T. procumbens-induced relaxation in rat isolated mesenteric artery. Results showed T. procumbens causes vasodilatory effects by blocking calcium channels, stimulation of prostacyclin production and activation of both voltage- (KV) and apamin-sensitive (KAS) potassium channels. (16)
• Blood Glucose Lowering Effect in Patients with T2DM / Asava Supplement: Study evaluated the blood glucose lowering effect of T. procumbens supplementation in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Analysis of the extract/supplement (asava) prepared following Ayurveda guidelines showed the presence of phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids. Extract showed strong antioxidant capacity, Fe+++reducing potential, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Results showed a significant glucose lowering effect of T. procumbens asava in T2DM. (17)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Leaves: Study describes the ecofriendly approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from leaf extracts of T. procumbens. (18)
• Potential as Functional Food / Leaves: A great number of potentially active nutrients and their multifunctional properties make T. procumbens a perfect candidate for the production of health-promoting food and food supplements. (see constituents above) (19)
• Antioxidant: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity of T. procumbens in vitro, using four methods: DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and TRP assays at the same time. Results showed T. procumbens extracts showed strong scavenging activity against DPPH and ABTS free radicals and strong reducing power on Fe. The antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts from different parts showed: flower > stem > whole grass > leaf. T. procumbens can be utilized as a safe and effective antioxidant source. (21)
• Anti-Osteoporotic / Anti-Bone Resorptive: Study evaluated flavonoids isolated from T. procumbens on its effect on osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption activities using primary osteoclastic cells. Results indicated that TPF inhibit osteoclastogenesis and pits formation activities. TPF has potential as bone resorptive gent to treat patients with bone-loss associated diseases such as osteoporosis. (22)
• Anthelmintic / Leaves: Study evaluated dried powders of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Tridax procumbens leaves for anthemintic activity against Indian adult earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Results showed significant dose dependent anthelmintic activity on the earthworms. (23)
• CNS Depressant / Decreased Locomotor Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of TP on locomotor activity in mice and rat. Results showed TP extract dose dependently depressed the central nervous system evidenced by TP induced decrease in locomotor activity. (24)
• Antifungal / Leaves: Study of methanolic extracts of leaves of Tridax procumbens showed effective activity against fungal strains Aspergillus niger and A. ocraceous. (25)