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Family Loganiaceae / Gentianaceae
Fagraea racemosa Jack

Scientific names Common names
Fagraea malayana Mart. Baagu (Bag.)
Fagraea pauciflora (King & Gamble) Ridl. Bagontapai (Mbo.)
Fagraea racemosa Jack Bakau (Tag.)
Fagraea thwaitesii F. Muell. Bogosala (S. L. Bis.)
Willughbeia racemosa Spreng. Bulobuaya (P. Bis.)
Willughbeia volubilis Spreng. Himbubuya (P. Bis.)
  Kabal (Tag.)
  Kukodmon (Bik.)
  Lambuaya (P. Bis.)
  Libakan (Tag.)
  Magusayak (Sul.)
  Makatiguga (Sub.)
  Malabuaya (P. Bis.)
  Poñgabu (Mbo.)
  Sinalas (Sub.)
  Talob-anak (Tag.)
  False coffee tree (Engl.)
Fagraea racemosa Jack is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BORNEO: Todopon puok.
INDONESIAN: Taji ayam, Melingu.
JAVANESE: Engkudug blang.
MALAY: Setabal.
THAI: Phawa nam.

Kabal is a tree growing about 6 meters or more in height. Leaves are opposite, very leathery, oblong ovate or ovate, 15 to 33 centimeters in length, 8 to 18 centimeters in width, rounded or somewhat heart-shaped at the base, and pointed at the tip. Stipules form a cup around the stem on which the leaves are borne. Flowers are borne in clusters on terminal inflorescences which are often 20 to 30 centimeters in length. Corolla is white, funnel-shaped, about 2.5 to 3 centimeters in diameter, with 5 prominent lobes. Fruit is a broadly ovoid or rounded berry, about 1 centimeter in diameter, containing many seeds and borne in good sized bunches.

- In primary forests at low and medium altitudes.
- Common in Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, Albay, and Sorsogon Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindanao, Palawan, Balabac, Polilo, Biliran, Samar, Sibuyan, Leyte, Panay, Negros, Cebu, Bohol, Mindanao and Basilan.
- Also occurs in Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, throughout most of the Malaysian area, to northern Australia.

- Study isolated lignans of (+)-pinoresinol, (+)-epipinoresinol, (+)-lariciresinol and (+)-isolariciresinol together with phenols syringaldehyde and 7,8-dihydro-7-oxy-coniferyl alcohol. (See study below) (2)
- Study yield an unusual new terpene alkaloid fagraeoside. (6)

- Antidote, febrifuge, tonic.
- Studies suggest anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective properties.

Parts used
Bark, flowers, leaves, roots.


- In the Philippines, bark and flowers are used as antidote for snake bites.
- Decoction of roots used as tonic after fever, for pains in the loins, and for coughs.
- Compound of decoction of leaves with santol leaves (Sandoricum koetjape), drunk as a tonic.
- Pounded roots used for poulticing ulcerations in the nose.
- Decoction of leaves used as medicinal bath for fevers in children.
- Boiled leaves used for dropsy.
- Leaf fomentation used for rheumatism.
- Bark used as application for pains associated with miscarriages.
- In India, root-bark used as febrifuge.
- In Malaysia, preparation of fresh roots used to relieve pain.
- In Malaya, roots used as tonic after fevers.
- Fuel: Wood used as firewood.
- Timber:
Used for general construction and combs. (4)
- Wood tar used to blacken teeth.
- In Papua New Guinea, leaves used for sealing ovens and for wrapping food. (4)
- Used as live fence.

Fagraeoside / Anti-Inflammatory:
Study of stem bark isolated a new terpene alkaloid, fagraeoside, along with secologanoside. Fagraeoside inhibited the production of PGE2 (prostaglandin E2) in murine fibroblasts. It also showed low to moderate activity in anti-acetylcholinesterase screening. (1)
Analgesic / Vasorelaxant: Study showed relaxation effect on norepinephrine (NE)-induced contraction in rat aortic strips. The lignan (+)-pinoresinol showed dose-dependent analgesic effect on writhing symptoms in mice. (2)
Hepatoprotective / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective ability of F. racemosa methanolic leaf extract against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. Results showed FR leaves methanolic extract can protect the liver from free radicals generated by CCl4. (5)


Updated November 2017 / March 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Rutaceae : Lunasia amara det. Derek D. Cabactulan / Flowering twig / Copyright © 2013 by  Alma P. Gamil (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL75188] / Non-Commercial Use / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Fagraea racemosa / flower closeup / Photo by Dolores Fugina / click on photo to see source image / Top Tropicals

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Phytochemical Study of Fagraea spp. Uncovers a New Terpene Alkaloid with Anti-Inflammatory Properties / Suciati, Lynette K. Lambert, Benjamin P. Ross, Myrna A. Deseo, Mary J. Garson / Australian Journal of Chemistry, Vol 64, No 4, 2011/ DOI 10.1071/CH10421
Pharmacologically active components of todopon puok (Fagraea racemosa), a medicinal plant from Borneo / Okuyama,E., Suzumura,K.,Yamazaki,M./ Chem Pharm Bull 43:2200-2204,1995.
Plants with central analgesic activity / R N Almeida, D S Navarro, J M Barbosa-Filho / Phytomedicine 8(4): 310-322, 2001
Fagraea racemosa / Common names / World Agroforestry
Fagraea racemosa leaf extract inhibits oxidative stress-induced liver damage in Wistar rats / Eva Rachmi, Yudanti Riastiti / Health Science Journal of Indonesia, Vol 2, No 1 Apr (2011) > Rachmi
New chemistry from South East Asian medicinal plants / Rudiyansyah , Suciati, LK Lambert, BP Ross, MJ Garson / Planta Med 2009; 75 - L2 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0029-1234236
Fagraea racemosa Jack / Synonyms / The Plant List

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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