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Family Zingiberaceae
Luyang dilaw

Curcuma longa

Scientific names Common names
Amomum curcuma Jacq. Angay (Pamp.) 
Curcuma brog Valeton Dilau (Tag.)
Curcuma domestica Valeton Dilaw (Tag.)
Curcuma longa Linn. Dulaw (S.L. Bis.) 
Curcuma ochrorhiza Valeton Kalabaga (Bis.) 
Curcuma soloensis Valeton Kalawag (Mbo., Bis.)
Curcuma tinctoriaGuibort Kalauag (Mbo., Bis.) 
Kua domestica Medik [Illegitimate] Kinamboy (Bis.)
Stissera curcuma Giseke Kinamboi (Bis.) 
Stissera curcuma Raeusch. Kulalo (Bis.)
  Kulyaw (Ilk.) 
  Kunig (Ilk.) 
  kunik (Ibn.)
  Lampuyang (P. Bis.) 
  Lawag (Sub.) 
  Luyang-dilaw (Tag.) 
  Pangar (Pamp.) 
  Pangas (Pamp.)  
  Parak (Kuy.)
  Salampawyan (Bag.) 
  Salampauyan (Bag.)
  Turmeric (Engl.)
  Long turmeric (Engl.)
Curcuma longa L. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Aqîd hindî, Hurd, Kurkum, Timmer (Egypt).
BRUNEI: Kunyit, temu kuning, temu kunyit.
BURMESE: Sa nwin.
CAMBODIA: Ro miet.
CHINESE: Yu jin, Jiang huang, Huang jiang, Yu chiu, Yu chin, Yu jin.
DANISH : Gurkemeje.
DUTCH: Geelwortel, Indaansche saffraan, Kurkuma.
FINNISH: Maustekurkuma.
FRENCH: Arrow-root de l'Inde, Curcuma long, safran des Indes, turmeric, Safran du pays, Safran-cooli.
GERMAN: Gelbwurzel, Gelbwurz, Gilber Ingwer, Gilbwurzel, Indischer Safran, Kurkuma.
INDONESIA: Kunyit, kunir, koneng.
ITALIAN: Croco indiano, Curcuma di Levante, Curcuma lunga, Radice gialla, Safferano dell Indie.
JAPANESE: Taamerikku, Ukon.
LAOTIAN: Khi min, 'khmin 'khun.
MALAYSIA: Kunyit, temu kunyit, tius.
PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Lavar, tamaravirua.
PERSIAN: Zard-chobah.
POLISH: Kurkumal, Klacze kurkumy.
RUSSIAN: Kurkuma dlinnaia, Kurkuma domashniaia, Kurkumy koren', Turmerik.
SANSKRIT: Haridra.
SPANISH: Azafrán de la India.
THAILAND: Khamin, khamin kaeng, khamin chan, Kha min hua.
TURKISH: Hind zafrani, Kurkim, Kurkum, Zerdé djavé.
VIETNAMESE: Khuong hoàng, Nghe, Uâtkim.

Dilaw is a leafy plant, 1 to 1.5 meters tall, with 5 to 6 leaves. Rhizomes are bright yellow inside, thick and cylindric. Leaf blade is green, oblong, 30 to 45 centimeters long and 10 to 20 centimeters wide. Petiole is as long as the blade. Peduncle is 15 centimeters or more in length, borne within the tuft of leaves. Spikes are 10 to 20 centimeters in length and about 5 centimeters in diameter. Floral bracts are pale green, ovate, 3 to 4 centimeters long, the comabracts tinged with pink. Flowers are pale yellow, as long as the bracts. Fruits are capsules.

- Widely distributed in the Philippines in and about towns, sometimes in open waste places and sometimes planted.
- Native of India.
- Now pantropic.

- Active constituents are flavonoid curcumin (diferuloylmethane) and various volatile oils, including tumerone, atlantone, and zingiberone.
- Volatile oil, 3-5% - tumerol (alcohol), d-alpha phellandrene, carvone, camphor, curcumone; fat, 3%; starch, 30%; resin; curcumin (pigment).
- Yields three curcuminoids - curcumin (diferuloylmethane, the primary constituent, responsible for the vibrant yellow color), demothoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin - plus volatile oils (tumerone, atiantone and zingiberone), sugars, proteins, and resins.
- Yellow orange color comes from yellow pigment in the rhizomes called curcumin.
- A good source of phosphorus and iron; but hardly a fair source of calcium.

- Tumeric yields protein (6.3%), fat (5.1%), minerals (3.5%), carbohydrates (69.4%), and moisture (13.1%). Essential oil yields α-phellandrene (1%), sabinene (0.6%), cineol (1%), borneol (0.5%), zingiberene (25%) and sesquiterpenes (53%). (48)
- A hydroalcoholic extract yielded many active phytoconstituents among which were alkaloids, glycosides, reducing sugars, tannins, resins, sterols, saponins, and fixed oils (see study below) (82)

- Pungent and bitter tasting, warming, carminative.
- In Chinese medicine, believed to Improve Ch'i circulation.
- Studies have demonstrated various therapeutics effects: antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cholesterol-lowering, antibacterial, anti-fungal, antiviral, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, and anticarcinogenic activity.
- Antiinflammatory activity has been compared to topical hydrocortisone.
- Antiseptic, anti -contusion, antibacterial, antifungal.
- Aromatic, stimulant, tonic, cordial, emmenagogue and astringent.
- Rhizomes are used medicinally, as powder, paste, ointment, oil, lotion, inhalant, and confection.

- Tumeric studies have shown biologic activities: wound healing, anti-inflammatory, hypolipidemic, anti-tumor, antiprotozoan, antifertility, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, antioxidant, anticoagulant, anticarcinogenic, antivenom properties. (48)

Part utilized
· Rhizome, leaves.
· Collect the whole year round.
· Rinse, removes roots, section into pieces, steam and sun-dry.

Culinary / Nutritional
• Condiment, ingredient of curry powder, and coloring for food.
• In dried or powdered form, used like ginger.
• Good source of phosphorus and iron, a fair source of calcium.
• Rhizomes commonly sold in Manila markets. dried
• In Java, flour is made from the plant is the same way as cassava and arrowroot, used for all kinds of dainties.
· Decoction of rhizome, as tea, used for fevers, dysentery, abdominal pain, flatulence, abdominal spasm, arthritis.
· In the Philippines, rhizomes with coconut oil used as stomachic and vulnerary.
· Internally, juice of fresh rhizome used as anthelmintic.
· Used for menstrual irregularities, contusions and associated painful swelling.
· Antiseptic for wounds: Crush rhizome and apply to wounds.
· Externally, rhizomes are applied to insect bites, ringworm, bleeding.
· A 1:20 decoction used in catarrhal and purulent ophthalmia.
· In India, used as antiseptic for cuts. Used for leprosy, liver problems, swelling, insect bites, wounds, whooping cough, pimples. Sweetened milk boiled with tumeric is popular as a remedy for colds and cough. Juice of fresh rhizome used externally on wounds, bruises and leech-bites.
· Tribal women of Assam, India apply the paste of fresh rhizome to the skin to protect it against infection and to enhance the complexion. In West Bengal, rhizome paste applied to areas of body pain. (
· Tumeric paste mixed with a little lime and saltpeter is applied hot to sprains and bruises.
· For smallpox and chicken pox, coating of tumeric powder or thin paste applied externally to facilitate scabbing.
· Paste made from flowers used for ringworm and other parasitic skin infections.
· Ointment used in neuralgia and rheumatism.
· Rhizomes with coconut oil used as stomachic and vulnerary.
· Rhizome used for intermittent fevers, flatulence,, dyspepsia.
· In Ayurveda, use as stomach and liver tonic and blood purifier.
· Malays use it as carminative and for dispelling flatulence.
· In China used for colic, amenorrhea, congestions.
· Fumes of burning turmeric used as inhalation in catarrh and severe head colds.
· For flatulence in children, used with garlic or onions.
· Used as carminative and antispasmodic, and in diarrhea and dysentery.
• Dye:
Tumeric is one of the best known of material dyes, used for dyeing silk, wool and cotton. Rhizomes used for dyeing mats in the Philippines. (see study below)
• Cosmetic:
In Sudan, rhizome used as cosmetic.
• Veterinary:
Rhizome, together with other ingredients, fed to cattle to treat loose stools. (
New Age
- Improves Qi (chi) circulation. Chi is the basis of traditional Eastern medicine. In Chinese parlance, chi means 'spirit.' In new-age speak, good health is synonymous with free-flowing energy through meridian pathways. A blocked Qi flow is associated with disease or ill-health.
- Approved by German health authorities for the treatment of dyspeptic complaints.
Recent uses and preparation
- Ointment: Wash the unpeeled ginger. Chop the rhizomes to fill half a glass of water. Sauté with one glass of coconut oil on low heat for five minutes. Place in a clean bottle and label.
- Antiseptic for wounds: Extract juice of the fresh rhizome and apply directly on the wound or swelling.
Gas pain in adults: Decoction from thumb-sized rhizome in a glass of water reduced to half.
- Turmeric for cough:
Link provides preparation of turmeric as home remedy for coughs. (

Biologic Activities:
An overview of the biologic activities lists in vitro anti-parasitic, anti-spasmodic, anti-inflammatory and gastrointestinal effects; also, inhibition of carcinogenesis and cancer growth. In vivo, studies show anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory potency of curcumin and extracts in animal models.
Suppression of Metastasis in a Human Breast Cancer Xenograft Model / Curcumin:
The dietary administration to mice of curcumin and curcumin plus Taxol significantly decreased the incidence of breast cancer metastasis to the lung. The results indicate that curcumin has a potential for breast cancer therapy.  (2)
Anti-Cancer / Rhizomes:Study on the anticancer activity of the rhizomes of tumeric in invitro tissue culture and in vivo in mice showed cytotoxicity to lymphocytes and Dalton's lymphoma cells. The active constituent was found to be "curcumin." Results showed the tumeric extract and curcumin reduced the development of animal tumors. (3)
Hepatoprotective / Paracetamol / Ethanol:
The study suggests the ethanolic extract of C. longa has potent hepatoprotective effect against paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats and validates its use as a hepatoprotectant agent. (1) Study evaluated an aqueous extract of C. longa for hepatoprotective activity in ethanol induced hepatotoxicity in albino wistar rats. Results showed hepatoprotectve effects as evidenced by marked decrease in fatty degeneration and centrizonal necrosis in ethanol intoxicated rats. (83)
Antifungal: The study on the ethanolic extracts of Curcuma longa and Alpinia galanga exhibited excellent phytotoxic activity against Lemna minor and good antifungal activities against Trichophyton longifusus. (9)
Antibacterial: Study showed the essential oil fraction from tumeric possesses significant antibacterial activity against pathogenic Staph aureus bacteria and suggests a potential for use of the essential oil as antiseptic in prevention and treatment of bacterial infections. (9)
Hypoglycemic / Hypolipidemic / Antioxidant: Study of Curcuma longa and Abroma augusta found them to be efficient antioxidants and showed significant reduction in blood glucose. Study showed the combination of herbal extracts showed better efficacy compared to individual plant extracts. (10)

Antioxidant: In study investigating the mechanism of free radical-induced tissue damage in inflammatory disease that involved pathogenic processes similar to periodontal disease, Curcuma longa was studied for antioxidation activity. Results showed CL to be effective protection from free radical-induced tissue damage. (11)
Tobacco Chewer and Chronic Smoker De-Addiction : Study showed the control arm to continue the same addiction dependency while the 63.6% of the study arm patients completely gave up smoking or tobacco chewing. 14.3% decreased smoking to <10 cigarettes per day and 10.6% of tobacco chewers decreased from 10 to < 2 times per day. The difference is statistically significant. (12)
Curcumin / Anti-Inflammatory: Curcumin, a highly pleiotropic molecule, acts on many targets involved with inflammation. It modulates the inflammatory response by down-regulating the activity of COX-2, lipoxygenase, and iNOS enzymes; inhibits the production of inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukins 1,2,6,8 and 12, and down-regulates mitogen-activated and Janus kinases. (13)
Tumeric Oil / Safety Study in Healthy Human Volunteers (2003): Study in human volunteers showed no clinical, hematological, renal or hepato-toxicity at 1 and 3 months. Tumeric extract and tumeric oil have shown chemoprotective effect against chemically-induced malignancies in experimental animals. It's potential for reversing oral submucous fibrosis, a precancerous condition for oral cancer, a Phase II trial was recommended. (14)
Analgesic / Non-Antipyretic: Study evaluated rhizome extracts of C. longa for antipyretic and analgesic activity in Wistar rats. Both aqueous and alcoholic extracts showed analgesic activity (p<0.05, 0.01). Both were ineffective in Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia. (15)
Lipid Effects/ Anti-Atherosclerosis: Study of hydroalcoholic extract of Curcuma longa showed significant reduction of LDL and apo B with increases in HDL and apo A of healthy subjects. Results suggest the curcuma lipid-lowering extract might be a specially useful anti-atherogenic agent. (19)
Radioprotective: Study evaluated the radioprotective effect of a rhizome extract on radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations in cancer treatment. Results showed pre-radiotherapy treatment with CL extract lead to a decrease in all types of chromosomal aberrations, and suggests a potential application as adjuvant to radiotherapy in cancer therapy. (18)
Gastrointestinal Effects: C. longa exert several protective effects on the gastrointestinal tract: (1) Sodium curcuminate inhibited intestinal spasm (2) p-tolymethylcarbinol, a turmeric component, increase gastrin, secretin, bicarbonate, and pancreatic enzyme secretion. (3) An antiulcer effect with significant increase of gastric wall mucus in rats subjected to a variety of gastrointestinal insults.
Hepatic Regenerative Effect on Passive Smoking-Induced Liver Damage: Study evaluated the regenerative effect of C. longa rhizome extract on passive smoking induced liver damage in rats. Results showed a regenerative effect on liver cell changes and also a regenerative effect on TNF-a expression. (21)
Antifertility Effect / Antiovulatory / Curcumin: Study evaluated ovulatory effects of curcumin, the active principle present in turmeric, in control and curcumin treated albino rats. Results showed curcumin has an antiovulatory effect probably through its antiestrogenic activity through suppression of negative feedback effect of estrogen on the pituitary. (22)
Cardioprotective Effect Against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity: Study showed CL extracts showed resiliency against doxorubicin-induced toxicity in rats due to polyphenolic contents and suggests a potential novel adjuvant therapy with doxorubicin. (23)
Tumerin Effect / Anti-Snake Venom: Study evaluated tumerin, a turmeric protein, for its ability to prevent oxidative damage against Naja naja venom phospholipase A2 in male Swiss wistar mice. Tumerin showed to be a potent antioxidant against NV-PLA2 induced free radical formation in plasma and organs, preventing tissue damage and neutralizing lethality. (24)
Freeze Dried Rhizome Power in Milk / Triple Effect: Study showed antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects of C. longa freeze dried powder dissolved in milk. Results suggest a potential for an effective and safe antidiabetic dietary supplement.
Essential Oils / Antioxidant: Study of essential oil showed the major compounds to be ar-turmerone (43.04%), humulene oxide (16.59%) and ß-selinene (10.18%) for C. longa. In comparative antioxidant activity with C. sichuanensis and C. aromatica, C longa showed the highest EC50 value on antioxidant activities.
Ileum and Colon Myorelaxant Effect / Anti-Spasmolytic: Curcuma extract showed a direct and indirect myorelaxant effect on mouse ileum and colon. The indirect effect is reversible and non-competitive with the cholinergic agent. Results suggest use as an anti-spasmolytic. (27)
Curcumin / Control of Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Rats: Study showed feeding of curcumin to diabetic rats controlled oxidative stress by inhibiting the increase of TBARS and protein carbonyls and reversing altered antioxidant systems despite unaltered hyperglycemic status.
Hypolipdemic / Double-blind Study: In a double-blind study, an aqueous extract of tumeric showed lipid lowering properties in overweight hyperlipidemic patients. (28)
Decreased Oxidative Stress in Diabetic: Study evaluated the protective effect of C. longa on STZ-induced oxidative stress in various tissues of rats. The elevated parameters and enzymatic activities induced by hyperglycemia were restored to near normal levels by oral administration of oral curcumin. The ethanol extract provided more potent protective action than the water extract. Results suggest beneficial effects in preventing diabetes-induced oxidative states in rats despite unaltered hyperglycemic status. (29)
Anti-Inflammatory: Studies have identified a number of different molecules involved in inflammation that are inhibited by curcumin, including phospholipase, lipooxy- genase, COX-2, leukotrienes, thromboxane, prostaglandins, nitric oxide, collagenase, elastase, hyaluronidase, MCP-1, interferon-inducible protein, tumor necrosis factor, and in- terleukin-12.

Curcumin / Safety / Anti-Inflammatory: Tumeric yields three curcuminoids: curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin. Studies have shown anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of different molecules involved in inflammation. (30)
• Safety and Toxicity Studies: A phase 1 human with 25 subjects showed no toxicity after 3 months of 8000 mg of curcumin per day. Five other human trials using 1125-2500 mg of curcumin per day have shown it to be safe. (30)
Analgesic / Curcumin: Study evaluated different extracts at three different doses for their analgesic activity using different animal models of analgesia. The extracts showed significant reduction of the number of writhes in mice. It is postulated curcumin exerts anti-nociceptive action through activation of both opioid and non-opioid mediating systems. (31)
Curcumin / Uses / Biological Basis of Medical Efficacy: Study reports on its potential therapeutic applications, with increasing data in animal and human models. Convergence with some mechanisms known for standard antidepressants is recognized, together with the overlapping of its anti-depressant pharmacology with those of other disease states. A key hurdle to the development of curcumin for disease treatment and prevention is overcoming its low oral bioavailability. (33)
Antimicrobial / Rhizome / Staphylococcus aureus: Study evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial activity of different fractions of rhizome of C. longa against standard strain and clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Results showed inhibition in growth of the test pathogen indicating a broad spectrum antimicrobial potential. (34)
Antidermatophytic / Turmeric Oil / Cream Formulation: Study evaluated tumeric creams containing 6 and 10% w/w turmeric oil against clinical strains of dermatophytes. Minimal fungicidal concentrations were found to be 312 µg/mL. Ar-turmerone, a major compound from turmeric oil, showed more effective antidermatophytic activity. 6% w/w turmeric oil in cream showed to be a suitable antidermatophytic formulation. (35)
Protective Effect on Acetaminophen Induced Nephrotoxicity: Study showed C. longa extract may protect the kidney against acetaminophen induced tubular necrosis in mice. (36)
Immunomodulatory Potential: This review suggests curcumin meets the criterion of a drug that can attack multiple pathways while being pharmacologically safe. Curcumin suppresses the proliferation of a wide variety of tumor cells, induces apoptosis by downregulation of antiapoptotic protein, modulates the immune system by suppressing T-cells, proliferating B-cells reducing proliferation of immature B-cell lymphoma cells, inhibits production of cytokines, among others. There is renewed scientific interest in its immunomodulatory potential to prevent and treat and wide range of diseases. (37)
Therapeutic Applications in Dentistry: Review suggests a promising future for therapeutic applications of Curcuma longa in dentistry: mouth wash, fissure sealant, dental plaque detection, anticariogenic property, prevention of plaque and gingivitis, surgical wound healing, use in oral lichen planus and oral submucous fibrosis, among others. (39)
Myocardium Protective: Study showed C. longa could attenuate myocardial infarction in isoproterenol (ISP)-treated rat model via myocardial adaptation by maintaining cardiac function and augmenting endogenous antioxidant enzymes. (40)
Peptic Ulcer Healing / Phase !! Clinical Trial: Study examined 45 patients, 24 males and 21 females, aged 16-60, who had symptoms indicating peptic ulcer. Twenty five patients, 18 males and 7 females, were endoscoped and found to have ulcers in the duodenal bulb or gastric angulus. Four weeks after treatment with tumeric capsules 48% or 12 cases were ulcer free; eight weeks after treatment, 18 cases showed absence of ulcer. The report presents possible preventive and therapeutic effects of turmeric on peptic ulcer treatment. (41)
Antithrombotic Activity / Curcuma Oil: Curcuma oil was evaluated on various thrombosis models. CO mediated antithrombotic effects appear to be due to inhibition of platelet activation. The inhibition seem to be competitive against ADP and non-competitive against thrombin. CO seems to be a potential candidate drug molecule for stroke and antithrombotic activity in addition to neuroprotective action. (42)
Antiplatelet Effects / Curcuma Oil: Study evaluated the effect of curcuma oil against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion induced injury in a rat model. Although Curcuma oil failed to confer protection against cardiac injury, there was significant reversal of ADP induced platelet aggregation (p<0.05) was evident in the same animals. There was collagen and thrombin induced platelet aggregation and suppression of tyrosine phosphorylation of various proteins in activated platelets. It showed no significant effects on coagulation parameters. Results suggest C. oil to be an efficacious and safe anti-platelet agent which was protective against intravascular thrombosis. (43)
Effect on Arsenic Toxicity / Powder: Study evaluated the protective effect of turmeric powder on arsenic toxicity in an albino mice model. Turmeric reversed the sodium arsenite-induced elevation of BUN, glucose, triglyceride and ALT and prevented the Sa-induced alterations of serum butyryl cholinesterase (CChE) activity. The ameliorating effect of turmeric suggest a potential application to reduce or prevent arsenic toxicity in human.(45)
Renoprotective: Study investigated the effect of pre-treatment with turmeric powder on kidney histopathology and function markers in renal ischemia / reperfusion (IR) induced injury in rats. Results showed turmeric powder significantly prevented renal I/R induced functional and histological injuries. (46)
• Neuropharmacologic Activity: Study on ethanol extract of dried rhizomes showed Curcuma longa has neuropharmacologic activity as evidenced by significant reduction in locomotor activity and muscle contraction. Results suggest potential use as antidepressant agent.
• Toxicity Prediction of Tumeric Compounds: Study sought to find the most efficacious molecule without toxic effects. Study showed out of 200 compounds, 184 were predicted as toxigenic, 136 were mutagenic, 153 carcinogenic and 64 were hepatotoxic. Study on curcumin showed its derivatives may cause dose dependent hepatotoxicity. In contrast to curcumin, few other compounds in tumeric are non-mutagenic, non-carcinogenic, and non-hepatotoxic, and without side effects. The study suggests a cost-effective approach to filter toxic compounds from the drug recovery life cycle. (50)
• Antifertility Effect: Study evaluated aqueous and ethanolic extract of rhizome of Curcuma longa and seeds of Carum carvi for effects on hormone and reproductive parameters in female albino rats. Results showed a significant antifertility effect, with significant decreases in FSH and LH levels, with significant increase in the estrogen levels in both ethanolic extracts. (51)
• Oral Curcuma Gel in Gingivitis: Study evaluated the clinical efficacy of oral curcuma gel in gingivitis. In a pilot study of 10 patients with severe gingivitis, the gel showed efficacy in reducing gingivitis by reducing its inflammatory components. The results were statistically significant with p<0.001. (52)
• Antioxidant / Antibacterial / Immunomodulating / Leaves: Study evaluated a 50% methanolic extract of Curcuma leaves (C. longa, C. amada, C. aromatica, C zeodaria, C. caesia) for antibacterial, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory activities. All five species of Curcuma showed antioxidant and antibacterial activity on different concentration of leave extract. All extracts increased the phagocytic activity of macrophages against yeast cells. Among the species of curcuma, the best activity was shown by Curcuma longa. (53)
• Antihyperglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic / Combination of Tumeric and Garlic: Study evaluated the efficacy and safety of tumeric and garlic extracts combination as antihyperglycemic and antihypertensive agents for type-2 diabetes-dyslipidemia. Results showed the tumeric-garlic combination could reduce plasma glucose and HbA1C as well as improve the lipid profile. There were no significant side effects during the study. (54)
• Anticancer Activity Against Human Breast Cancer Cell Line MCF-7: Study evaluated the in vitro anticancer activities of various extracts of Curcuma longa against human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7. Results showed the C. longa chloroform extract exhibited anti-cancer and potent growth suppressive activity against human breast cancer MCF-7. (55)
• Effect on Biochemical Aspect of Housefly Musca domestica: Study screened the efficacy of Curcuma longa as a biopesticide against housefly Musca domestica. Houseflies are notorious for their ability to develop resistance mechanisms against chemical insecticides. Study of biochemical aspects revealed a decrease of Amylase to 0.22 µmole/ml/min and a decrease in Invertase to 0.30 µmole/ml/min., together with significant decrease in carbohydrate and protein content, i.e., 9.26 and 22.01 mg/gm body weight, respectively. Results suggest a potential for the development of an ecofriendly insect control pesticide. (56)
• Interactions / Risk of Bleeding: Tumeric might slow blood clotting. Caution should be taken when taking tumeric along with medications that also slow clotting that might increase the risk of bruising and bleeding. Such medications include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, Mefanamic acid), naproxen, dalteparin, enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (coumadin), and others. (also see: antithrombotic [42] and antiplatelet [43] effect). (58)
• Potential Alternative in Pest Management in Crop Production: Tumeric fresh juice, essential oil and aqueous extracts have been credited with insecticidal properties against some pests of agricultural importance. Research shows a potential for tumeric as natural pesticide for crop protection and a cheap and ecofriendly alternative to chemical pesticides. (59)
• Antibacterial / Curcuminoids and Essential Oils: Study evaluated crude extracts of curcuminoids and essential oils of C. longa varieties for antibacterial activity against 4 bacterial strains viz., Bacillus subtilis, B. macerans, B. licheniformis and Azotobacter. Of three varieties of C. longa, the Kasur variety showed the most inhibitory effect on growth of all bacterial strains tested. Of the bacterial strains, B. subtilis was the most sensitive to the extracts of curcuminoids and oil. (60)
• Cardioprotective / Anti-Myocardial Apoptosis: Study evaluated the effect of Curcuma longa and Ocimum sanctum on myocardial apoptosis and cardiac function in ischemia and reperfusion (I-R) model of myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats. Results showed significant cardioprotection and functional recovery by Curcuma longa which may be attributed to its anti-apoptotic property. In contrast to O. sanctum, C. longa may attenuate cell death due to apoptosis and prevent the impairment of cardiac performance. (61)
α-Amylase Inhibition / Antidiabetic / Rhizomes: In a study various extracts of 7 plants for α-amylase inhibitory activity, Curcuma longa aqueous extract of rhizome showed 90.9% inhibition against porcine pancreatic α-amylase. Phytochemical screening of aqueous and methanol extracts yielded alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, and tannins. (62)
• Antihyperglycemic / Analgesic / Leaves: Study evaluated the antihyperglycemic and analgesic properties of leaves of C. longa. Antihyperglycemic activity was evaluated by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and antinociceptive activity by decrease in abdominal writhing in intraperitoneal acetic-acid induced pain model in mice. Results showed dose-dependent antinociceptive activity and reductions in blood glucose levels. (63)
• Lipid Effects / Increase HDL / Rhizomes: Tumeric extract of rhizomes significantly raised HDL levels in both healthy and diabetic rats, together with reduction in VLDL and LDL. (64)
• Antiviral Against Hepatitis B Virus Replication: Study investigated the antiviral activity of an aqueous extract Curcuma longa against HBV replication in HepG2,2,15 liver cells. The CLL extract repressed the secretion of HBsAg from HepG cells and also suppressed the production of HBV particles and level of intracellular HBV RNAs in HepG 2.2.15 cells, suggesting inhibition of HBV replication. The repression of HBV replication may be through the enhancement of p53 protein levels. Results suggest a potential for a safe and specific drug for liver diseases caused by HBV infection. (65)
• Antacid Potential / Rhizomes: Study evaluated the antacid properties of aqueous extracts of rhizomes under simulated conditions. The rhizome extract showed significant antacid effect (p,0.05) at different doses with results comparable to standard NaHCO3. The extract showed significant carminative and antacid property with significant neutralization of acid and also showed resistance against change in pH. (66)
• Antibacterial Against Bacillus Mediated Infections / Leaves: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of C. longa leaves against six Bacillus species. An ethanol extract showed maximum zone of inhibition against B. cereus. Results suggest a potential for the ethanol extract of leaves as an effective antimicrobial agent against tested Bacillus species. (67)
• Anti-Inflammatory, Antiproliferative, Apoptotic Effects in Colon Cancer: Study evaluated the role of Curcuma longa methanolic extract against colon cancer induced in rats. Rats treated with 5-fluouracil or tumeric extract showed improvement in histological structure of colon tissue, as well as a significant increase in expression of ß-catenin and K-ras genes. All treated groups showed marked decrease in COX-2 and survivin expression in colon tissue together with reduction in circulating levels of studied biomarkers. Results suggest a promising therapeutic role for C. longa against colon cancer induced in rats from its anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects. (68)
• Adsorbent for Aluminum Removal: Aluminum is found in water, plants and food. It is used in industrial and pharmaceutical industries as food additive, cosmetics and household products. In humans, the main source of uptake is through food, drinking water, and medicine. Neurotoxicity to aluminum may increase the risk for neurological and bone disorders (Alzheimer's diseases, Parkinson's disease, dementia and osteomalacia). Study evaluated the use of Curcuma longa as adsorbent for aluminum removal. Adsorption capacity increased with increased contact time. Aluminum adsorption occurs in multi-layer mode, and occurs chemically between phenolic functional groups in C. longa with aluminum ion. (69)
• Effect of Tumeric on Postprandial Glucose: Crossover trial evaluated the effect of C. longa on postprandial glucose, insulin levels and glycemic index in 14 healthy subjects. Results showed 6 g. C. longa increased postprandial serum insulin levels, but did not seem to affect plasma glucose levels in healthy subjects. Results suggest C. longa may have an effect on insulin secretion. (70)
• Benefits of C. longa-ghee Formulation with Hyaluronic Acid on Gingival Healing:The wound healing effect of ghee from cow butterfat and rhizomes of C. longa have been reported in Asian traditional medicine. Study evaluated the mixture of ghee from sheep butterfat and powdered rhizomes of C. longa on surgical wound healing. Results showed significant difference in the inflammatory and repair parameters of the healing process between the new formulation and hyaluronic application. Results suggest a positive potential therapeutic effect on surgical wound healing particularly improvement in post-surgical periodontal treatment. (71)
• Curcuminoids in Cosmetic Formulations: Study obtained curcuminoid-rich extracts and evaluated stability and skin permeation for the development of topical cosmetic formulations. Results suggest the development of topical formulations containing curcumin or C. long is feasible with the addition of adjuvants to improve preservation and durability. The formulation in the study showed limited penetration of curcumin to the superficial skin layers, without risk of systemic reactions, and potential for local use as anti-inflammatory. (72)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Collagen-Induced Arthritis: Study evaluated the effect of C. longa extract on inflammatory, macroscopic, and radiologic changes in arthritic ankle joints of experimental collagen-induced arthritis in Sprague-Dawley rats. Treatment showed significant changes in ESR (p<0.01) arthritic scoring (AS) (p<0.05) and radiologic scores (p<0.01). Results showed the CL extract arrested degenerative changes in the bone and joints of collagen-induced arthritic rats. (73)
• Hepatoprotective / Hepatocyte Membrane Peroxidation by Acetaminophen: Study evaluated the effect of turmeric ingestion on lipid peroxidation and GSH content induced by in vitro acetaminophen on hepatocyte culture on a rat model. Turmeric ingestion decreased hepatocyte peroxidation in both well-noursihed (42%) and malnourished rats (33%) and protected against acetaminophen pro-oxidant effect. Results suggest potential as functional food. (74)
• Regulation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Redox and ER Stress / Curcumin: Study evaluated the effects of curcumin against acute and chronic stress, with specific attention to ROS. Results showed curcumin and C. longa extract protected against acute and chronic stress by maintaining redox balance through the antioxidant system and ER redox machinery. Study provides molecular evidence for the use of C. longa extract in the management of hepatic dyslipidemia. (75)
• Prevention of Capecitabine-Induced Hand-Food Syndrome / Pilot Study: Hand-foot syndrome is common in the first cycle of treatment in 40% to 50% of patients who receive capecitabine. Results showed turmeric combined with capecitabine produced a lower rate of HFS, especially grade 2 or higher. (76)
• Comparative Antimicrobial Study / Leaf and Rhizome: Study compared the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts from rhizome and leaf of Curcuma longa. Both showed maximum zone of inhibition at 300 mg/ml concentration. The rhizome extract showed more potent antimicrobial effect than the leaf extract. (77)
• Myorelaxant Effect in Intestinal Motility Disorders: Study evaluated a curcuma extract for myorelaxant effect on mouse intestine model of motor functional disoder of the gastrointestinal tract. Results showed a spasmolytic effect on K+ induced contraction at the level of L type calcium channels. There was mild cholestatic effect that warrants further evaluation together with determination of effective dose with minimal side effects. (78)
• Antiangiogenic Effect: Angiogenesis is a normal process in the body characterized by formation of new blood vessels from existing vasculature. Study evaluated the effect of various concentrations of CL tea powder on angiogenesis of 10-day old duck embryos. Results showed significant anti-angiogenic effect. Antiangiogenic activity was attributed to the synergistic effects of curcumin phytochemicals viz., curcumin, quercetin,, vitaminn C and vitamin E. (79)
• Yellow Pigment / Natural Food Preservative / Rhizome: Study evaluated the extraction of yellow pigment from powdered tumeric rhizomes and the preservative/antioxidant activity of the oil-soluble yellow pigment. S. aureus, B. cereus, E. faecalis, and Salmonella spp. were not detected in all treated samples. Results suggest the yellow pigment from turmeric rhizomes exhibited strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Study recommends the use of the yellow pigment extracts in food to suppress lipid oxidation with a potential as natural food colorant and preservative and alternative to synthetic dyes that may be harmful to health. (80)
• Antiobesity / Overview: Obesity is a complex disorder of chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and abnormal behaviors, together with biological pathways that may contribute to the development of obesity. Curcuma longa is effective against inflammation and oxidative stress, and increases adinopectin concentration and maintains harmony of nutritional substances. Overview suggest C. longa may be beneficial for the management of obesity. (81)
• Acute and Chronic Toxicity Studies: Study evaluated the active principles and median lethal dose (LD50) of C. longa through acute and chronic toxicity studies. Acute toxicity study showed an LD50 above 1000 mg/kg. Same dose was used for chronic toxicity testing. Both acute and chronic toxicity testing at 1000 mg.kg elicited some gross observational effects like excitement, followed by mild depression, dullness, decreased respiration and reduced spontaneous motor activity. Results suggest higher doses (1000mg/kg) is slightly toxic and use at higher dose should be avoided. (see consstituents above) (82)
• Gastroprotective / Aspirin Induced Gastric Injury: Study evaluated the effect of C. longa on aspirin induced gastric injuries using the Ulcer Index, gross morphology and histopathologic parameters. Pretreatment with CLE produced highly significant (p<0.001) protection against aspirin induced injuries and hemorrhages. (84)
• Immunomodulatory / Proliferative Effect: Depending on the type of pathological condition and need for increasing or decreasing the extent of proiferation for immune cels such as PBMC or monocytes, studies can be desinged to use Aloe Vera or Turmeric extracts. Tumeric extract showed a very high prolliferative effect as evidenced by a significant increase in cell density and protein content compared to solvent alone control. (85)
• Analgesic / Knee Osteoarthritis: Study evaluated the efficacy and safety of C. domestica extracts in pain reduction and functiinal improvement. Results showed C. domestica extracts are as effective as ibuprofen for the treatment of knee osteeoarthritis. (86)
• Anti-Arthritic Effect / Toxicity Effects / Essential Oil: Crude or refined turmeric essential oil (TEO) extracts dramatically inhibited joint swelling (90-100% inhibition) in female rats with streptococcal cel wall (SCW)-induced arthritis with intraperitoneal injection of extracts.However, the anti-arthritic effect was accompanied by significant morbidity and mortality. Results do not support the isolated use of TEO for arthritis treatment and identifies potential safety concerns in vertebrates exposed to TEO. (88)

- Wild-crafted.
- Rhizomes commonly sold in markets.
- Essential oils and capsules from the cybermarket.

© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Update November 2017 / December 2016

Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Curcuma longa / File:Koeh-199.jpg / Franz Eugen Köhler / Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen / 1897 / Public Domain / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF Curcuma longa RHIZOMES IN PARACETAMOL-INDUCED LIVER DAMAGE IN RATS / Somchit M.N., Sulaiman M.R., Noratunlina R. and Ahmad Z. / Proceedings of the Regional Symposium on Environment and Natural Resources, 10-11th April 2002, Vol 1: 698-702
Potential anticancer activity of turmeric (Curcuma longa) / Ramadasan Kuttan et al / Cancer Letters
Volume 29, Issue 2, November 1985, Pages 197-202 / doi:10.1016/0304-3835(85)90159-4 |
Biological Activities of Curcuma longa L. / Araujo and Leon / Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz vol.96 no.5 Rio de Janeiro July 2001 / doi: 10.1590/S0074-02762001000500026
Tumeric Plant / Eco India
An illustrated guide to 101 medicinal herbs: Steven Foster, 1988. Interweave Press
Biological effects of indigenous medicinal plants Curcuma longa and Alpinia galanga / Fitoterapia Vol 76, Issue 2, March 2005, Pages 254-257 / doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2004.12.012
Antibacterial activity of Curcuma longa rhizome extract on pathogenic bacteria / Rambir Singh et al / CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 83, NO. 6, 25 SEPTEMBER 2002

Study of Antioxidation Activity of the Curcuma longa / Nishiguchi Eiko et al / Journal of the Kanagawa Odontological Society, VOL.39;NO.4;PAGE.139-148(2004) /
Abstract B144: Role of curcuma longa in de-addiction of tobacco chewers and chronic smokers: A pilot study on precancerous and frank oropharyngeal cancer patients / Anjana Basu Ghosh Dastidar et al / Cancer Prevention Research 3 (Meeting Abstract Supplement), B144, January 7, 2010. doi: 10.1158/1940-6207.PREV-09-B144
Anti-inflammatory Properties of Curcumin, a Major Constituent of Curcuma longa: A Review of Preclinical and Clinical Research / Julie S. Jurenka, MT(ASCP) / Alternative Medicine Review Volume 14, Number 2 2009
Early human safety study of turmeric oil (Curcuma longa oil) administered orally in healthy volunteers
/ Joshi J, Ghaisas S, Vaidya A et al / J Assoc Physicians India. 2003 Nov;51:1055-60.
Analgesic and antipyretic activities of Curcuma longa rhizome extracts in Wister Rats / S Neha, G D Ranvir and C R Jangade / Veterinary World, Vol.2(8):304-306
Curcuma longa / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
Curcuma longa / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
Evaluation of radioprotective properties of Curcuma longa rhizome extract: A cytogenetic analysis in cancer
/ Gyanendra Singh, Swapnil Sharma, Naveen Choudhary, Sachdev Yadav, Rajani Chauhan, and Jaya Dwivedi Pharmacognosy Communications, Volume 2, Issue 2, Apr-Jun 2012
An hydroalcoholic extract of Curcuma longa lowers the apo B/apo A ratio Implications for atherogenesis prevention / Ana Raḿırez-Bosca et al / Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 119 (2000) 41–47
Curcuma longa / Alternative Medicine Review Monographs / docs.google
STUDY EFFECT OF CURCUMA LONGA RHIZOME EXTRACT ON LIVER CELL AFFECTED BY PASSIVE SMOKING Expiremental study in Sprague Dawley Rats / M M El-Gutt, Osama / Master thesis, 2012
Studies on antifertility effect of rhizome of curcuma longa linn.
/ Amit kumar ghosh* , Anup kumar das, Kajal kumar patra / Asian Journal of Pharmacy and Life Science, Vol. 1 (4), Oct-Dec, 2011
Cardioprotective effects of Curcuma longa L. extracts against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats
Eman M. El-Sayed, Amal S. Abd El-azeem, Abeer A. Afify, Manal H. Shabana and Hanaa H. Ahmed / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 5(17), pp. 4049-4058, September 2011
Turmerin, a protein from Curcuma longa L. prevent oxidative organ damage against Naja naja venom phospholipase A2 in experimental animal / Mukunda Chethankumar / Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research 2010; 3(1): 29-34
EFFECT OF CURCUMA LONGA FREEZE DRIED RHIZOME POWDER WITH MILK IN STZ INDUCED DIABETIC RATS / P K Rai, D Jaiswal, S Mehta, D K Rai*, B Sharma* and G Watal / Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 2010 / 25 (2) 175-181
Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Essential Oils from Curcuma rhizome / S. H. Tsai et al. / Asian Journal of Arts and Sciences, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 57-66, 2011
Curcuma longa Extract Exerts a Myorelaxant Effect on the Ileum and Colon in a Mouse Experimental Colitis Model, Independent of the Anti-Inflammatory Effect / Aldini R, Budriesi R, Roda G, Micucci M, Ioan P, et al. / PLoS ONE 7(9): e44650 / doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044650
EFFECT OF TURMERIC (CURCUMA LONGA) ON OVERWEIGHT HYPERLIPIDEMIC SUBJECTS: DOUBLE BLIND STUDY / Lekhani Pashine, J V Singh, A K Vaish, S K Ojha, A A Mahdi / Uttar Pradesh Uttarkhand, Vol 24, No 2 (2012)
Potential Therapeutic Effect of Curcuma longa on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic rats / Azza A. El-Masry / Global Advanced Research Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences Vol. 1(4) pp. 091-098, May, 2012
Safety and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Curcumin: A Component of Tumeric (Curcuma longa) / NITA CHAINANI-WU, D.M.D., M.P.H., M.S. / THE JOURNAL OF ALTERNATIVE AND COMPLEMENTARY MEDICINE Volume 9, Number 1, 2003, pp. 161–168
Analgesic property of different extracts of Curcuma longa (Linn.): An experimental study in animals / S. John, S. Nikhil, J. Yaswanth, A. Bhaskar, A. Amit, S. Sudha* / Journal of Natural Remedies, Vol. 9/1 (2009) 116 - 120
Sorting Curcuma names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / A Work in Progress/ The University of Melbourne. Australia / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
Curcumin, an active constiuent of the ancient medicinal herb Curcuma longa L.: some uses and the establishment and biological basis of medical efficacy. / Witkin JM, Li X. / CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2013 Jun;12(4):487-97.
Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of Curcuma longa rhizome extract against Staphylococcus aureus / Ankur Gupta, Surabhi Mahajan, Rajendra Sharma / Biotechnology Reports, Volume 6, June 2015, Pages 51–55 / doi:10.1016/j.btre.2015.02.001
Antidermatophytic Properties of Ar-Turmerone, Turmeric Oil, and Curcuma longa Preparations / Mukda Jankasem, Mansuang Wuthi-udomlert, and Wandee Gritsanapan / ISRN Dermatology, Volume 2013 (2013) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/250597
Protective effect of Curcuma longa extract on acetaminophen induced nephrotoxicity in mice / *Khorsandi L., Orazizadeh M / DARU Vol. 16, No. 3 2008
Immunomodulatory potential of Curcuma longa: A review / S. Mehrotra, G. Agnihotri, S. Singh and F. Jamal / South Asian J Exp Biol; 3 (6) Special: 299; 307; 2013
Using Turmeric for Cough / Turmeric for Health
Therapeutic applications of turmeric (Curcuma longa) in dentistry: A promising future
./ Sandeep A. Lawande. / Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical sciences (J Pharm Biomed Sci.) 2013, February; 27(27): 586-591
Dietary Curcuma longa protects myocardium against isoproterenol induced hemodynamic, biochemical and histopathological alternations in rats / Mohanty IR*, Arya DS, Gupta SK / International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products Vol. 1(4), pp. 19-28, Dec 2008-Jan 2009
PHASE II CLINICAL TRIAL ON EFFECT OF THE LONG TURMERIC (CURCUMA LONGA LINN) ON HEALING OF PEPTIC ULCER / Chaweewan Prucksunand, Bunjob Indrasukhsri, Manit Leethochawalit and Korpong Hungspreugs / SOUTHEAST ASIAN J TROP MED PUBLIC HEALTH, Vol 32 No. 1 March 2001
Antithrombotic activity of Curcuma Oil / Shodhganga
Anti-platelet effects of Curcuma oil in experimental models of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion and thrombosis. / Prakash P, Misra A, Surin WR, Jain M, Bhatta RS, Pal R, Raj K, Barthwal MK, Dikshit M. / Thromb Res. 2011 Feb;127(2):111-8. doi: 10.1016/j.thromres.2010.11.007. Epub 2010 Dec 8.
Patents / Pharmacological activities of curcuma longa extracts / US 6841177 B1
Protective effects of the dietary supplementation of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) on sodium arsenite-induced biochemical perturbation in mice / Md. Rezaul Karim, Abedul Haque, Khairul Islam, Nurshad Ali, Kazi Abdus Salam, Zahangir Alam Saud, Ekhtear Hossain, Abul Fajol, Anwarul Azim Akhand, Seiichiro Himen4 and Khaled Hossain / Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull 2010; 36: 82 -88
Preventive Effects of Turmeric (Curcuma longa linn) on Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats
/ Alireza Monadi Sefidan; Daryoush Mohajeri / Advances in Bioresearch; Sept 2013, Vol. 4 Issue 4, p40
Curcuma longa / Synonyms / The Plant List
Turmeric and curcumin: Biological actions and medicinal applications / Ishita Chattopadhyay, Kaushik Biswas, Uday Bandyopadhyay and Ranajit K. Banerjee* / CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 87, NO. 1, 10 JULY 2004
Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical Evaluation of the Rhizomes of Curcuma longa Linn.
/ Nilanjana Deb*, Purba Majumdar, Ajoy Kumar Ghosh / Journal of PharmaSciTech 2013; 2(2):81-86
Toxicity prediction of compounds from turmeric (Curcuma longa L). / Balaji S, Chempakam B. / Food Chem Toxicol. 2010 Oct;48(10):2951-9. / doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2010.07.032.
Effect of Carum carvi and Curcuma longa on hormonal and reproductive parameter of female rats / Shweta Thakur, Bhavana Bawara, Aditi Dubey, Durgesh Nandini, Nagendra Singh Chauhan, D.K. Saraf / International Journal of Phytomedicine 1(2009) 31-38 / doi:10.5138/ijpm.2009.0975.0185.05791
Effect of Oral Curcuma Gel in Gingivitis Management – A Pilot Study / H Nilofer Farjana, S C Chandrasekaran, and Bagavad Gita / J Clin Diagn Res. 2014 Dec; 8(12): ZC08–ZC10. / doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2014/8784.5235
CURCUMA LONGA LEAVES EXHIBITS A POTENTIAL ANTIOXIDANT, ANTIBACTERIAL AND IMMUNOMODULATING PROPERTIES / Kusha S Bhardwaj, Ritwiz S Bhardwaj, Ranjeet D, Ganesh N / International Journal of Phytomedicine, Vol 3, No 2 (2011)
Clinical Study of Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Extracts as Antihyperglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Agent in Type-2 Diabetes-Dyslipidemia Patients / E.Y. Sukandar, H. Permana, I.K. Adnyana, J.I. Sigit, R.A. Ilyas, P. Hasimun and D. Mardiyah / International Journal of Pharmacology, 2010, Vol 6, Issue 4, Pp 456-463 / DOI: 10.3923/ijp.2010.456.463
INVITRO ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF CURCUMA LONGA AGAINST HUMAN BREAST CANCER CELL LINE MCF-7 / Prasanthi Donipati* and Dr. S. Hara Sreeramulu / World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 4, Issue 11 (2015)
Effect of Curcuma longa (Turmeric) on biochemical aspects of House Fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) / Rahul Pawar* / International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 3, Issue 5, May 2013
Pharmacological Activities of Turmeric (Curcuma longa linn): A Review / Vasavda Krup*, Hedge Prakash L and Harini A / J Homeop Ayurv Med 2013, 2:4 / http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2167-1206.1000133
Tumeric Interactions / WedMD
Potential uses of turmeric (Curcuma longa) products as alternative means of pest management in crop production / Christos A. Damalas / POJ 4(3):136-141 (2011)
Effect of Curcuma longa and Ocimum sanctum on myocardial apoptosis in experimentally induced myocardial ischemic-reperfusion injury / Ipseeta Mohanty, Dharamvir Singh Arya and Suresh Kumar Gupta / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine:The official journal of the International Society for Complementary Medicine Research (ISCMR)20066:3 / DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-6-3
In Vitro Study on α -Amylase Inhibitory Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Few Indian Medicinal Plant Having Anti-Diabetic Properties / Varun Kumar Prabhakar, Aakanksha jaidka, Ravinder Singh / International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 3, Issue 8, August 2013
PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, TOXICITY, ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY STUDIES WITH CURCUMA LONGA LEAVES / Mohammad Nazmul Hasan, Aysha Ferdoushi, Nargis Ara, Shahnaz Rahman, Md. Shahadat Hossan, Mohammed Rahmatullah* / World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 3, Issue 9, pp 81-89 (2014)
Comparative Study of Hypolidemic effects of Ethanolic extract of Rhizomes of Curcuma longa (turmeric) Versus Pioglitazone in Alloxan induced Diabetic Rats / Jeevangi Santoshkumar*, Deepak D. Mariguddi, S. Manjunath / International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Sciences, 2016; 5(1): 5-11 / doi:10.5530/ijpcs.5.1.2
Antiviral effect of Curcuma longa Linn extract against hepatitis B virus replication / Hye Jin Kim, Hwa Seung Yoo, Jin Chul Kim, Chan Su Park, Mi Sun Choi, Mijee Kim, Hyangsoon Choi, Jung Sun Min, Yong Soo Kim, Seong Woo Yoon, Jeong Keun Ahn / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 124, Issue 2, 15 July 2009, Pages 189–196
In Vitro Evaluation of Antacid Potential of Curcuma Longa Linn / DK Vir*, Nandu Kayande, Pankaj Kushwah / Linn; PharmaTutor, 2014, 2(8); 214-217
Ethanol extract of Curcuma longa leaf, a potential drug candidate against Bacillus species mediated infections / Rahman Md Saifur, Hasan K.D.B, Muslima Jahan, Sudhangshu Kumar Biswas, M.A. Haque, M.R. Islam, Md Enamul Haque, Tama Sarkar, Nirupam Biswas* / International Journal of Biosciences, IJB, Vol. 4, No. 7, p. 9-14, 2014
Curcuma longa and Colon Cancer: Evidence and Mechanisms / Mona Abdel-Rahman, Hanaa H. Ahmed, Fatma El-Zahraa H. Salem, Aziza B. Shalby and Maha S. Lokman / World Journal of Medical Sciences 8 (3): 279-295, 2013 / DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wjms.2013.8.3.1118
Adsorption Study of Aluminium onto Curcuma Longa / Azhar Abdul Halim, Eliani Ezani, Mohd. Sham Othman, Normah Awang, M. Ikram, A. Ithnin / Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(5): 1170-1177, 2011
Effects of Curcuma longa (turmeric) on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin in healthy subjects /
Jennie Wickenberg, Sandra Lindstedt Ingemansson and Joanna Hlebowicz / Nutrition Journal, 20109:43 / DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-9-43
Histological evaluation of Curcuma longa-ghee formulation and hyaluronic acid on gingival healing in dog. / Ghanbari Habiboallah, Saghravanian Nasroallah, Zakery Mahdi, Mahdavi Shahri Nasser, Zakery Massoud, Baradaran Nasseri Ehsan, Zareian Jahromi Mina, Parsaei Heidar / J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Dec 8;120(3):335-41.
Use of Curcuma longa in cosmetics: extraction of curcuminoid pigments, development of formulations, and in vitro skin permeation studies / Gisele Mara Silva Gonçalves*, Gustavo Henrique da Silva, Pedro Paulo Barros, Silvana Mariana Srebernich, Cecilia Toyoko Cavalcanti Shiraishi, Victória Rodrigues de Camargos, Thais Barbiero Lasca / Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol. 50, No 4, Oct/Dec 2014 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-82502014000400024
Anti-inflammatory effect of Curcuma longa (turmeric) on collagen-induced arthritis: an anatomico-radiological study. / Taty Anna K, Elvy Suhana MR, Das S, Faizah O, Hamzaini AH / Clin Ter. 2011;162(3): 2017.
Curcuma longa ingestion protects in vitro hepatocyte membrane peroxidation / Sonia Torquato PaolinelliI; Rashmeet ReenII; Tasso Moraes-Santos / Rev. Bras. Cienc. Farm. vol.42 no.3 São Paulo July/Sept. 2006 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-93322006000300012 
Curcumin and Curcuma longa L. extract ameliorate lipid accumulation through the regulation of the endoplasmic reticulum redox and ER stress / Hwa-Young LeeSeung-Wook KimGeum-Hwa Lee,  Min-Kyung Choi, Han-Wool Chung, Yong-Chui Lee, Hyung=Ryong Kim, Ho Jeong Kwon & Han-Jung Chae / Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 6513(2017) / doi:10.1038/s41598-017-06872-y
Curcuma longa (Turmeric) for Prevention of Capecitabine-Induced Hand-Foot Syndrome: A Pilot Study / Vanessa Armenio Scontre , MD, Janine Capobiango Martins , MD, Claudia Vaz de Melo Sette MD, Haila Mutti MD, Daniel Cubero MD, Fernando Fonseca PhD and Auro Del Giglio MD / Journal of Dietary Supplements / https://doi.org/10.1080/19390211.2017.1366387
Comparative Antimicrobial Study of Ethanolic Extract of Leaf and Rhizome of Curcuma longa Linn / Nikhil Singh, Sangeeta Gupta, and Vaibhay Rathore / Pharmacognosy Journal, 2017, 9(2), pp 208-212. / DOI:10.5530/pj.2017.2.35
Curcuma longa L. as a Therapeutic Agent in Intestinal Motility Disorders. 2: Safety Profile in Mouse / Matteo Micucci, Rita Aldini, Monica Cevenini, Carolina Colliva, Silvia Spinozzi, Giulia Roda, Marco Montagnani, Cecilia Camborata, Luca Camarda, Alberto Chiarini, Giuseppe Mazzella, Roberta Budriesi  / PLOS / https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080925
Angiogenic effect of Curcuma longa Linn. (turmeric) tea powder on the chorioallantoic membrane of 10 - day old Annas luzonica (Duck) eggs / Kathleen Grace N. Maniago, Cassandra Gia S. Mari and Marlon C. Pareja / Annals of Biological Research, 2014, 5 (4):32-37
Use of Yellow Pigment Extracted from Turmeric (Curcuma Longa) Rhizomes Powder as Natural Food Preservative / Abdeldaiem M. H / AJFST, Archive, Vol 2, Issue 1
Anti-obesity mechanism of Curcuma longae L. - An overview / Kapil Dio Yadav and Anand K Chaudhury / Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources. Vol 7, No 2, June 2016, pp 99-106
HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF CURCUMA LONGA IN ETHANOL INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS / Ishwin Singh, S Vetriselvan*, J Shankar, S Gayathiri, C Hemah, G Shereenjeet, A Yaashini / International Journal of Phytopharmacology. 3(3), 2012, 226-233.
Effect of Ethanol Extract of Curcuma Longa on Aspirin Induced Gastric Injury (Gross Morphology and Histopathology Study) / Dr Kali Prasad Pattnaik, Dr Suhasini Dehury, Dr Rajashree Samal, Dr Narayan Mallick / Journal of Medical Science and Clinical Research
Immuno-modulatory effect of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) and Aloe Vera on cultured Polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) and adherent mononuclear cells  / Dr. Monica Gandhii, Ms. Raj Shree / WebmedCentral ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2016;7(6):WMC005113
Efficacy and safety of Curcuma domestica extracts compared with ibuprofen in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a multicenter study / Kuptniratsaikul V, Dajpratham P, Taechaarpornkul W, Buntragulpoontawee M, Lukkanapichonchut P, Chootip C, Saengsuwan J, Tantayakom K, Laongpech S / Clinical Interventions in Aging, Vol 9, March 2014: Pages 451—458  / DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/CIA.
Turmeric May Not Be a Miracle Spice After All / Amanda MacMillan / Health Diet Nutrition / Time
Anti-Arthritic Effects and Toxicity of the Essential Oils of Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) / Janet L Funk, Jennifer B Frye, Janice N Ovarzo, Huaping Zhang, and Barbara N Timmermann / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2010, 58 (2), pp 842–849 / DOI10.1021/jf9027206

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