Grevillea is a deciduous medium-sized tree that grows to 30
meters or taller. Bark is fissured, sometimes pustulate, dark grey to dark brown. Crown is conical and dense, with branches projecting upward. Leaves are alternate, fernlike, pinnate, 11 to 21 pairs of pinnae, 4 to 9 centimeters long, and dark green.
Leaflets are lanceolate, with entire or lobed margins. The flowers are
yellow to orange, numerous, paired, on long slender stalks 1 to 2 centimeters, with 4 narrow yellow or orange sepals 12 millimeters long. Fruits are podlike, broad, slightly flattened, 2 centimeters long, black, with 1 to 2 seeds, 10 to 13 millimeters long.
- Native to Australia.
- Exotic to China, Eritrea, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Jamaica, Kenya, Laos, Malawi, Malaysia, Mauritius, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Uganda, USA, Vietnam, Zambia and Zimbabwe. (10)
- Recently introduced to the Philippines.
- Grown as shade tree or ornamental for shape and foliage.
• Study isolated
six new 5-alkylresorcinals and eight known compounds.
• Plant yields a small amount of gum resin.
• Leaves contain rutin.
• Intense yellow and green dyes from the leaves.
• Study yielded seven phenolic compounds from the methanolic extract of leaves – Grevirobstol A, B, C and Robustaside A, B, C and D.
• Study isolated three new compounds from the leaves: graviquinone (1), cis-3-hydroxy-5-pentadecylcyclohexanone (2), and methyl 5-ethoxy-2-hydroxycinnamate (3), together with 38 known compounds. (see study below) (12)
• 1-BuOH-soluble fraction of methanol extract of leaves yielded two 5-alkylresorcinol glucosides, named grevillosides G and H (1, 2), and grevilloside E methyl ester (3), along with one known megastigmane glucoside, staphylionoside D (4). (13)
• The 1-Bu-BuOH soluble fractions of a methanol extract of leaves isolated two 5-alkylresorcinol glucosides, named grevillosides G and H (1, 2), and grevilloside E methyl ester (3), along with one known megastigmane glucoside, staphylionoside D (4). (15)
• Flowers rich in vitamin C. Leaves and twigs reported to be high in aluminum. (12)
• Flowers are a
rich source of nectar which can be directly sucked from the flower, shaken into a bowl or washed out in a small amount of water.
• Aborigines in Australia reported to drink the nectar straight from the flowers.
- No known folkloric medicinal
use in the Philippines.
- In Kenya, natives of the Kakamega Forest use the plant to treat sore throats, earache, chest problems, flu and toothache.
- In North Garo Hills, Meghalaya, NE India, bark and leaves used for headaches and dizziness.
• Dye: Yellow and green dye from the leaves; used for dyeing silk.
• Wood: Used for
joinery, cabinetry and panelling. Wood makes a good charcoal.
• Gum or resin: Natural gum has potential as adhesive.
• Ornamental: Grown for its attractive foliage. Leaves used in flower arrangements.
• Poison: The flower buds, fruit and seeds are cyanogenic. Contact with leaves may cause contact dermatitis due to tridecylresorcinol, a chemical compound related to the allergen toxicodendron. (10)
dermatitis: A report on a case of severe acute dermatitis
venenata due to exposure to sawdust of Grevillea robusta. (2) (3)
• Grevillol: Bracelets
made from the wood of Grevellia were shown to be a source of allergic
contact dermatitis. The responsible allergen was grevillol, a phenolic
with a long side chain resembling the sensitizing uroshiols from poison
6 new 5-alkylresorcinols and 8 known compounds, all of which showed
marginal toxicity against MCF-7, NCI-H460 and SF-268 ki cell lines. (1)
• Leishmanicidal: One of 75 Myanmar
timber extracts examined for leishmanicidal activity. source
• Cardiovascular: Several his-resorcinols
were isolated from Grevellia robusta, the most potent, striatol, exhibiting
inhibitory activity on the Ca-ATPase system suggesting a potential for
cardiovascular activity. (5)
• Gum Adhesive: A natural gum from the plant has been studied and analysis showed that with suitable modifications, the gum from G robusta can be used as a wood adhesive. (9)
• Scavenging Activity / Cytotoxicity / Inhibition of L-DOPA / Leaves: Study isolated three new compounds from the leaves. Graviquinone, compound 1, showed strongest cytotoxicity against MCF-7, NCI-H460, and SF-268 cell lines. Methyl 2,3-dihydroxycinnamate (4), graviphane (13), and dehydrograviphane (14) showed very potent DPPH scavenging activity. Compounds 4 and bis-norstriatol (17) showed strong inhibition of L-DOPA. (see constituents above) (12)
• Gum Adhesive: Study evaluated a crude methanolic extract of leaf of Grevillea robusta and various soluble partitionates for cytotoxic, thrombolytic, membrane stabilizing and antimicrobial activities. The crude ME shoed highest cytotoxic activity in brine shrimp lethality bioassay with LC50 values of 1.50±0.45 µg/ml. Extractives showed 69.95±0.11% clot lysis. A chloroform soluble fraction inhibited hemolysis of RBC induced by heat and hypotonic solution. A chloroform partitionate showed highest zone of inhibition against Salmonella typhi. (16)
Recently for introduced.