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Family Compositae
Cichorium endivia Linn .

Ku ju

Scientific names Common names
Cichorium endivia Willd. Endiba (Tag.)
Cichorium casnia C. B. Clarke Endive (Engl.)
Cichorium crispum Mill. Ku ju (Chin.)
Cichorium esculentum Salisb.  

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Hindiba, Kasiniyah.
DANISH: Endivie.
ESTONIAN: Endiiviasigur.
FINNISH: Endiivi.
FRENCH: Chicorée blanche, Petite endive, Scarole..
GERMAN: Endivienwegwarte, Endivien, Endivie, Escariol.
ITALIAN: Indivia.
JAPANESE: Kiku jisha.
NEPALESE: Kassinii..
MALAY: Andewi.
POLISH: Endywia.
RUSSIAN: Endivij.
TURKISH: Hindiba, Yaban marulu..

Endive is a cultivated plant consisting of a dense rosette of curly leaves arising from the base. Leaves are brittle, oblong, and lobed or cut. Flowers are purple, the upper ones passing into leafy bracts.

- Cultivated around Manila and other large towns.
- Cultivated from imported seeds.
- Grows best in the Baguio area.

- Native of the Mediterranean region.

- Excellent source of calcium and iron.
- Leaves contain inosit, a bitter principle, ceryl alcohol, d- and B-lactucerol and traces of urea.

- Considered resolvent and cooling.
- Roots considered tonic, demulcent, stimulant, and febrifuge.

Parts used


- Used for salads, like lettuce.
- Much valued by the Hakims as a resolvent and cooling medicine and prescribed in bilious complaints.
- Roots used for dyspepsia and fever, as a tonic and demulcent.
- Root considered warm stimulating, and febrifuge.
- Fruit is a cooling remedy for fevers, headaches and jaundice.

Study of the roots isolated twelve known sesquiterpene lactones and a new gualanolid 10b-methoxy-1a,11b,13-tetrahydrolactucin with three known phenolic esters.
Photoprotection: Application of a root extract on the skin prior to UVB irradiation totally prevented erythema. Study suggests C. endivia extracts might possess sun-protective qualities that make them potentially useful as sunscreens.
Hepatoprotective: Study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective properties of C. endivia extract. Results showed CEE significantly blocked oxidative stress and cytotoxicity induced by t-BPH in HepG2 cells. Phytochemical screening yielded five compounds: 2-furanmethanol-(5'→11)-1,3-cyclopentadiene-[5,4-c]-1H-cinnoline, 2-phenylethyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside, kaempferol, and adenosine. Results suggest CEE may be a valid safe remedy to cure liver disease.
Antiproliferative / Breast Cancer: The anticancer activity of root extract was examined on a breast cancer line MFC7 and compared with anticancer 5FU (5-fluorouracil). The expression of DNA markers was high both in cells treated with 5FU and root extract. Results show C. endivia contains a combination of phenolic compounds and presents as anticancer especially for breast cancer.
Antidiabetic: Study evaluated the antidiabetic effect of an aqueous suspension of CE leaves powder in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Results indicated the role of oxidative stress in diabetes induction and showed a protective and/or ameliorative effect of CE, similar to glibenclamide.


Last Update October 2012

IMAGE SOURCE: Digitally modified and cropped / Pubic Domain (1) File:Cichorium endiva.jpg / Susan Boyer / Wikimedia Commons
IMAGE SOURCE: Photo id: 5287 - cultivated endive (Cichorium endivia) / Photo by Leo Michels. Usage: Public Domain / Foto visualizzata 13 volte / alterVISTA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Sesquiterpenoids and phenolics from roots of Cichorium endivia var. crispum / Wanda Kisiel and Klaudia Michalska / Fitoterapia Volume 77, Issue 5, July 2006, Pages 354-357 / doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2006.04.009 |
Photoprotection by Cichorium endivia Extracts: Prevention of UVB-Induced Erythema, Pyrimidine Dimer Formation and IL-6 Expression / C D Enk, M Hochberg et al / Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2004;17:1 (DOI:10.1159/000074056)
Sorting Cichorium names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher, / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
Hepatoprotective Activity of Cichorium endivia L. Extract and Its Chemical Constituents / Chao-Jie Chen , An-Jun Deng , Chang Liu, Rui Shi, Hai-Lin Qin, and Ai-Ping Wang / Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9049-9066; doi:10.3390/molecules16119049
Molecular and biochemical evaluation of anti- proliferative effect of (Cichorium endivia, L.) phenolic extracts on breast cancer cell line: MCF7 / Ali Alshehri* and Hafez E. Elsayed / E3 Journal of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 3(4), pp. 74-82, June 2012

Effect of Cichorium endivia Leaves on Some Biochemical Parameters in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats / Zeinab H. Kamel, Iman Daw and Mohamed Marzouk / Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(7): 387-396, 2011 ISSN 1991-8178

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