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Family Rutaceae
Kalamansi
Citrus x microcarpa Bunge
CHINESE ORANGE

Gan

Scientific names Common names
x Citrofortunella microcarpa (Bunge) Wijnands Aldonisis (Tag.)
x Citrofortunella mitis (Blanco) J. Ingram & H.E. Moore Calamonding (P. Bis.)
Citrofortunella mitis (Blanco) J. Ingram & H.E. Moore Calamunding (Pamp.)
Citrus x microcarpa Bunge Kalamondin (Tag.)
Citrus x mitis Blanco Chinese orange (Engl.)
Citrus x mitis f. gekkitsu Hayata Calamondin (Engl.)
Citrus x mitis f. shikikitsu Hayata Calamondin orange (Engl.)
  Kalamansi lime (Engl.)
  Panama orange (Engl.)
  Philippine lime (Engl.)
Citrus × microcarpa Bunge is an unresolved name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Jin ju, Si ji ju, Yue ju, Gan.
DANISH: Stueappelsin.
FINNISH : Kalamondiini.
GERMAN : Zwergapfelsine.
JAPANESE: Karamonjin, Shiki kitsu, Tou kin kan.
MALAY : Limau chuit, Limau kesturi, Jeruk kasturi, Jeruk peres, Jeruk potong (Indonesia).
THAI: Manao wan, Som chit, Som mapit.
VIETNAMESE : Tâc, Hanh.

Botany
Kalamansi is a smooth and slightly spiny plant, growing to a height of 3 to 5 meters. Leaflets are elliptic to oblong-elliptic, 4 to 8 centimeters long. Petioles are very narrowly or scarcely winged, about 1 centimeter long. Flowers are axillary, solitary, rarely in pairs, white, and short-stalked. Fruit is yellow when ripe, nearly spherical, 2 to 3.5 centimeters diameter, 6- to 7-celled, and thin-skinned. The skin or peel is green to yellowish green or yellow, loosely adhering to the flesh. The flesh contains a few light orange seeds.

Distribution
- Widely cultivated in the Philippines.
- The species is native to the Philippines.

Constituents
- Leaves yield volatile oil, 0.9 to 1.06%.
- Rind yields aldehydes; sesquiterpenes; beta-pinene; linalool; linelyl acetate; tannin; glucoside; cyanogenetic substances.

- Study on the volatile constituents of calamondin peel or whole fruit essential oil yielded 54 compounds, including 13 monoterpenes, 7 monoterpene alcohols, 1 monoterpene oxide, 4 monoterpene aldehydes, 2 monoterpene ketones, 4 monoterpene esters, 12 sesquiterpenes, 3 alipathic alcohols, 6 alipathic aldehydes, and 2 alipathic esters, with limonene and ß-myrcene as major compounds. (see study below) (15)

Properties
- Aromatic, antiseptic, antiphlogistic, carminative, deodorant, refrigerant.
- Studies have suggested antimicrobial, antianxiety, antidepressant, hepatoprotective, expectorant, antioxidant properties.


Parts used
Fruit, leaves, roots.

Uses
Culinary / Nutrition
- It is fairly sour and is a popular seasoning for many local food.
- Served with iced-tea, seafoods and meats.
- Also used for making juice and marmalade.
- Kalamnsi-ade is a rich source of vitamin C
- Condiment: Use rind and fruit.
Folkloric
- For an aromatic bath, juice mixed with gogo.
- Warm kalamansi-ade drunk for cough, colds and sore throat.
- For nausea and fainting, rind is squeezed near nostril to inhale.
- Applied externally for itching.
- Higaonon tribe of Mindanao use decoction of leaves to lower hypertension. Juice from partly roasted fruits used for coughs and colds. (10)
- Fruits crushed with bark of Entada phaseoloides used as hair shampoo, for itching and to stimulate hair growth.
- Juice of fruit used for Acne vulgaris and Pruritis vulvae.
- In Malaysia, used as an antidote for poison.
- Poultice of pandanus leaves, mixed with salt and juice of citrus microcarpa, for abscesses.
- In Malaya, combined with pepper to help expel phlegm.
- Root used at childbirth.
- Leaf oil used as carminative, with a effect stronger than peppermint oil.
- Fruits crushed with bark of Entada phaseoloides used as hair shampoo, for itching and to stimulate hair growth.
Others
- Bleaching agent: Cut fruit and apply directly on freckles.
- Stain Remover / Shampoo: Juice is used to remove ink stains from clothes and washing women's hair. Also used for bleaching freckles.

- Insect repellent: The Ayta people of Porac, Pampanga burn the leaves as insect repellent.



Studies
Antimicrobial:
Antimicrobial properties of tropical plants against 12 pathogenic bacteria isolated from aquatic organisms: A study on the antibacterial activity of 9 tropical plants against 12 clinical and pathogenic bacterial strains including Vibrio cholera, Escherichia coli, Vibro parahemolytics, Salmonella and Streptococcus sp. showed activity against one or more species of bacteria. Citrus microcarpa was one of the most active. (1)
Antimicrobial: Paper described the potential of A. sativum and Citrus microcarpa extracts as alternative antimicrobial agents for local edible frog culture industry.
Antimicrobial / Aquaculture: Study isolated 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid from the crude extract of C microcarpa. The study results suggest that both the crude extract and its bioactive component might have potential as an antimicrobial in aquaculture use. (2)
Antianxiety / Antidepressive: Study provides evidence that the smelling of essential oils of C hystrix and C microcarpa confer anxiolytic effect. It concludes that essential oils of the Citrus family may affect behavior. (3)
Hepatoprotective: Kalamansi peel extract exhibited hepatoprotective activity against Acetaminophen-induced liver disease in male SD rats, comparable to commercially available silymarin preparations. (5)
Expectorant / Seeds: Seeds yield alkaloid, carbohydrates and protein. An alkaloidal extractive was incorporated to the formula of the final product which is an expectorant syrup was based on the ipecac syrup. (7)
D-Limonene / Seeds: Study tested the effectiveness of citrus oil d-limonene extracted from calamansi (Citrus microcarpa) rind in dissolving expanded polystyrene foam. (9)
Musk Lime Seeds / Oil: Study showed musk lime seeds are a rich source of oil, unusual in having linoleic, ol3ci and palmitic acids dominating the fatty acid composition. The oil is relatively stable to thermal oxidation due to its high concentration of unsaturated fatty acids. (8)
Citrus Antioxidants: Study showed C. microcarpa contained a high amount of phloretin-3′,5′-di-C-glucopyranoside that was shown to possess a high Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Ratio (TEAR) value due to its 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone structure. Essential oils obtained from all citrus fruits showed very high radical-scavenging activity against the DPPH radical, well in excess that in leaves. (11)
Comparative Antimicrobial Activity / Citrus Peels: Study compared the antibacterial properties of methanol extracts of five varieties of citrus peels (Citrus aurantifolia, C. reticulata, C. microcarpa, C. limon, and C. sinensis) against Streptococcus pyogenes, S. aureus, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa. At 20 mg/ml, the methanol extract of Citrus microcarpa, C. reticulata and C. sinensis showed better inhibition against S. aureus and E. coli compared to C. auratifolia and C. limon. Citrus peel extracts showed better antifungal activity than antibacterial activity. (12)
Larvicidal Against Dengue Virus Vector Ae. aegypti: Study evaluated four Philippine plants species, Citrus microcarpa (calamansi), Chromolaena odorata (hagonoy), Nephelium lappaceum (rambutan), and Jasminum sambac (sampaguita) for larvicidal activity against third instar larvae of dengue mosquito, Aedes aegypti. C. microcarpa, the 500 ppm ethanolic extract from C. microcarpa provided 24-hr mortality of 80%, slightly lower than 100% mortality obtained in black pepper. C. microcarpa may be considered as a possible larvicide substitute to Ae. aegypti if other biological means are not available. (13)
Potential Hemostatic / Extracted Pectin / Peels: Study evaluated the production of potential hemostatic agents from extracted pectin of calamansi peels blended with polyethylene oxide. Results suggest the pectin/polyethylene oxide blends exhibits hemostatic properties. Also, as radiation dose and pectin concentration increased, the blood clotting ability of the samples also increased. (14)
Essential Oils / Whole Fruit and Peel: Study evaluated the volatile constituents of calamondin peel or whole fruit by cold pressing, steam distillation, or hot water treatment. Hot water heating increased the yields of essential oils from both whole fruit and peel. Whole fruit oil yielded higher levels of monoterpene alcohols, such as linalool, terpinen-4-ol, and a-terpineol, which may contribute to the aroma profile of fruit tea. Peel oil yields higher contents of sesquiterpenes, such as germacrene D. (see constituents above) (15)

Availability
Wild-crafted.
Perennial market produce.

Last Updated July 2016

Photos ©Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Antimicrobial properties of tropical plants against 12 pathogenic bacteria isolated from aquatic organisms / Lee Seong Wei et al / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 7 (13), pp. 2275-2278, 4 July, 2008

(2)
Antimicrobial Property of 2-Hydroxypropane-1,2,3-Tricarboxylic Acid Isolated from Citrus microcarpa Extract / Seong Wei Lee and Musa Najlah / Agricultural Sciences in China • Volume 8, Issue 7, July 2009, Pages 880-886 / doi:10.1016/S1671-2927(08)60291-6
(3)
Antianxiety and Antidepressive Effects of Essential Oils of Citrus Spp in Mice / Che Rugayah et al / ArticlesBase.com

(4)
Calamondin / Morton, J. 1987. Calamondin. p. 176–178. In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, FL.
(5)
Evaluation of the hepatoprotective activity of Citrus microcarpa Bunge (Family Rutaceae) fruit peel against acetaminophen-induced liver damage in male BFAD- Sprague Dawley rats / Casimiro, Marifel Franchesca, Margarita Gutierrez, Danice Romagne Leano, Judilynn N. Solidum / International Journal of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, December 2010, Volume 1, No.2
(6)
Biological Activities of C. microcarpa and Allium sativum against Edwardsiella spp., a Edible Frog Pathogen
/ Lee Seong Wei, Najiah Musa, Wendy Wee et al / Bai du
(7)
An expectorant syrup from kalamansi (Citrus microcarpa) seeds
/ DOST SciNET-PHIL
(8)
Characterisation of musk lime (Citrus microcarpa) seed oil / Manaf YantyNA, Osman Azizah, Lai OiM, Long Kamariah, Ghazali HasanahM / Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture [2008, 88(4):676-683]
(9)
D-limonene from calamansi (Citrus microcarpa) rind extract:An effective dissolution agent of expanded polystyrene foam / Tecson, N.O. / National Science Fair 2005
(10)
Medicinal Plants Used by the Higaonon Tribe of Rogongon, Iligan City, Mindanao, Philippines / Lilybeth F. Olowa, Mark Anthony J. Torres, Eduardo C. Aranico and Cesar G. Demayo / Advances in Environmental Biology, 6(4): 1442-1449, 2012
(11)
Tropical citrus antioxidants and catabolism of phenolics in green tea, coffee, cocoa and orange juice /
Roowi, Suri (2008) / PhD thesis / University of Glasgow.
(12)
COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF CITRUS VARIETIES AVAILABLE IN MALAYSIA MARKET / MAHENDRAN SEKAR* et al / Int J Curr Pharm Res, Vol 5, Issue 4, 32-35
(13)
Larvicidal activity of four Philippine plants against Dengue virus vector Aedes aegypti(Linn.) / Student Researchers: Lee Marvin C. De Villa, Mary Joy A. Abantes, Merlina C. Asi, Noelyn Joy C. Balmeo, Alyssa Monique D. Bustillo, Eunice M. Calangi&Lhuvie Jean R. Cruzado / THE STETH VOLUME 6, 2012
(14)
Potential hemostatic agent based on extracted pectin from calamansi peels (Citrus microcarpa) blende with polyethylene oxide / Vista, Jeanina Richelle M. / Thesis/Dissertation / Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila (Philippines) / Publication year 2015
(15)
Effects of hot water treatment effects on the essential oils of calamondin / Hsin-Chun Chen, Li-Wen Peng, Ming-Jen Sheu, Li-Yun Lin, Hsiu-Mei Chiang, Chun-Ta Wu, Chin-Sheng Wu, Yu-Chang Chen* / journal of food and drug analysis 21 (2013) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfda.2013.08.003
(16)
A survey of plants used as repellents against hematophagous insects by the Ayta people of Porac, Pampanga province, Philippines / Jasper John A. Obico* and Elena M. Ragragio / Philippine Science Letters Vol. 7, No. 1, 2014

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