Gusokan is an erect, nearly smooth or somewhat hairy shrub, growing to a height of 2 to 4 meters. Leaves are elliptic-oblong to elliptic-lanceolate, 6 to 15 centimeters long and pointed at both ends. Flowers are white, fragrant, borne in considerable numbers in hairy terminal panicles, 6 to 10 centimeters long. Calyx segments are very small and toothed. Corolla-tube is slender, about 1.5 centimeters long, with obtuse lobes about half the length of the tube. Fruit is black when dry, rounded, about 6 millimeters in diameter.
- From Batan Islands and northern Luzon to Mindanao, in most or all islands and provinces and often common in primary forests, at low and medium altitudes.
- Also reported from India to China and through Malaya to tropical Australia.
• Roots contain a green resin, starch, an organic acid, a bitter glucoside resembling salicin.
• Stems contain essential oil, resin, alkaloid, tannin and a pectic principle.
• Petroleum ether and methanol extracts have yielded glycosides, phytosterols, saponins, flavonoids and alkaloids.
• Phytochemical studies of leaves isolated linoleic acid, (9z, 12z, 15z)-octadeca- 9, 12, 15-trienoic acid, proanthocyanadin, epicatachein and fercilic acid. (9)
• Bitter roots considered aperient.
• Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, diuretic.
• Bark, pulverized or in decoction, is used for visceral obstructions.
• Leaves and roots used in poultices for boils and itches.
• Decoction of leaves used externally for hemorrhoidal pains.
• Bitter roots used for constipation.
• Roots, pulverized and mixed with ginger and rice water, used for dropsy.
• A local fomentation of leaves used for hemorrhoidal pains.
• Roots used for urinary complaints.
• Root used as anticephalagic.
• Fruits used as anthelmintic.
• Decoction of stem used as febrifuge.
• Bark decoction used for arthritis.
Study of the anti-inflammatory potential of the methanol extract of Pavetta indica on several models of inflammation showed activity in the proliferative phase of the inflammatory process in an effect comparable to the standard non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin. (1)
Study of the ethanolic leaf extract of P indica showed significant dose-dependent inhibition of pain response induced by thermal and mechanical stimuli. Results showed promising potential use of the crude extract in the treatment of pain. (2)
Study of the methanol extract of P indica reduced the pyrexia induced by yeast, found statistically significant, and indicates a potential for the extract's use as an agent against pyrexia. (3)
Study of petroleum and ether extracts of leaves of Pavetta indica exhibited significant diuretic activity. Effect was attributed to the presence of flavonoids. Results support its use as a diuretic agent. (4)
• Essential Oil:
Study yielded 24 compounds. The major constituents of the oil were ß-pinene (25.45%), ß-eudesmol (7.06%) and tricyclene (5.74%). Oxygenated monoterpenes and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were minor components. (5)
Study of an aqueous leaf extract on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats showed hepatoprotective activity as measured by reduction in biochemical parameters and histopathological findings. (7)
• Antioxidants / Nutrients / Minerals:
Study showed the leaves to be a good source of antioxidants such as ß-carotene, vitamin C and phenolics. Leaves showed to be rich in nutrients such as crude protein, carbohydrate, crude fiber, and minerals like Na, K, Ca, S, P, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn. (8)
• Antihelmintic / Enterobium vermicularis Infestation:
Treatment with P. indica decoction caused partial or complete reduction of symptoms and absence of ova of E. vermicularis. Study show decoction of P. indica can be an effective treatment for Purishaja Krimi (E. vermicularis infestation). (10)
Study of methanolic extract of leaves of Pavetta indica in alloxan-induced Wistar albino diabetic rats significantly reduced blood sugar. (11)
Study tested aqueous and organic solvent extracts of leaves of Pavetta indica against B. subtilis, E. coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Most of the leaf extracts showed activity against B. subtilis.; none showed activity against E. coli and S. cerevisiae. (12)
• Anticorrosive Property:
Study evaluated the anticorrosive nature of P. indica leaf extract on mild steel corrosion in HCl and HxSO4 media. Results showed the extracts could inhibit mild steel corrosion. (13)
none showed activity against E. coli and S. cerevisiae. (13)