Kalamansi is a smooth and slightly
spiny plant, growing to a height of 3 to 5 meters. Leaflets are elliptic
to oblong-elliptic, 4 to 8 centimeters long. Petioles are very narrowly or scarcely
winged, about 1 centimeter long. Flowers are axillary, solitary, rarely in pairs,
white, and short-stalked. Fruit is yellow when ripe, nearly spherical,
2 to 3.5 centimeters diameter, 6- to 7-celled, and thin-skinned. The skin or
peel is green to yellowish green or yellow, loosely adhering to the
flesh. The flesh contains a few light orange seeds.
- Widely cultivated in the
- The species is native to the Philippines.
- Leaves yield volatile oil, 0.9
Rind yields aldehydes; sesquiterpenes; beta-pinene; linalool; linelyl acetate;
tannin; glucoside; cyanogenetic substances.
Aromatic, antiseptic, antiphlogistic,
carminative, deodorant, refrigerant.
Fruit, leaves, roots.
Culinary and nutrition
- It is fairly sour and
is a popular seasoning for many local food.
- Served with iced-tea, seafoods and meats.
- Also used for making juice and marmalade.
- Kalamnsi-ade is a rich source of vitamin C
- Condiment: Use rind and fruit.
- Aromatic bath: Mix juice with gogo.
- Cough, colds and sore throat: Drink warm kalamansi-ade.
- Nausea and fainting: Squeeze rind near nostril to inhale.
- Applied externally for itching.
- Higaonon tribe of Mindanao use decoction of leaves to lower hypertension. Juice from partly roasted fruits used for coughs and colds.
Fruits crushed with bark of Entada phaseoloides used as hair shampoo,
for itching and to stimulate hair growth.
- Juice of fruit used for Acne vulgaris and Pruritis vulvae.
- In Malaysia, used as an antidote for poison.
- Poultice of pandanus leaves, mixed with salt and juice of citrus microcarpa,
- In Malaya, combined with pepper to help
- Root used at childbirth.
- Leaf oil used as carminative, with a effect stronger than peppermint oil.
- Bleaching agent: Cut fruit and apply directly on freckles.
- Stain Remover / Shampoo: Juice is used to remove ink stains from clothes and washing women's
hair. Also used for bleaching freckles.
- Fruits crushed with bark of Entada phaseoloides used as hair shampoo,
for itching and to stimulate hair growth.
• Antimicrobial: Antimicrobial properties of tropical plants
against 12 pathogenic bacteria isolated from aquatic organisms:
A study on the antibacterial activity of 9 tropical plants against 12
clinical and pathogenic bacterial strains including Vibrio cholera,
Escherichia coli, Vibro parahemolytics, Salmonella and Streptococcus
sp. showed activity against one or more species of bacteria. Citrus
microcarpa was one of the most active. (1)
• Antimicrobial: Paper described the potential of A. sativum and Citrus microcarpa extracts as alternative antimicrobial agents for local edible frog culture industry.
• Antimicrobial / Aquaculture: Study isolated 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid from the crude extract of C microcarpa. The study results suggest that both the crude extract and its bioactive component might have potential as an antimicrobial in aquaculture use. (2)
• Antianxiety / Antidepressive: Study provides evidence that the smelling of essential oils of C hystrix and C microcarpa confer anxiolytic effect. It concludes that essential oils of the Citrus family may affect behavior. (3)
• Hepatoprotective: Kalamansi peel extract exhibited hepatoprotective activity against Acetaminophen-induced liver disease in male SD rats, comparable to commercially available silymarin preparations. (5)
• Expectorant / Seeds: Seeds yield alkaloid, carbohydrates and protein. An alkaloidal extractive was incorporated to the formula of the final product which is an expectorant syrup was based on the ipecac syrup. (7)
• D-Limonene / Seeds: Study tested the effectiveness of citrus oil d-limonene extracted from calamansi (Citrus microcarpa) rind in dissolving expanded polystyrene foam. (9)
• Musk Lime Seeds / Oil: Study showed musk lime seeds are a rich source of oil, unusual in having linoleic, ol3ci and palmitic acids dominating the fatty acid composition. The oil is relatively stable to thermal oxidation due to its high concentration of unsaturated fatty acids. (8)
• Citrus Antioxidants: Study showed C. microcarpa contained a high amount of phloretin-3′,5′-di-C-glucopyranoside that was shown to possess a high Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Ratio (TEAR) value due to its 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone structure. Essential oils obtained from all citrus fruits showed very high radical-scavenging activity against the DPPH radical, well in excess that in leaves. (11)
Perennial market produce.