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Family Moraceae
Poikilospermum suaveolens (Blume) Merr.

Zhui tou ma

Scientific names Common names
Poikilospermum suaveolens (Blume) Merr. Anapol (Ig., Bik.)
Poikilospermum sinense (C. H. Wright) Merr. Anapul (Ig.)
Conocephalus suaveolens Blume Anopo (Bon.)
  Buburubad (Sub.)
  Hanapul (Tag.)
  Hanapol (Tag.)
  Hanupol (Bik.)
  Kanupul (Tag.)
  Lagna (Tag.)
  Napul (Sul.)
  Pañgau (Tag.)
  Tagimi (Yak.)
  Tobayan (Tag.)
  Zhui tou ma (Chin.)

Other vernacular names
CAMBODIA: Krape roo.
CHINESE: Xiang tian zhui tou ma.
INDONESIA: Mentawan (Malay), Besto (Javanese), Areuy kakejoan (Sundanese).
JAVA: Besto.
MALAYSIA: Bunatol.
THAI: Airai, Charai, Khaman.
VIETNAMESE: Sung d[aa]y, Rum th[ow]m.

Hanopol is a stout and woody climber. Leaves are oblong-ovate or subobovate, 15 to 25 centimeters long, 8 to 15 centimeters wide, tapering to a point at the apex, rounded or heart-shaped at the base, smooth or hairy on both surfaces, dotted and streaked with cystoliths. Stipules are large, rusty-brown, and smooth. Male heads are about 6 millimeters in diameter, in broad, short, peduncled, dichotomous cymes. Stamens are 3 or 4. Female heads are about 25 millimeters in diameter, occurring in rounded, concave, deciduous bracts. Flowers are sweet-scented.

- Common in forests at low and medium altitudes from northern Luzon to Mindanao.
- Also occurs in Borneo, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam.

Parts used
Roots, sap, stem.


- In Malaysia, young cooked leaves are eaten as vegetable.
- The Higaonon tribe of Rogongon i Mindanao apply the latex or sap of stem for relief or treatment of sore eyes. (5)
- In Celebes, plant is used for diseases of the eye.
- In Lower Siam, sap is considered cooling for fevers. In Java, sap is used for the same purpose.
- Malays used the a poultice of roots for itches and fevers.
- In Java, pounded stems made into hair wash to destroy vermin.
- In Serampas, Indonesia, used for beri-beri.
- In Northern Thailand, one of the plants used in the preparation of postpartum herbal baths.
- In Malaysia, sap used for stomach ulcers; shoots applied to wounded skin.
(2) Sap from stem is drunk for postpartum treatment.

Antiviral: In a study of antiviral activity of plant extracts with cells infected with virus for 24 hours, two plants showed moderated antiviral activity: Poikilospermum suaveolens and Pseuduvaria macrophylla.


Last Update June 2015

IMAGES SOURCE: (3 Images) / Poikilospermum suaveolens / Kwan / Nature Love You / click on image to go to source page / www.NatureLoveYou.sg

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Medicinal plants of the Mien (Yao) in Northern Thailand and their potential value in the primary healthcare of postpartum women / Panyaphy K, Van On T, Sirisa-Ard P et al / J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 May 17;135(2):226-37. Epub 2011 Mar 3
A Survey of Indigenous Plants Used for Food and Medicine by the Kadazanduzun Ethnic in Tambunan, Sabah East Malaysia / Julius Kulip /
Poikilospermum suaveolens (Blume) Merr.
/ Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
Poikilospermum suaveolens / Vernacular names / GlobinMed
Medicinal Plants Used by the Higaonon Tribe of Rogongon, Iligan City, Mindanao, Philippines / Lilybeth F. Olowa, Mark Anthony J. Torres, Eduardo C. Aranico and Cesar G. Demayo / Advances in Environmental Biology, 6(4): 1442-1449, 2012
Uras: Medicinal and Ritual Plants of Serampas, Jambi Indonesia / Bambang Hariyadi and Tamara Ticktin / Ethnobotany and Research Applications
An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia / Julius Kulip / Telopea 10(1): 2003

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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