HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT

Family Verbenaceae
Duranta erecta L.
Jia lian qiao

Scientific names Common names
Duranta angustifolia Salisb. Duranta (Tag.)
Duranta dentata Pers. Angel whisper (Engl.)
Duranta ellisiae Jacq. Golden dew drop (Engl.)
Duranta erecta Linn. Golden eardrops (Engl.)
Duranta inermis L. Pigeon berry (Engl.)
Duranta integrifolia Tod. Skyflower (Engl.)
Duranta latifolia Salisb.  
Duranta macrodonta Moldenke  
Duranta microphylla Willd.  
Duranta microphylla Desf.  
Duranta plumieri Jacq.   
Duranta racemosa Mill.   
Duranta repens Linn.  
Duranta spinosa Mill.   
Duranta turbinata Tod.   
Duranta xalapensis Kunth.   
Ellisia acuta L.   
Duranta repens L. is a synonym of Duranta erecta L. The Plant List
Duranta erecta L. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
AFRIKAANS: Vergeet-my-nie-boom.
BENGALI: Kata mehedi.
BRAZILIAN: Pingo-de-ouro, Violeteira-dourada.
CHIINESE: Jia lian qiao.
FRENCH: Durante dressée, Vanilier de cayenne.
INDIA: Bharangi.
INDONESIAN: Sinyo nakal.
MARSHALLESE: Jab meloklok.
SPANISH: Cuentas de oro, San Jacinto.
THAI: Thanh yod.
VIETNAMESE: Thanh quan.

Duranta is a smooth, unarmed, scrambling shrub, growing to a height of 1-3 meters, with straggling and drooping branches. Leaves are small, obovate-elliptic, 3 to 6 centimeters long, with pointed or rounded tips and pointed base; the margins, entire or slightly toothed. Racemes are axillary with terminal panicles, spreading and slender, up to 12 centimeters long. Flowers are scentless, borne on one side of the rachis, white or lilac-blue with two violet stripes, about 1 centimeter long and 1 centimeter wide. Fruit is fleshy, ovoid, orange-yellow and 7 to 8 millimeters long.

- Native of tropical America.
- A common hedge and fence screen in Baguio.

• The bark contains a glucosidal principal; the leaves yield a saponin substance.
• Phytochemical studies report new compounds: cleomisconsin A, hardwickiic acid, 3,13-clerodadien-16, oleic acid plus other known compounds.

Study isolated 6 compounds: 24-ethylcholest-5-en-3-â-ol (â-sitoserol), naringenin, 3,4-dihydroxy-bphenethyl-O-á- rhamnopyranosyl-(1T3)-4-O-caffeoyl-â-D-glucopyranosid (acteoside), lamiide, á-glucopyranosyl (1T2) â-fructopyranoside (sucrose), á-galactopyranosyl(1T6) á-glucopyranosyl-(1T2) fructopyranoside (raffinose) from Duranta repens Linn. var. variegate. (See study below) (4)
- Leaves extracts yielded two new iridoids, durantoside IV and durantoside V together with several known compounds, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, (E)-cinnamic acid, beta-sitosteryl-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, (E)-p-methoxycinnamic acid, KNO-3, KCl, kusaginin, glucose, durantoside I, and durantoside II. (15)
- Phytochemical screening of aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenoids, tannins and phenols. (see study below) (16)

- Phytochemical analysis of fruits yielded alkaloids, glycoside, saponins, and tannins. (see study below) (17)
- A chloroform soluble fraction of an ethanolic extract of stem yield two triterpenes, ß-amyrin and 12-oleanene 3ß, 21ß-diol. (see study below) (19)
- Analysis of seed and leaf oil yielded anthocyanin (1.23% and 0.78%), oxalate (0.28 and 0.38), tannin (6.58 and 5.75), rutin (8.44 and 19.38), phenol (2.11 and 2.11), epicatechin (1.11 and 0.79), lunamarine (9.75 and 9.37), saponin, (18.95 and 14.21), sapogenin (5.94 and 3.50), ribalinidine (1.87 and 0.96), phytate (0.12 and 0.08), kaempferol (14.016 and 26.17) and catechin (29.32 and 16.50). Study for fatty acid yielded capric, lauric, myristic, myristoleic, palmitic, palmitoleic, steraric, oleic, and linoleic acids.   (27)
- Study of leaves yielded four new iridoid glucosides, duranterectosides A, B, C, and D, along with durantosides I and II, lamiide, lamiidoside, and verbascoside. Stems yielded duranterectoside A, along with durantosides I, II, and III, and lamiidoside. (29)
- A dichlormethane extract of flowers isolated oleanolic acid (1), a mixture of α-amyrin (2a) and ß-amyrin (2b) in a 3:1 ratio, phytyl fatty acid esters (3), and triacyllglycerls (4). (30)
- Study isolated Isoprenylated flavonoids 5,7-dihydroxy-3′-(2-hydroxy-3-methyl-3-butenyl)-3,6,4′-trimethoxyflavone (1), 3,7-dihydroxy-3′-(2-hydroxy-3-methyl-3-butenyl)-5,6,4′-trimethoxyflavone (2) and an isoprenylated acetophenone derivative (3), along with known compounds, 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,4′-tetramethoxyflavone (4), rosenonolactone (5), 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin (6), 5α,8α-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol (7) and 5α,8α-epidioxyergosta-6,9(11),22-trien-3β-ol (8). (see study below) (31)

• Fruit is slightly poisonous with alkaloid type reactions. Deaths have been reported from ingestion.

• Studies have suggest mosquitocidal, thrombin inhibitory, cytotoxic, antiviral, antimalarial, antioxidant, antifungal, antiurolithiatic properties.

Parts used
Leaves, flowers, fruits.

- Fruit has been used as febrifuge.
- Fruits used for malaria and intestinal worms.
- Flowers are believed to be stimulant.
- Infusion of leaves and juice of fruit are diuretic.
- Leaves used for treatment of abscesses.
- In Bangladesh, tribal and mainstream use for malaria. Also used by mainstream Kavirajes as insect repellent, treatment of itches, infertility, fever, and pneumonia.
- In Andhra Pradesh, India, decoction of whole plant used for asthma, bronchitis, and fever. (34)
- In India, leaves and stems used for treatment of cataracts. (36)
- In the southeastern part of Nigeria, fruits used for treatment of malaria, abscesses, and parasitism. (35)

• Fruit is slightly poisonous with alkaloid type reactions. Deaths have been reported from ingestion.
• Study of the chloroform soluble fraction of the stem of D. repens showed toxicity with changes in biochemical parameters and abnormalities in liver and renal functions, with degenerative changes on histopath examination of the cellular destruction of the liver, heart and kidney. (8)
• Duranta erecta Poisoning in Nine Dogs and a Cat: Observed ingestion of fruits and leaves resulted in drowsiness, hyperaesthesia and tetanic seizures with GI manifestations of vomiting, diarrhea and bleeding. (9)

Thrombin Inhibitory: Study isolated flavonoids with some compounds showing significant enzyme-inhibitory activity against thrombin. (3)
Mosquitocidal Triterpenes: Study isolated two triterpenes, ß-amyrin and 12-oleanene 3ß,21ß-diol. The mixture of the two compounds was highly effective against the larvae of the mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, as a mosquitocide. (10)
Phytochemical Investigation / Antiviral: The DR extract showed 76% reduction in the viral titer of Hepatitis A. The activity may be attributed to the aceteoside or lamilide content which showed high antioxidant activity. (4)
Cardiac Depressant: Estimation of Cardiac Depressant Activity of Ten Medicinal Plant Extracts from Pakistan: Cardiac depressant effect induced by D repens extract was not dose-dependent, with a 50% negative inotropic effect, 50% negative chronotropic effect and 80% reduction in coronary outflow. (5)
Saponins / Cytotoxicity: Study isolated two new triterpene saponins from the leaves of DRL durantanin IV and V, together with 10 known compounds. The methanol extract and the 2 new compounds 1,2 and E/Z acteoside showed significant cytotoxic activity against a HepG2 cell line.
Antioxidant: Study of the methanol extract of Duranta repens showed radical scavenging activity. Study yielded three compounds: an acteoside, an iridoid lamilid and a saponin. (6)
Radical Scavenging Activity: Phytochemical screening isolated four new coumarinolignoids, Repenins A-D (1-4) with known coumarinolignoids, cleomiscosin A and durantin A. The compounds showed potent radical scavenging activity. (7)
Iridoid Glycosides / Antioxidative: An ethanolic extract isolated six iridoid glycosides 1-6. Duranterectoside A (1) exhibited the strongest scavenging potential for DPPH radicals, -OH inhibitory activity, total ROS inhibitory activity, and OBNOO(-) scavenging activity tests. (12)
Antiplasmodial Flavanoid Glycosides / Antimalarial: A CHCl3-soluble fraction of the whole plant of Duranta repens yielded two new flavonoid glycosides, along with five known flavonoids. Compounds 1-7 showed potent anti-plasmodial activity against the chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and chloroquine-resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. (14)
Antifungal: Study evaluated aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of D. repens against three fungi, viz., Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Microsporum gypseum. Results showed promising antifungal activity against the tested fungi with the methanolic extract showing more potent inhibitory effect. (see constituents above) (16)
Cytotoxicity / Fruit: Study evaluated various extracts of fruit for cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity. On cytotoxic screening using brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach) assay, the highest mortality was seen in the methanolic extract. No antibacterial activity was seen at various concentrations against human pathogenic bacteria tested. (17)
Antioxidative Potential / H2O2 Induced Cell Death / Fruit: Study investigated the antioxidative potential of DR fruits on H2O2 induced oxidative cell death. In vitro analysis showed DPPH and H2O2 scavenging and reducing potential of the extracts. (18)
Antishigellosis / Antimicrobial / Cytotoxic Potential / Stems and Fruits: Study of a chloroform soluble fraction of stem and ethanol extract of fruits exhibited potent antishigellosis activity and moderate activity against some pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Study also showed significant cytotoxicity against brine shrimp larvae. (19)
Mosquito Larvicidal / Stem and Fruit: Study of crude extracts of stem and fruits, fractions and fresh fruit juice of D. repens against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus showed effective larvicidal activity.     (20)
Gastroprotective / Ethanol Induced Mucosal Damage: Study of an ethanol extract showed gastroprotective activity against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injuries in rats. There was increased mucus production, decreased acidity, increased SOD level and decreased MDA level. (21)
Antimicrobial / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study of various extracts of leaves showed antimicrobial activity. Gram positive bacteria showed more sensitivity than gram negative bacteria. It also showed antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger and A. flavus. (22)
• Anti-Urolithiasis / Leaves: Study investigated the anti-urolithiatic activity of methanolic extract of D. erecta leaves by in-vitro and in-vivo analysis. A methanolic extract showed antioxidant potential with 93.51% inhibition of DPPH radical at 1000 µg/ml concentration, compared to 94.71% with ascorbic acid. In vitro, D. erecta inhibited formation of calcium oxalate and calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals, along with antimicrobial activity with zone of inhibition against a few bacteria. In vivo evaluation on a Wistar rat model confirmed the anti-urolithiatic activity. (25)
• Bioefficacy Against Dengue and Yellow Fever Vector, Ae. aegypti / Leaves: Study evaluated the bioefficacy of aqueous extract of leaves of D. erecta against yellow fever and dengue vector, Ae. aegypti. Results showed toxicity of the extracts at all concentrations tested against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. Study showed a concentration dependent increase in ovicidal, larvicidal, inhibition of adult emergence and fecundity. Results suggest a potential for botanicals to reduce the use of chemicals for mosquito control. (26)
• Leaf and Seed Oil: Seed oil contained higher Mg, K, Na, and vitamin K, while leaf oil contained higher Fe, vitamin A, and vitamin D. Fatty acid occurrence were as follows: palmitic > oleic > stearic > capric > linoleic > lauric >palmitoleic for seed oil, and linoleic > palmitoleic > oleic > stearic > palmitic > myristic > capric > lauric > myristoleic. Chemical analysis suggest the seed oil is more suitable for industrial and therapeutic purposes. (see constituents above) (27)
• Antithrombotic Effect / Fruit: Study evaluated the antithrombotic effect of D. repens fruit extract on male albino mice. Bleeding time of mice in the experimental group showed no significant difference with positive control (aspirin), while both were significantly different than negative control (distilled water).. Results suggest effectivity of D. repens as an antithrombotic agent. (28)
• Enzyme Inhibitory Constituents: Study of D. repens isolated eight compounds. Compounds 1-5 showed inhibitory activity against prolyl endopeptidase; compounds 4 and 5 showed activity against thrombin.  (31)
• Chitosan Nanoparticles / Antimalarial / Fruits: Study reported on the green synthesis of chitosan nanoparticles using Cassia fistula leaves and Durante repens fruit. The best IC50 against P. falcifarum were 0.004 and 0.08 µg/ml for C. fistula and D. repens, respectively. Results suggest encapsulation of the extracts with chitosan increase the P. falcifarum inhibitory power of both extracts, thus increasing their antimalarial potential. (32)
• Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles: Study reports on the green, environmentally non-hazardous biosynthesis of zinc nanoparticles using aqueous extracts of leaves, stem, root, flowers, and fruits of Duranta erecta as reducing agents. (33)
• No Anthelmintic Activity / Acute Toxicity Study: Study evaluated the anthelmintic potential of the plant using adult male albino mice experimentally infected with Heligmosomoides bakeri infective L3. Study failed to show anthelmintic activity in contrast to albendazole that significantly (p<0.05) reduced faecal egg counts and worm burdens by 71% and 92% in treated mice, respectively. On toxicity study, the extract had an LD50 greater than 5000 mg/kg bw. (35)

- Cultivated for ornamental purposes.

© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D. / StuartXchange

Updated July 2018 / September 2015

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
New Triterpene Saponins from Duranta repens Linn. and Their Cytotoxic Activity /Molecules 2009, 14(5), 1952-1965 / doi:10.3390/molecules14051952
Thrombin Inhibitory Constituents from Duranta repens / Itrat Anis et al / Helvetica Chimica Acta Vol 84 Issue 3, Pages 649 - 655 / DOI :10.1002/1522-2675(20010321)84:3<649::AID-HLCA649>3.0.CO;2-5
Phytochemical Investigation and Antiviral Activity of Duranta repens / Lobna M. Abou-Setta, Naglaa M. Nazif, Abdelaaty A. Shahat / Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 3(11): 1426-1433, 2007
Estimation of Cardiac Depressant Activity of Ten Medicinal Plant Extracts from Pakistan / Tasneem Mariam Sajid et al / Phytotherapy Research, Volume 10 Issue 2, Pages 178 - 180 / DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(199603)10:2<178::AID-PTR802>3.0.CO;2-T
Phytochemical investigation and antioxidant activity of Duranta repens / Abdelaaty A Shahat et al / Phytotherapy Research Vol 19 Issue 12, Pages 1071 - 1073 / 10.1002/ptr.1766
Repenins A–D, four new antioxidative coumarinolignoids from Duranta repens Linn.
/ Nisar Ahmad et al / Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, Volume 19, Issue 13, 1 July 2009, Pages 3521-3524 / doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2009.05.006
Biochemical, Hematological and Histopathological Effects of Duranta repens Stems on Rats / Nikkon F et al / Asian Journal of Biochemistry, 2008 | Volume: 3 | Issue: 6 | Page No.: 366-372 / DOI: 10.3923/ajb.2008.366.372
Duranta erecta poisoning in nine dogs and a cat / Australian veterinary journal / 2006-Oct; vol 84 (issue 10) : pp 367-70

Mosquitocidal triterpenes from the stem of Duranta repens / Farjana Nikkon et al / Summary
Pharmaceutical Biology, March 2010, Vol. 48, No. 3, Pages 264-268 , DOI 10.3109/13880200903096570
Duranta erecta / Common names / PIER
Antioxidative iridoid glycosides from the sky flower (Duranta repens Linn). / Ijaz F, Ul Haq A, Ahmad I, Ahmad N, Hussain J, Chen S. / J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2011 Feb;26(1):88-92. doi: 10.3109/14756361003724778.
Folk Medicinal Uses of Verbenaceae Family Plants in Bangladesh / Mohammed Rahmatullah, Rownak Jahan. . . and Taufiq Rahman / African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines
Two new anti-plasmodial flavonoid glycosides from Duranta repens / Fozia Ijaz, Nisar Ahmad, Ijaz Ahmad, Azhar ul Haq, Fanghai Wang / Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry, December 2010, Vol. 25, No. 6 , Pages 773-778 / (doi:10.3109/14756360903433365)
Chemical components of the leaves of Duranta repens Linn
/ Kuo, Yueh Hsiung; Chen, Zong Shiow; Lin, Yun Lian / Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin (tokyo), 1996; 44(2): 429-436
Evaluation of Duranta repens for its antifungal potential / Mandvi Sikarwar, Showkat Ahmad Ganie, Rajneesh K. Agnihotri, Rajendra Sharma / International Journal of Medicinal Plants 01/2014; 106:390-395.
PHYTOCHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON FRUITS OF DURANTA REPENS / L.D. P. KHANAL*, B. RAUT, R. K. MAJHI, A. KAINI, R. BASNET, P.K. MAHAT / Pharmanest: An International Journal of Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences
Antioxidative Potential of Duranta Repens (Linn.) Fruits Against H2O2 Induced Cell Death In Vitro / Md Asaduzzaman Khan, Mohammad Mijanur Rahman, Mousumi Tania, Nusrat Fatima Shoshee, Ai-hua Xu, and Han-chun Chen / Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2013; 10(3): 436–441.
Antishigellosis and Cytotoxic Potency of Crude Extracts and Isolated Constituents from Duranta repens / Farjana Nikkon, M. Rowshanul Habib, M. Rezaul Karim, M. Shamim Hossain, M. Ashik Mosaddik, and M. Ekramul Haque / Mycobiology. 2008 Sep; 36(3): 173–177 / doi: 10.4489/MYCO.2008.36.3.173
Larvicidal Effects of Stem and Fruits of Duranta repens Against the Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus
/ Farjana Nikkon*, Zahangir A. Saud, Khaled Hossain, Mst. Shahnaj Parvin and M. Ekramul Haque / Int.J. PharmTech Res.2009,1(4)
Evaluation of gastro protective effects of duranta repens extract against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injuries in rats / Peshawa Yunis Aziz. / Masters thesis,2014 / University of Malaya Students Repository
Effect of leaves Extracts of Duranta repens on growth and activity of some types of Pathogenic Bacteria and Some types of Fungi / Safaa Al-deen Ahmed Shanter Al-qay, Hala Haitham Mahmed Ali / University of Baghdad, Repository of Researches and Academic Data
Duranta erecta L. / Synonyms / The Plant List
An Updated Review on Phytochemical Properties of “Golden Dewdrop” Duranta erecta / Rattawat Subsongsang and Wannee Jiraungkoorskul / Pharmacogn Rev. Jul-Dec 2016; 10(20): pp 115-117 / doi:  10.4103/0973-7847.194042
Patho-physiological evaluation of Duranta erectafor the treatment of urolithiasis / Sachin B Agawanea, Vidya S Gupta, Mahesh J Kulkarni, Asish K Bhattacharya, Santosh S Koratkar, Vamkudoth Koteswara Rao / Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaim.2017.08.001
Bioefficacy of Duranta erecta leaf extract on yellow fever and dengue vector, Aedes aegypti Linn. in Nigeria / Agwu Ekenma Julia, Odo Ejikeme Gregory, Ekeh Felicia, Uwagbae Michael, Ngwu Godwin and Ehilegbu Chinelo / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 27 March 2018; 12(11): pp 124-132 / DOI: 10.5897/JMPR2016.6277
Characterization of oils from Duranta repens leaf and seed / Emmanuel Agomuo, Peter Amadi, Charity Ogunka-Nnoka, Benjamin Amadi, Mercy Ifeanacho and Uche Njoku / OCL 2017; 24(6) / https://doi.org/10.1051/ocl/2017048
The Antithrombotic Effect of Duranta repens Linn (Golden DewDrop) Fruit Crude Extract on Male Mus musculus (Mice) / Krit Changiaroen, Tarinrat Pattarapuntakul, Carlo Desarno, Thanatat Puwichai, Somboon Janpa, Yaowaluk Saengkudrua, Jude Laurel, Bryan Christian Tan / Thesis/Dissertations, March 2011 / University of Visayas: Gullas College of Medicine
Chemical Constituents of Duranta erecta L. Flowers / Julius Leonard A. Vivar, Mariquit M. De Los Reyes, Chien-Chang Shen, and Consolacion Y. Ragasa / Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2016; 8 (19): pp234-236
Enzyme Inhibitory Constituents from Duranta repens / Itrat Anis, Saeed Aahmed, Abdul Malik, Amsha Yasin, M Iqbal Choudary / Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin,2002; Vol 50, Issue 2.
Antimalarial Drugs Based on Chitosan Nanoparticles of Cassia fistula L. and Duranta repens L. Fruits Methanol Extract / Purwantiningsih Sugita*, Dhian Eka Wijaya, Gustini Syahbirin, Rita Marleta Dewi / Der Pharma Chemica, 2017; 9(18): pp 58-63
Biogenic production of zinc oxide nanoparticles from aqueous extracts of Duranta erecta L. / C. P. Ravindran, M. Manokari, Mahipal S. Shekhawat / World Scientific News, 2016; 28: pp 30-40
Evaluation of the anthelminthic potential of Duranta erecta L. (Verbenaceae) fruits used in Nigerian ethnomedicine as a vermifuge / Munachimso Ihuoma Udobi, Terry Adaeze Nzeakor, Ifeanyl Gabriel Eke / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2018; 216: pp  57-62 / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2018.01.030
Phytotherapeutics for management and prevention of cataract generation / Baljinder Singh, Dharmendra Kumar, Ranjit Singh / Phytopharmacology, 2012; 3(1): pp 93-110

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL