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Family Asteraceaew
Pluchea indica (Linn.) Less.
Luan xi

Scientific names Common names
Baccharis indica Linn. Banig-banig (Sul.)
Conyza corymbosa Roxb. Bauing-bauing (Sul.)
Conyza foliolosa Wall. ex DC. Kalapini (Tag.)
Conyza indica (L.) Blune ex DC. Lagunding-late (Sbl., Tag.)
Erigeron denticulatum Burm.f. Tulo-lalaki (P. Bis.)
Erigeron denticulatus Burm.f. Indian camphorweed (Engl.)
Pluchea indica (L.) Less. Indian pulchea (Engl.)
  Marsh fleabane (Engl.)
Pluchea indica (L.) Less. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other verNnacular names
CAMBODIA: Pros anlok.
CHINESE: Ge za shu, Kuo bao ju, Luan yi.
GERMAN:Indische puche.
INDIA: Kukronda.
INDONESIAN: Beluntas (Indonesian), Luntas (Javanese), Baruntas (Sundanese).
LAOTIAN: Nat luat, Me jay ma.
MALAYSIAN: Beluntas, Beluntas paya.
THAI: Khlu, Kloo, Nuat ngua, naat wua.
VIETNAMESE: C[us]c t[aaf]n, l[as] l[uws]c, Phat pha, Tu bi.

Kalapini is an erect, much-branched shrub, 1 to 2 meters in height. Leaves are oblong-ovate to oblong-elliptic and 1.5 to 4 centimeters long, with pointed or blunt tip, wedge-shaped base, and slightly and irregularly toothed margins. Inflorescence is a compound, terminal, slightly hairy corymb 5 to 11 centimeters long. Numerous heads are about 5 millimeters long. Involucral bracts are ovate, with the inner ones gradually longer. Flowers are numerous, and pink-purple or lilac. Achenes are minute and ribbed; the pappus is white, scanty, and spreading.

- From northern Luzon to Mindanao, along the seashore and tidal streams within the influence of salt or brackish water.
- Also occurs in India to China and Malaysia.

- Yields an essential oil.
- Nutrient analysis of leaves yielded (g/100 g) water 87.53 g, protein 1.79 g, fat 0.49 g, ash 0.20 g, insoluble dietary fiber 0.89 g, soluble dietary fiver 0.45 g, total dietary fiber 1.34 %, carbohydrate 8.65 g, calcium 251 mg, ß-carotene 1,225 µg/100g, vitamin C 30.17 µg/100g. (23)
- Study of leaves for bioactive compounds (mg/100 g fresh leaves) yielded total phenolic acids 28.48 ±0.67, chlorogenic acid 20.00 ±0.24, caffeic acid 8.65 ±0.46; total flavonoids 6.39, quercetin 5.21 ±0.26, kaempferol 0.28 ±0,02, myricetin 0.09 ±0.03; total anthocyanins 0.27 ±0.01, ß-carotene 1.70 ±0.05, total carotenoids 8.74 ±0.34. (23)
- Study of Khlu leaves for antioxidant activity yielded total phenols 0.831 ±0.129 mg/GAE/ g fw, total flavonoids 6.39 ±0.27 mg/g fw, DPPH 96.4 ±15.2 µmole TE/ g fw; ABTS 3.75 ±0.16 µmole TE/g fw, ferric reducing 81.1 ±0.6 µmole TE/ g fw, % inhibition of lipid peroxidation 98.5 ±0.4. (23)
- GC-MS study for volatile compounds of Pluchea indica essential oil yielded 66 compounds with (10S11S)-Himachala-3-(12)-4-diene (17.13%) representing the highest proportion. Total phenol levels were 275 ppm. (45)

- Leaves possess a natural sweet taste and astringent flavor. (23)
- Astringent, antipyretic.
- Studies suggest anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, gastroprotective, antivenom, antioxidant, CNS depressant, hepatoprotective properties.

Parts used
Roots, leaves.


- In Thailand, leaves used as culinary herb. Khlu tea available as a health-promoting drink. (23)
- In
Java, young shoots, leaves, and inflorescences, raw or cooked, consumed as side dish to rice, as salad, or as ingredients of soup. .
- In India, roots and leaves used medicinally as astringents and antipyretics.
- In Indo-China, decoction of roots used in fevers as diaphoretic; infusion of leaves for lumbago.
- In South-East Asia and Thailand, leaves are used as nerve tonic and for treating inflammation.
- Decoction of bark used for hemorrhoids.
- In
Thai folk medicine, khlu is used for treatment of kidney stones (stem), hemorrhoids (bark), inflammation, lumbago, and leucorrhea (leaves). (23) Used for treatment of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, tumors hypertension, cystitis, and wounds. (41)
- Decoction of roots or leaves used for treating fever, headaches, rheumatism, sprains, dysentery, and dyspepsia. Used in baths to treat scabies. (29)

- In
Lao folk medicine, for red and painful eyes from dust, lukewarm decoction of leaves used as eye wash. (46)

Anti-Inflammatory / Roots:
Study of methanolic fraction of chloroform extract of defatted Pluchea indica roots showed significant inhibitory activity against carrageenan-, histamine-, serotonin-, hyaluronidase- and sodium urate-induced pedal inflammation. Results establish the extract efficacy in exudative, proliferative and chronic stages of inflammation. (1)
Phenolic Content: Study showed a significant difference in the total phenolic content among different parts of the tested plant. Leaves contained the highest phenolic compounds, followed by the stems, and lower in the flowers. (2)
Antimicrobial: An aqueous extract was tested against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Results showed zone of inhibition against E coli and K pneumonia. Result showed a possibility of using P. indica as an alternative therapy in the treatment of urinary tract infections. (3)
Gastroprotective: The methanolic fraction of P. indica root extract was found to possess significant antiulcer activity in different experimental animal models. It showed significant protective actions in acetylsalicylic acid, serotonin and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions in experimental rats. (4)
Antioxidant / Root: Study on P. indica root extract showed significant anti-inflammatory activity against glucose oxidase-induced paw edema, inhibition of hydroxyl radical and superoxide generation, CCl4-induced lipid peroxidation and dioxygenase activity. (5)
Snake Venom Neutralization: Studies on antidotes for snake envenomation has shown Pluchea indica as one of several herbal plants that possess moderate neutralizing activity against snake venom. (6)
Viper and Cobra Venom Neutralization: Study reports the neutralization of viper and cobra venom by b-sitosterol and stigmasterol isolated from the root extract of P. indica. Study suggests beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol may play an important role, along with antiserum, in neutralizing snake venom-induced actions. (7) Study evaluated methanol root extracts of Hemidesmus indicus and Pluchea indica for neutralization of snake venom activity. The root extracts significantly neutralized viper venom-induced lethality and hemorrhagic activity in albino rat and mouse. Venom-induced coagulant and anticoagulant activity was also antagonized by both extracts. (30)
CNS Depressant: Study of root extract showed a potent CNS depressant action with alteration of behaviour pattern, reduction in spontaneous motility, prolongation of pentobarbitone-induced sleep, suppression of aggressive behaviour patters and conditioned avoidance response. (8)
Anti-Inflammatory / Antioxidant: : Study assessed the inhibitory effect of P. indica on croton oil-induced mouse ear edema, lipid hydroperoxide, and in vitro lipid peroxidation. Results showed the methanolic fraction of root extract possessed significant anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. (11)
Antioxidant / Anticholinesterase: A methanolic extract of stems was found to have both anti-AChe properties and moderate antioxidant activity. Anticholinesterase inhibitors are one of the treatment options in Alzheimer's disease. (12)
Antioxidant / Herbal Tea: Study showed a hot water extract of P. indica leaves is a source of antioxidants and inhibitors of NO and PGE2 production and can be used as dietary supplement with health promoting effect. (13)
PITC II / Anticancer: PITC-2 is a new thiophene compound obtained from P. indica cultured plant. Synthesized monoamine derivatives showed in in-vitro studies to have anticancer and cytotoxic effects against human leukemic cell lines. (14)
Mosquitocidal / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the mosquitocidal activity of essential oil of Pluchea indica against larvae and eggs of Aedes aegypti, A. albopictus, Anopheles stephensi, A. subpictus and Culex quinquefasciatus. Results showed various degrees of ovicidal activity that increased with concentration. Results lead the path for exploration of P. indica for the eradication of selected medically important human vector mosquitoes. (15)
Anti-Cancer / Leaf and Root: Crude aqueous extracts of P. indica leaf and root suppressed proliferation, viability, and migration of GBM8401 and HeLa cells. In vitro anti-cancer effects of crude leaf and root extract show potential as a new anti-cancer agent. (16)
Corrosion Inhibition / Leaf Extract: Study investigated the inhibition of low carbon steel in 3.5% NaCl of Pluchea indica leaves extract. Results showed the extract to behave as a mixed type corrosion inhibitor. (17)
Anti-Diabetic / Increased Insulin Release: A previous study showed a crude extract to lower blood glucose in hypoglycemic test on normal rats. Study of glibenclamide-treated, hexane, dichlormethane and water extract treated groups showed ß-cell effect with increase insulin release. (18)
α-Glucosidase Inhibition / Increased Insulin Release: Pluchea indica leaf extracts have inhibitory activity against intestinal maltase. Study suggests a potential for P. indica as functional food and medical supplement for the treatment and prevention of diabetes. (19)
Hepatoprotective / Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Fibrosis: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of root of Pluchea indica on a TAA-induced liver fibrosis mouse model. Results showed an anti-fibrotic effect. (20)
Anti-Inflammatory / Molecular Mechanism / Leaves: Study of Pluchea indica leaf extract induced showed potent inhibitory effect on nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS-induced macrophages and also inhibited PGE2 release. The extract also showed anti-inflammatory activities on acute phase of inflammation as seen in EPP (ethylphenylpropiolate)-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. (22)
PITC-2 Sub-Acute Toxicity Studies: PITC-2, a thiophen derivative isolated from the root extract of tissue-cultured P. indica showed not significant adverse effect on cellular structure. There were no abnormalities noted on sub-acute toxicity testing—no abnormalities on body weight, behavior, hematological and biochemical parameters and histopathological study. Results of toxicological studies suggest PITC-2 can be subjected to chronic toxicological studies and clinical trials. (24)
Anti-Leishmania / Roots / PITC-2: Study evaluated Pluchea indica root extracts and PITC-2 for antileishmanial activity. Results showed the ethyl acetate insoluble part showed maximum antileishmanial activity against Leishmania donovani promastigotes with EC<20µg/ml, followed by PITC-2 compound and its derivative. (25)
Antimicrobial / Thiophene Derivative PITC-2 / Roots: Study extracted a pure compound from the roots of P. indica labeled as PITC-2. The compound was evaluated for antimicrobial activity. Study showed PITC-2, a thiophene derivative, is a bacteriostatic agent. Results conclude that PITC-2, besides being an active antibacterial agent, can interfere and restrict the action of polymerase chain reaction for rebuilding new DNA strands. (26)
Apoptotic and Antiproliferative / Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells: Study evaluated the anti-cancer activity and molecular mechanisms of ethanolic extracts of roots of P. indica (PIRE). Results showed PIRE could induce the apoptosis-signaling pathway in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells by activation of p53 and by regulation of apoptosis-related proteins. (27)
Hypoglycemic / Antihyperglycemic / Toxicity Study / Leaves: Study of methanolic extract of Pluchea indica leaves in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats showed reduction in both normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats. Toxicity study showed the extract to be safe up to doses of 3.2 mg/kg body weight orally. (28)
Cytotoxicity / Effect on Cell Migration / Nanoparticles/ Oral Spray Formulation / Leaves: Study evaluated Pluchea indica leaf ethanol extract and its nanoparticles on cytotoxicity, cell survival, and migration of human oral squamous carcinoma cell line. The NPs increased the cytotoxicity of Pluchea indica leaf extract, increased the migration of cells at low concentration and increased colloidal stability of the extract in an oral spray formulation. (
Antibacterial Roll-On Deodorant / Leaves : Study evaluated the effectiveness of a roll-on deodorant as antibacterial against Staphylococcus epidermis. The P. indica leaf extract roll on deodorant showed antibacterial effect against S. epidermis. Stored at 28ºç to 30ºC for 8 weeks, it showed stability for color, odor, and homogeneity. The formulation (pH, viscosity, and SG) did not cause irritation. (
Comparative Antidiabetic Activity of Leaf Extracts: Study evaluated the effect of different solvent polarities on phytochemical content and its effect on blood glucose reduction and toxicity on laboratory animals. Results showed the water extract with most potential as anti-diabetic agent. The blood glucose reducing capability on Wistar rats was 56.37% compared to glibencladmide at 49.59%. Ethyl acetate and methanol extracts showed glucose reduction of 19.11% and 23.27%, respectively. (
Effect in Promoting Glucose Consumption on Liver Cell Line: In vitro study evaluated the potency of P. indica extracts n stimulating glucose consumption in human liver CCL--13 cell line model in rats. Results showed a methanol extract significantly increase glucose consumption of cells in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting potential for the extract as an antidiabetic agent via stimulation of glucose uptake into the liver cells. (
Anti-Inflammatory / Antinociceptive / Leaves: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of leaves for anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities using carrageenan induced edema model and acetic acid induced writhing test. The leaf extract exhibited significant and dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity at 300 mg/kg oral dose. It produced significant inhibition of abdominal constriction induced with 0.6% (v/v) acetic acid in a dose-dependent manner. (
Attenuation of Cytokine-Induced ß-Cell Apoptosis in STZ-induced Diabetic Mice / Leaves: Loss of ß-cell mass and function is a fundamental feature in the pathogenesis of type 1 and 2 diabetes. Study showed pretreated mice exhibited improved blood chemistry, maintained higher body weight, decreased hyperglycemia, and restored islet architecture in STZ-induced diabetic mice. The extract significantly decreased levels of inflammatory response markers. Survival and anti-proliferative ability of ß-cells was mediated by up-regulated Bcl-2 and Ki67, respectively. Results suggest pretreatment effectively attenuated STZ-induced diabetes related symptoms. Effects could be associated with inhibition of cytokine-induced ß-cell apoptosis. (
Inhibition of Proliferation and Induction of Autophagy in Human Glioblastoma Cells: Study evaluated the anticancer activity of a hexane fraction of P. indica root extract in human glioblastoma cells. Results showed suppression of growth of glioblastoma cells in a dose-dependent manner, markedly decreased the population of cells in S and G2/M phases. The combination of H-PIRE and LY2924002, a pan PI3I inhibitor, further decreased cell viability, suggesting an additive anticancer effect. Results showed the hexane fraction of the root extract suppressed proliferation of glioblastoma cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and autophagy. (
Viability Test on In Vitro Fibroblast Cells / Leaves: Study evaluated the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) and viability effect of ethanol extract of beluntas leaves on fibroblast cell cultures in vitro. Results showed significant difference in cytotoxicity effect between concentrations of ethanol extract of leaves on fibroblast cell cultures in vitro. IC50 value of 7.81 µg/ml did not affect cell viability, thus, suggesting safety. (
Effect on Adipogenesis / 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and Lipase Activity / Tea: Study evaluated the effect P. indica tea on inhibiting adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells and pancreatic lipase enzyme activity. Results showed the PI tea was capable of inhibiting lipid and carbohydrate accumulation in adipocytes and can potentially inhibit pancreatic lipase activity. The PI tea has potential as a novel lipid-lowering herbal supplement for the management of overweight or obesity. (
Antibacterial / Leaves: Study evaluated the antibacterial activity of Pluchea indica leaves extract against Enterococcus faecalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum bacteria. Results showed strong and moderate antibacterial effects of the leaf extract on E. faecalis at concentrations of 100% and 50%, and on F. nucleatum only with moderate effect at 100% concentration. (
Caffeoylquinic Acids / Leaves: Study reports on a HPTLC method for the quantitative analysis of chlorogenic acid, 3,4-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid in P. indica leaf extract and their commercial products in Thailand. Results suggest that plantation of P. indica in coastal saline land would be beneficial as it can increase the concentration of active compounds and improved its medicinal quality. (
Antimycobacterial Activity Against Multi-Drug Resistant TB: Study compared the antimycobacterial activity of five selected Indonesian endogenous medicinal plants viz. Andrographis paniculata, Annona muricata, Centella asiatica, Pluchea indica, and Rhoeo spathacea against clinical isolate of multi-drug resistant MTB. All five showed inhibitory activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain and MDR strain. Pluchea indica and Rhoeo spathacea showed good antimycobaterial activity and could be useful as complementary alternative therapy in combating the emergence of MDR strains of MTB. (
Inhibition of Caries-Causing Streptococcus mutan Bacterial Growth / Leaves: Study evaluated the ability of ethanol extract from avocado leaf and beluntas leaf in inhibiting the growth of caries-causing Streptococcus mutans. Results showed the ability of 25% beluntas leaf ethanol extract against Streptococcus mutans was more effective than other test materials and suggests potential as an alternative ingredient of antiseptic mouthwash from medicinal plants to inhibit the growth of plaque. To boot, it does not have side effects. (
Combination Effect of P. indica and Centella asiatica on Uterus and Oviduct Profile: Study showed the combination of C. asiatica and P indica in low doses affected the histology of the uterus and the oviduct by increasing the thickness of the endometrium and myometrium, the number of glands, and estrogen and progesterone levels. The combination was better than either drug alone. In low doses, it can be a fertility drug while at high doses, an antifertility drug. (


Updated March 2020 / September 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: Pluchea indica / Leaves and flowers at Kanaha Beach, Maui / Forest and Kim Starr / Plants of Hawaii / Creative Commons Attribution / alterVISTA  / Click on image to see source image
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Illustration / Pluchea indica (L.) Less. [2675-812703-101377] Degener, O., Flora Hawaiiensis, the new illustrated flora of the Hawaiian islands, (1932-1980) PlantIllustrations.org

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Antiinflammatory evaluation of a Pluchea indica root extract / T Sen and AK Nag Chaudhuri /
Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 33, Issues 1-2, May-June 1991, Pages 135-141 / doi:10.1016/0378-8741(91)90172-A
Quantification of Total Phenolics in Different Parts of Pluchea indica (Less) Ethanolic and Water Extracts / Normala H, Suhaimi M I / Pertanika J. Sci. & Technol. 19 (1): 19 – 24 (2011)
In vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Pluchea indica Aqueous Extract: The Potential for Urinary Tract Infection Treatment / ittiwet, C. / J. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 4: 87-90, 2009 / DOI: 10.3923/jpt.2009.87.90
Studies on the effects of Pluchea indica less root extract on gastroduodenal ulcer models in rats and guineapigs / Siddhartha Pal, A. K. Nag Chaudhuri / Phytotherapy Research, Vol 3, Issue 4, pages 156–158, 1989 / DOI: 10.1002/ptr.2650030410
Antioxidant activity of the methanol fraction of Pluchea indica root extract / T Sen, A K Dhara, et al / Phytotherapy Research, Volume 16, Issue 4, pages 331–335, June 2002 / DOI: 10.1002/ptr.892
SNAKE VENOM NEUTRALIZATION BY HERBAL COMPOUNDS - AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY / Prof Antony Gomes / Laboratory Of Toxinology & Experimental Pharmacodynamics, Dept Of Physiology
University Of Calcutta
Viper and cobra venom neutralization by [beta]-sitosterol and stigmasterol isolated from the root extract of Pluchea indica Less / A Gomes, Archita Saha et al / International Journal of Phytotherapy &amp; Phytopharmacology, Sept, 2007
Studies on the neuropharmacological aspects of Pluchea indica root extract / T Sen, A K Nag Chaudhuri / Phytotherapy Research, Volume 6, Issue 4, pages 175–179, July/August 1992 / DOI: 10.1002/ptr.2650060402
Pluchea indica (L.) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
Pluchea indica / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
Studies on the Methanolic Fraction of Pluchea indica on Croton Oil-induced Mouse Ear Oedema and Lipid Peroxidation / Pharmacy and Pharmacology Communications, Volume 2, Issue 9, pages 433–435, September 1996 /
DOI: 10.1111/j.2042-7158.1996.tb00650.x
Antioxidant and antiacetylcholinesterase activities of Pluchea indica Less. / Noridayu, A. R., Hii, Y. F., Faridah, A., Khozirah, S. and Lajis, N. / International Food Research Journal, 2011; 18(3): pp 925-929
Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of hot water extract from Pluchea indica Less. herbal tea / Klaokwan Srisook, Doungnapa Buapool, Rattiya Boonbai, Panadda Simmasut, Yaowaluck Charoensuk and Ekaruth Srisook / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 6(23), pp.4077-4081, 21 June, 2012
Crude aqueous extracts of Pluchea indica (L.) Less. inhibit proliferation and migration of cancer cells through induction of p53-dependent cell death / Jonathan J Cho, Chung-Lung Cho*, Chiu-Li Kao, Chien-Ming Chen, Chao-Neng Tseng, Ya-Zhe Lee, Li-Jen Liao and Yi-Ren Hong / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012, 12:265 / doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-265
Corrosion Inhibition of Low Carbon Steel by Pluchea Indica Less in 3.5% NaCL Solution / R. I. Pramana, R. Kusumastuti, Johny Wahyuadi Soedarsono, A. Rustandi / Advanced Materials Research (Volumes 785 - 786)
The effect of Pluchea Indica (L) (Beluntas) extracts on the insulin release of RIN5F cell line. / Kasmuri, Abdul Razak and Bakhtiar, Muhammad Taher and Suriyah, Wastuti / 26th Scientific Meeting of Malaysian Society of Pharmacology & Physiology, 18-20 may 2012, Equatorial Hotel, Penang.
Identification of α-glucosidase inhibitors from the leaves of Pluchea indica (L.) Less., a traditional Indonesian herb: promotion of natural product use / Kawabata, Jun; Ines Septi, Arsiningtyas; Maria D.P.T., Gunawan-Puteri; Eisuke, Kato / http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.987071
Hepatoprotective Effects of Pluchea indica (L.) Less. Aqueous Extract against Thioacetamide-induced Liver Fibrosis in Mice / Wu, Li-chuan / 2009 / Thesis and Dissertation
Pluchea indica / Synonyms / The Plant List
Molecular mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity of Pluchea indica leaves in macrophages RAW 264.7 and its action in animal models ofinflammation. / Buapool D, Mongkol N, Chantimal J, Roytrakul S, Srisook E, Srisook K. / J Ethnopharmacol. 2013 Mar 27;146(2): pp 495-504 / doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.01.014.
Nutrition, Health Benefits and Applications of Pluchea indica (L.) Less Leaves / O. Suriyaphan / Mahidol University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2014; 41(4): pp 1-10

Isolation, Characterization and Sub-acute Toxicity Studies of a New Compound PITC-2 Isolated from Tissue-Cultured Medicinal Plant, Pluchea indica (L.) Less / Kartick Chandra Pramanik • Tapan Kumar Chatterjee / International Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences 3 (1), 50-54
Ethanolic Extracts of Pluchea indica Induce Apoptosis and Antiproliferation Effects in Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells / Chiu-Li Kao, Joshua Cho, Ya-Zhe Lee, Yuan-Bin Cheng, Chih-Yen Chien, Chung-Feng Hwang, Yi-Ren Hong, Chao-Neng Tseng,* and Chung-Lung Cho / Molecules, 2015, 20(6): pp 11508-11523 / doi:10.3390/molecules200611508
Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of leaf extract of pluchea indica Less / Pramanik Kartick Chandra; Bhattacharya Plaban; Biswas Ria; Bandyopadhyay Durba; Mishra Moumita; Chatterjee TK / Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine, Vol 6, Issue 3 (2006): pp 232-236 / DOI : 10.3742/OPEM.2006.6.3.232
Pluchea indica / Ken Fern: Tropical Plants Database / Useful Tropical Plants
Viper venom neutralization by Indian medicinal plant (Hemidesmus indicus and Pluchea indica) root extracts /  M I Alam, B Auddy, A Gomes / Phytotherapy Research, 10(1) / https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(199602)10:1<58::AID-PTR775>3.0.CO
Wound healing activity of Pluchea indica leaf extract in oral mucosal cell line and oral spray formulation containing nanoparticles of the extract / Wiphupat Buranasukhon, Sirivan Athikomkulchai, Sarin Tadtong & Chuda Chittasupho / Pharmaceutical Biology, 2017; 55(1): pp 1767-1774 / https://doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2017.1326511
Antibacterial activity roll on deodorant with Pluchea indica(L.) leaf extract against Staphylococcus epidermidis (Evans 1916 ) in vitro /  and /
Evaluation Antidiabetic Activity of Various Leaf Extracts of Pluchea indica Less / Paini Sri Widyawati, Tarsisius Dwi Wibawa Budianta, Dian Ivan Gunawan, Ribka Stefanie Wongso / International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 2015; 7(3): pp 597-603
In vitro Evaluation of the Effect pf Pluchea indica Extracts in Promoting Glucose Consumption Activity on A Liver Cell Line / Wastuti H Suriyah, Solachuddin J A Ichwan, Abdul R Kasmuri, Muhammad Taher / Makara Journal of Health Research / DO: https://doi/org/10.7454/msk.v23i1.10153
Ethanolic extracts of Pluchea indica (L.) leaf pretreatment attenuates cytokine-induced β-cell apoptosis in multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice / Jongdee Nopparat, Aekkaraj Nualla-ong, Amornrat Phongdara / PLOS ONE / https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0212133
Hexane fraction of Pluchea indica root extract inhibits proliferation and induces autophagy in human glioblastoma cells / Chung-Lung Cho, Ya-Zhe Lee, Chao-Neng Tseng, Joshua Cho  Yuan-Bin Cheng, Kuo‑Wei Wang, Han-Jung Chen, Shean-Jaw Chiou, Chia-Hua Chou, Yi-Ren Hong / Biomedical Reports / https://doi.org/10.3892/br.2017.979
Viability test of ethanol extract of beluntas (pluchea indica) leaves on In vitrofibroblast cells / Rani Wula Sari, Natalia Pranata, Vinna Kurniawati Sugiaman / Scientific Dental Journal, 2019; 3(3): pp 90-94 / DOI: 10.4103/SDJ.SDJ_18_19
The Effect of Pluchea indica (L.) Less. Tea on Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and Lipase Activity / Kittipot Sirichaiwetchakoon, Gordon Matthew Lowe, Kanjana Thumanu, and Griangsak Eumkeb / Evidenced-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2018, Article ID 4108787 / https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/4108787
Antibacterial effects of Pluchea indica Less leaf extract on E. faecalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum (in vitro) / Agni Febrina Pargaputri, Elly Munadziroh, Retno Indrawati / Dental Journal, Majalah Kedokteran Gigi / http://dx.doi.org/10.20473/j.djmkg.v49.i2.p93-98
Simultaneous HPTLC quantification of three caffeoylquinic acids in Pluchea indica leaves and their commercial products in Thailand / Savita Chewchida, Soonyadist Vongsak / Rev. bras. farmacogn. vol.29 no.2 Curitiba Mar./Apr. 2019 / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2018.12.007  
Comparative antimycobacterial activity of some Indonesian medicinal plants against multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis / Maksum Radji, Marita Kurniati, Ariyani Kiranasari / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, January 2015; 5(01): pp 19-22 / DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2015.50104
Ability difference of Beluntas Leaf (Pluchea indica L) ethanol extract and avocado leaf (Persea americana Mill) ethanol extract in Inhibiting caries-causing Streptococcus mutans Bacteria Growth / Maria Martina Nahak, Regina Tedjasulaksana, Ni Nengah Sumerti / Bali Medical Journal (Bali Med J) 2017; Volume 6, Number 3: pp 387-390 / DOI:10.15562/bmj.v6i3.742
Combination Effect of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban and Pluchea indica (L.) Urban on Uterus Weight and Uterus and Oviduct Histological Profiles of Rattus norwegicus / Bayyi natu l Muchtaromah, , Hesty Amita and Ihda Sayidatun Nasiroh / The 9th International Confer ence on Global Resource Conservation (ICGRC) and AJI from Ritsumeikan University / AIP Conf. Proc. 2019, 050014-1–050014-8; https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5061907
VOLATILE COMPOUNDS OF PLUCHEA INDICA LESS AND OCIMUM BASILLICUM LINN ESSENTIAL OILAND POTENCY AS ANTIOXIDANT / Paini Sri Widyawati, Christofora Hanny Vijaya, Peni Suprati Hardjosworo, and Dondin Sajuthi / Hayati Journal of Biosciences, Sept 2013; 20(3): pp 117-126 / DOI: 10.4308/hjb.20.3.117
Plant Use in Ante- and Postpartum Health Care in Lao PDR / Emma C S Lundh / 2007 / Master of Science Thesis / UPPSALA Universitet

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