Endive is a cultivated plant consisting of a dense rosette of curly leaves arising from the base. Leaves are brittle, oblong, and lobed or cut. Flowers are purple, the upper ones passing into leafy bracts.
- Cultivated around Manila and other large towns.
- Cultivated from imported seeds.
- Grows best in the Baguio area.
- Native of the Mediterranean region.
- Excellent source of calcium and iron.
- Leaves contain inosit, a bitter principle, ceryl alcohol, d- and B-lactucerol and traces of urea.
- Considered resolvent and cooling.
- Roots considered tonic, demulcent, stimulant, and febrifuge.
- Used for salads, like lettuce.
- Much valued by the Hakims as a resolvent and cooling medicine and prescribed in bilious complaints.
Roots used for dyspepsia and fever, as a tonic and demulcent.
- Root considered warm stimulating, and febrifuge.
- Fruit is a cooling remedy for fevers, headaches and jaundice.
• Phytochemicals: Study of the roots isolated twelve known sesquiterpene lactones and a new gualanolid 10b-methoxy-1a,11b,13-tetrahydrolactucin with three known phenolic esters.
• Photoprotection: Application of a root extract on the skin prior to UVB irradiation totally prevented erythema. Study suggests C. endivia extracts might possess sun-protective qualities that make them potentially useful as sunscreens.
• Hepatoprotective: Study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective properties of C. endivia extract. Results showed CEE significantly blocked oxidative stress and cytotoxicity induced by t-BPH in HepG2 cells. Phytochemical screening yielded five compounds: 2-furanmethanol-(5'→11)-1,3-cyclopentadiene-[5,4-c]-1H-cinnoline, 2-phenylethyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside, kaempferol, and adenosine. Results suggest CEE may be a valid safe remedy to cure liver disease.
• Antiproliferative / Breast Cancer: The anticancer activity of root extract was examined on a breast cancer line MFC7 and compared with anticancer 5FU (5-fluorouracil). The expression of DNA markers was high both in cells treated with 5FU and root extract. Results show C. endivia contains a combination of phenolic compounds and presents as anticancer especially for breast cancer.
• Antidiabetic: Study evaluated the antidiabetic effect of an aqueous suspension of CE leaves powder in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Results indicated the role of oxidative stress in diabetes induction and showed a protective and/or ameliorative effect of CE, similar to glibenclamide.