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Family Compositae
Damong maria
Artemisia vulgaris Linn.

Common names  
Abraaka (Ilk.)   Maria (Tag.) 
Artanusa (C. Bis.) Santa maria (Tag.)
Cintura de S. Jose (Span.)  Tinisas (Tag.) 
Cordon de S. Jose (Span.) Corona de San Juan, Ajenjo (Span.)
Damong maria (Tag.) Chinese honeysuckle (Engl.) 
Gilbas (C. Bis.)  Motherwort (Engl.)
Erbaka (Ilk.)  Maiden wort (Engl.)
Herbaaka (Bon.)  Felon herb, mugwort (Engl.)
Kamaria (Tag.)  Wegwood, wormwood (Engl.)
  Ai (Chin.)

Erect perennial herb; hairy, aromatic, often semiwoody, with leafy and branched stems, growing to a height of 1 meter. Leaves up to 14 centimeters long, lobed, hairy, gray beneath, with nearly smooth upper surface. Numerous flower heads are spikelike, ascending, branched inflorescences. Fruit is minute.

Widely cultivated in the Philippines, around the houses, gardens and open places. Propagated by cuttings and layering.

Chemical constituents and characteristics
Plant yields a volatile oil consisting of cineol, thujone, paraffin and aldehyde.
Fragrant but bitter to taste.

Parts utilized
Leaves and flowers

- Decoction of fresh leaves and flowering tops, 50 g in a pint of water, 4-5 glasses daily as expectorant.
- Juice of leaves used as vulnerary, to heal wounds and cuts.
- As emmenagogue: A strong decoction of leaves, 6-7 glasses a day to induce menstruation; also, for post-partum abdominal cramps.
- Juice of leaves applied to head of young children during convulsions.
- For intestinal deworming, decoction of boiled leaves, followed by the juice of aloe or other purgative plants.
- Decoction of leaves used for abdominal colic pains.
- Leaf poultice for headache and skin diseases.
- Decoction of dried leaves used for asthma and dyspepsia.
- Juice used externally for scabies, eczema, herpes.
- With ginger: Pounded leaves, mixed with ginger are wrapped in banana leaves and heated over a fire, and applied to wounds and swollen and inflammed dermal afflictions.
- Stimulates appetite, young leaves used for anorexia.
- Flowering tops of mugwort used by modern dyers in the production of green dye.
-Before tobacco, leaves smoked by old people.
- Young and tender leaves used as pot herb.
Fresh or dried plant repels insects.
- Fresh leaves are picked in the spring and sun-dried, then ground to a fine powder (moxa wool). The wool is kneaded into cones that are buned on the skin. Sometimes, the Moxa wool is prepared in combinationn with the powder of other herbals.
• The burning of moxa herb sticks (compressed dried leaves) is a treatment modality of the acupuncturist. It is placed above the skin, along meridians or specific acupuncture points, mean to restore good health, energy balancing, release of Qi - a process called Moxibustion.
• The moxibustion of mugwort has been used in correcting breech presentation of fetuses into cephalic orientation. Also used to cause abortion.

Study of dichlormethane extract of dried-leaves of Av yielded a new sesquiterpene 1, caryophyllene oxide, phytyl fatty esters, squalene, stigmasterol and sitosterol.
Estrogenic Flavonoids from Artemisia vulgaris L. :
A study isolated twenty known flavonoids, the most abundant were eriodictyol and luteolin. Two flavonoids, eriodictyol and apigenin, induced the transcription of the estrogen receptor gene in transgenic yeast.
Major dicaffeoylquinic acids from Artemisia vulgaris

Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous-methanol extract of Artemisia vulgaris: Pre-treatment of mice reduced the toxin-induced rise in ALT and AST in induced-hepatitis. The study scientifically validates the traditional use of A. vulgaris for various liver disorders.
Anti-inflammatory: In vivo microvascular actions of Artemisia vulgaris L. in a model of ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat intestinal mesentery: Study showed the extracts significantly reduced leukocyte adherence and transendothelial leakage while improving flow in the ischemia-reperfused organ. The extract contained yomogin, previously shown to inhibit iNOS activity, and may explain the anti-inflammatory porperty of the plant.

• Moxa Burning–Health Hazard? - UK tested the potential toxicity of smoke produced by the buring of Moxa in traditional Chinese medicine. Sidestream smoke from cigar-shaped "sticks" or "rolls" of Moxa was tested showed levels of only two volatiles equivalent or greater than the safe exposure levels, as well as carbon monoxide levels. Study gives no immediate concerns from continued use of moxa as a therapeutic modality. However, it suggests further testing for ventilation, cleansing of room environ and use of moxa on broken skin.
• Anti-Trichinellosis: Trichinellosis can cause diarrhea, fever, periorbital edema and myositis in humans. This study on the methanol extracts of aerial parts of Av showed reduction of larval rate with significantly reduced antibody response during the enteral and parenteral phases. Results suggest Av can be an alternative drug against trichinellosis.
• Anti-Hypertensive: Study suggests that the aqueous and chloroform extracts of leaves of Av have anti-hypertensive actions with not significant effecfts on cardiovascular hemodynamics.
• Antioxidant: Study of extract of Av yielded flavonoidal and flavonol contents and exhibited nitric oxide scavenging activity, significant increases in glutathione level, superoxide dismutase activity and serum ascorbic acid levels. Results indicate Av is a potential source of natural antioxidants.
• Anticonvulsant: In a study of the aqueous extracts of leaves and stems of seven medicinal plants on Picrotoxin-induced seizures in mice, Artemisia vulgaris was one of four extracts to delay the onset of seizures and decrease the mortality rate.

Pregnancy: Should not be used by pregnant women.


Last Update May 2010

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
A new sesquiterpene from Artemisia vulgaris / Consolacion Ragasa et al / Journal of Natural Medicines / Volume 62, Number 4 • October, 2008 / DOI 10.1007/s11418-008-0253-0
Estrogenic Flavonoids from Artemisia vulgaris L. / Sang-Jun Lee et al / J. Agric. Food Chem., 1998, 46 (8), pp 3325–3329 / DOI: 10.1021/jf9801264
Major dicaffeoylquinic acids from Artemisia vulgaris / Carnat A et al / Fitoterapia, Volume 71, Number 5, 1 September 2000 , pp. 587-589(3)
Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous-methanol extract of Artemisia vulgaris
/ Phytotherapy Research Vol 19 Issue 2, Pages 170 - 172
In vivo microvascular actions of Artemisia vulgaris L. in a model of ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat intestinal mesentery / Xenia T et al / Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation / Vol 23, Numbers 2-4/2000
Artemisia vulgaris - Moxa / Newsfinder
Does the burning of moxa (Artemisia vulgaris) in traditional Chinese medicine constitute a health hazard? / John Wheeler et al / Acupunct Med 2009;27:16-20 doi:10.1136/aim.2009.000422
Comparison of the effects of Artemisia vulgaris and Artemisia absinthium growing in western Anatolia against trichinellosis (Trichinella spiralis) in rats / Ayse Caner et al / Experimental Parasitology • Vol 119, Issue 1, May 2008, Pages 173-179 / doi:10.1016/j.exppara.2008.01.012
Phytochemical analysis and hemodynamic actions of Artemisia vulgaris L. / XT Tigno, F de Guzman, AM Flora / Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2000;23(2-4):167-75. /
Characterization of antioxidant activity of extract from Artemisia vulgaris / Abeer Temraz et al / Pak J Pharm Sci Oct 2008;21(4):321-6.
Anticonvulsant Effects of Some Arab Medicinal Plants / A S Abdul-Ghani et al / Summary
Pharmaceutical Biology, 1987, Vol. 25, No. 1, Pages 39-43 , DOI 10.3109/13880208709060909

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