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Family Gramineae
Cynodon dactylon Linn.

Scientific names  Common names
Agrostis bermudiana Tussac. ex Kunth [Invalid] Balbalut (Bon.)
Agrostis filiformis J.Koenig ex Kunth [Invalid] Barutbarut (Ilk.)
Agrostis linearis Retz. Galud-galud (Ilk.)
Agrostis stellata Willd. Grama (Span.)
Chloris maritima Trin. Kawad-kawaran (Tag.)
Chloris paytensis Steud. Kawit-kawitan (Tag.)
Cynodon affinis Caro & E.A.Sanchez Kolatai (Tag.)
Cynodon aristiglumis Caro & E.A.Sanchez Palot-galot (Tag.)
Cynodon aristulatus Caro & E.A.Sanchez Florida grass (Engl.)
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Bahama grass (Engl.)
Cynodon decipiens Caro & E.A.Sanchez Creeping-cynodon (Engl.)
Cynodon distichloides Caro & E.A.Sanchez. Creeping finger grass (Engl.)
Cynodon erectus J.Presl Bermuda grass (Engl.)
Cynodon glabratus Steud. Couch grass (Engl.)
Cynodon hirsutissimus (Litard. & Maire) Caro & E.A.Sanchez Dog's tooth grass (Engl.)
Cynodon iraquensis Caro. Dub grass (Engl.)
Cynodon laeviglumis Caro & E.A.Sanchez Green couch (Engl.)
Cynodon linearis Willd.  
Cynodon maritimus Kunth  
Cynodon mucronatus Caro & E.A.Sanchez  
Cynodon nitidus Caro & E.A.Sanchez  
Cynodon pascuus Nees  
Cynodon pedicellatus Caro  
Cynodon polevansii Stent  
Cynodon portoricensis Willd. ex Steud [Invalid]    
Cynodon scabrifolius Caro  
Cynodon stellatus Willd.  
Cynodon tenuis Trin.  
Cynodon umbellatus (Lam.) Caro  
Cynosurus datylon (L.) Pers.  
Cynosurus uniflorus Walter  
Digitaria dactylon (L.) Scop.  
Digitaria glumaepatula (Steud.) Miq.  
Digitaria glumipatula (Steud.) Miq.  
Digitaria linearis (L.) Pers.  
Digitaria maritima (Kunth) Spreng.  
Fibichia dactylon (L.) Beck  
Milium dactylon (L.) Moench  
Panicum ambiguum (DC.) Le Turq.  
Panicum dactylon L.  
Panicum glumipatulum Steud.  
Panicum lineare L.  
Paspalum ambiguum DC.  
Paspalum dactylon (L.) Lam.  
Paspalum umbellatum Lam.  
Phleum dactylon (L.) LamGeorgi  
Syntherisma linearis (L.) Nash  
Vilfa linearis (Retz.) P.Beauv.  
Vilfa stellata (Willd.) P.Beauv.  
Kawad-kawaran is a common name shared by two species of plants: (1) The more commonly known, Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), and (2) Malabohok, kauad-kawaran (Cassytha filiformis).
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
AFRIKAANS: Kweekgras.
CAMBODIA: Smao anchien.
FIJI: Kabuta.
FRENCH: Chiendent dactyle, Chiendent pied-de-poule, Grand chiendent.
GERMAN: Hundezahngras, B
HAWAII: Manienie.
HINDI: Doorva, Doob.
INDIA: Doob, Durva.
INDONESIA: Jukut kakawatan, Gigirinling, Rumput bermuda, Rumput grinting, Sukit grinting.
ISRAEL: Yablith..
KANNADA: Ambate-hullu, Graikae.
LAOS: Hnha:z phe:d.
MALAYALAM: Karuka-oulli.
MALAYSIA: Rumput minyak.
MARATHI: Doorva, Haryali.
MYANMAR: Mye-sa-myet..
NEPAL: Motie molulu, Dubo.
PORTUGUESE: Capim-bermuda.
PUNJABI: Dub, Kabbar, Talla.
SANSKRIT: Bhargavi, Doorwa, Granthi, Sveta.
SPANISH: Chepica brave, Came de niño, Pate de perdiz, Gramilla blanca..
TAMIL: Arugu, Aruvam-pillu, Mooyar-oul, Arugampull.
TELUGU: Garika, Gerike, Haryali
THAILAND: Ya-phraek.
URDU: Ghass.
VIETNAM: Cochi, Coong.

Kawad-kawaran is a tropical and subtropical creeping grass with slender, branched, prostrate, usually widely creeping stems, rooting at the nodes and forming matted tufts, sending up erect, slender, flowering branches, 8 to 20 centimeters high. Leaves are 1.5 to 3 centimeters long. Spikes, numbering 3 to 4, are 2 to 5 centimeters long, narrowly linear, spreading, green to purplish. Spikelets are imbricated, about 1.5 millimeters long.

- Commonly found throughout the Philippines, in open grasslands, rice paddies, waste places, at low and medium altitudes.
- Bermuda grass is extensively used in urban and suburban lawns. In the rural areas, collected for supplementary feed for horses and carabaos.

- Contains starch and cynodin, a substance similar to asparagin.
- Plant yields crude proteins, mineral constituents, oxides of magnesium, phosphorus, calcium, sodium, and potassium.
- Whole plant yields sitosterol and carotene, vitamin C, cartone, palmitic acid, triterpenoids, alkaloids, ergonovine, and ergonovinine.
- Phytochemical screening of aqueous extract yielded flavonoids and glycosides. (see study below) (17)
- Methanolic extract yielded flavanoids, phenolic compounds, tannins, and phytosterols. (see study below) (46)

- Diuretic, pectoral, demulcent, astringent, hemostatic, laxative, styptic.
- In Ayurveda, pungent, bitter, fragrant, heating anthelmintic, antipyretic.
- According to Unani, bitter, laxative, tonic, aphrodisiac, emetic, emmenagogue, expectorant.

- Studies have shown antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, antimicrobial, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antiproliferative, chemopreventive, antiulcer, phytoremediative, immunomodulatory, wound healing, anti-emetic, bronchodilatory, antidiarrheal, neuroprotective properties.

Parts used
Entire plant.

• Decoction of the entire plant used as diuretic.
• In India, crushed leaves used as styptic in minor wounds to stop bleeding. Also used for inflammatory conditions.
• Decoction of root used as diuretic in dropsy. and syphilis.
- In Sind, the roots are used as a substitute for sarsaparilla.
• Infusion of root to stop bleeding from piles.
• Juice of plant applied to fresh cuts and wounds.
• Paste of plant applied to forehead in headaches.
• Used internally for epilepsy, hysteria, bleeding in dysentery, hemorrhoids, hematuria, menorrhagia, syphilis, prostatitis.
• Used for toothaches.
• Mixed with clove (Syzygium aromaticum) used as anthelmintic.
• Folk remedy for cancer, epilepsy, cough, dysentery, warts, snakebites.
• In Morocco, used in treatment of kidney stones.
- Landscape:Bermuda grass is extensively used in urban and suburban lawns.
- Feed: In the rural areas, collected for supplementary feed for horses and carabaos. Reported to be highly nutritional for cattle.
- Homeopathy: Used for wound healing.

Antidiabetic / Hypolipidemic: (1) Study of ethanolic extract of defatted C dactylon on Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats showed high antidiabetic potential and a good hypolipidemic profile, with a lowering of blood glucose, reduction of total cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides and an increase in HDL. (2) Study of aqueous extract of CD showed high antidiabetic potential along with significant hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects.
Screening of Antimicrobial Activity of Cynodon dactylon and Caesalpinia bonducella extracts: Results showed Cynodon extracts are efficient against Pseudomonas species. (4)
Chondroprotective / Anti-Inflammatory: Study showed a chondroprotective effect. The anti-inflammatory effect may be due to stabilization of the lysosomal membrane.
Diuretic: Study on aqueous extract on the root stalk of Cynodon dactylon showed diuretic activity, with increased excretion of sodium, potassium, and chloride ions. Results were comparable to furosemide.    (3)
Cardioprotective / Inotropic: Study showed C dactylon exerted strong protective effect on right heart failure, partly through a positive inotropic action and improvement of cardiac functions.
Chemopreventive / Antiproliferative: In a study of experimentally induced colon carcinogenesis in rats, C dactylon showed to be antiproliferative and antioxidative and induced apoptotic cell death. Treatment with the methanolic extract increased levels of antioxidant enzymes and reduced the number of dysplastic crypts. (6)
Anti-Ulcer: Study evaluated an alcoholic extract of C. dactylon for antiulcer activity against pylorus ligated and indomethacin induced gastric ulcer models in albino rats. Phytochemical screening yielded flavonoids and proteins. The alcoholic extract showed significant (p<0.001) anti-ulcer activity, comparable to ranitidine, an effect attributed to the presence of flavonoids. (7)
Curative/ Protective Effect on STZ-Induced Hepatic Injury: Study to evaluate the role of ethanolic extract of C. dactylon against hepatic complications in STZ-induced diabetic models showed a significant reduction of SGOT, SGPT, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and urine sugar. A high LD50 validates a high margin of safety. (8) Study confirmed the protective effect on liver tissue in STZ-induced liver damage in Wistar rats as evidenced by significant (p<0.001) reduction of serum transaminases and ALP, together with demonstrable histopathological changes. (41)
Immunomodulatory: In a study of mice immunized with sheep RBC, CD protein fraction enhanced the humoral antibody response to the antigen and significantly potentiated cellular immunity. (10)
Cardioprotective: Study evaluated the cardioprotective effects of the plant against cardiac arrhythmias. Results showed the protective effects of Can. Dad against arrhythmias in isolated rat heart. Steroidal saponins were confirmed on phytochemical screening. It may act like digoxin, and anti inflammatory and direct mechanisms may also be involved. (11)
Photorespiration: Study showed C. dactylon to possess phytohormones potential against defensible contaminated soil, fly ash, and aged petroleum sludge. It serves as a potential candidate for revegetation in heavy metal contaminated wastelands.
Antimicrobial: Study evaluated seven different solvents of Cynodon dactylon for antimicrobial activity against some pathogens (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus pneumonia). Results showed an ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts showed broad spectrum activity to all tested pathogens. (14)
Antidiabetic / Reduction of Hyperlipidemia / Leaves: Study of extract of leaves of C. dactylon showed reduction of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia risk and also reduction of oxidative stress in diabetic rats. (15)
Aphrodisiac and Male Fertility Effects: Study showed treatment of rats under stress with methanolic extract of C. dactylon showed a promising effect in overcoming stress-induced sexual dysfunction, sexual performance, fructose content of seminal vesicles, epididymal sperm concentration. Results showed the methanol extract to have aphrodisiac and male fertility effects. (16)
Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of an aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon using carrageenan, serotonin, histamine, and dextran induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet method. Results showed anti-inflammatory activity in all models studied. Activity was attributed to the presence of flavonoids. (17)
Wound Healing Potential: Study evaluated the wound healing potential of gel preparations of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of C. dactylon on excision and incision wound healing models in albino wistar rats. Results showed significant wound healing potential with increased rate of healing in both models. (18)
Anticonvulsant: Study of an ethanolic extract of C. dactylon showed anticonvulsant effect against MES (maximal electroshock) and PTZ (pentylenetetrazol) induced convulsions in mice, suggesting possible central nervous system depressant action. (19)
Gastroprotective / Anti-Ulcer: Study evaluated the gastroprotective effect of extracts of CD in male albino wistar rats. Results showed significant reduction of ulcer index in extract treated rats of pylorus ligation, aspirin induced and ethanol induced gastric ulcer models. (20)
Antioxidant / Ehrlich's Lymphoma Ascites: Study evaluated the level of enzymic and non enzymic antioxidants in Ehrlich's Lymphoma Ascites transplanted mice treated with EA fractions of C. dactylon. Results showed increased levels of enzymic and non enzymic antioxidants, suggesting lipid peroxidation inhibiting activity. (21)
Antidiabetic / Leaves: Study evaluated various solvent extracts of leaves of C. dactylon in alloxan induced diabetic rats. A methanolic extract produced steep decline in blood glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. Other extracts also reduced elevated plasma cholesterol and urea levels in diabetic rats. (22)
Anticancer Activity on Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma: Study evaluated the anticancer activity of C. dactylon in Swiss albino mice inoculated with EAC (Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma) cells. Treatment showed significant anticancer activities in the tested animal models, with enhancement of life span and restoration of hematological parameters. (23)
Antiemetic Effect / Rhizome: Study evaluated a crude aqueous rhizome extract for anti-emetic activity in various emetogenic models. C. dactylon showed remarkable emesis suppressant activity when compared with standard drugs chlorpromazine, domperidone and metoclopramide. (24)
Bronchodilatory Effect: A chloroform extract of Cynodom dactylon protected against acetylchloline (Ach) -induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs. The bronchodilator activity of CECD was attributed partly to the presence of scopoletin and mediated possibly through calcium channel blocking and phosphodiesterase inhibition. (25)
Anti-Nephrolithiatic: Study evaluated the preventive effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of C dactylon roots on calcium oxalate calculi in rats. Results showed the extract was able to reduce the growth of urinary stones in rat. Urine oxalate level decreased in nephrolithiatic rats treated with the extract. (26)
Hypotensive Effect / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the effect of an aqueous extract of aerial parts of C. dactylon on mean arterial pressure in rats with fructose induced hypertension. Chronic administration of the aqueous extract of C. dactylon in hypertensive rats significantly reduced men arterial blood pressure. It also showed a significant decrease in pressor response to NA and adrenaline. The antihypertensive effect is possibly achieved by partly improving peripheral vascular resistance. (27)
In-Vitro Anti-Cancer Activity / HEP-2, HeLa and MC Effect / Aerial Parts: Study supported the efficacy of Cynodon dactylon as an anticancer agent for HEP-2 laryngeal, HELA cervical and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. Among the three cell lines CD showed more activity in HEP-2 laryngeal cell line. (28)
Hepatoprotective / CCl4-Induced Toxicity / Leaves: Cynodon dactylon showed potent hepatoprotective activity attributed to its antioxidant property against CCl4 induced liver damage in mice. The effect was more significant than that of Silymarin. (29)
Fluoride Bioadsorbent / Dactylon-Based Activated Carbon: Study evaluated the effect of application of Cynodon dactylon based thermally activated carbon for fluoride toxicity. Results showed C. dactylon bioadsorbent can be utilized to remove fluoride selectively from water. (30)
Antidiarrheal: Study evaluated various extracts of Cynodon dactylon for antidiarrheal activity in castor oil induced diarrhea, gastrointestinal motility by charcoal meal and enteropooling models in albino rats. A methanol extract showed good antidiarrheal activity with significant decrease in gastrointestinal motility by charcoal meal and decreased weight on intestinal contents in enteropooling models. (31)
Phytoremediation / Heavy Metal Pollution: Study showed Eisenia fetida, Cynodon dactylon and Vigna radiata can be used as effective indicators of soil health as they show positive accumulation results when exposed to heavily contaminated soils. (32)
Anti-Inflammatory / Anti-Arthritic: Study evaluated the effect of C. dactylon against rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis. Orally administered C. dactylon produced significant attenuation in the inflammatory response, oxidative stress and ameliorated the arthritic changes to near normal condition. (33)
Neuroprotective: Study evaluated the neuroprotective and antioxidant activities of an ethanol extract of C. dactylon against diazepam induced neurotoxicity in rat brain. Diazepam significantly increased levels of acetylcholinestrase, cholesterol, malondialdehyde (MDA) & superoxide dismutase (SOD) along with reduced level of glutathione-s-transferase (GST), glutathione (GSH) & glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The values are restored with administration of CD. Results suggest the ethanol extract may be a reliable adjuvant for neurotoxicity, with a potential as antioxidant and phytomedicine for neurodegenerative diseases. (34)
Inotropic / Protective on Right Heart Failure: Study e
valuated the effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of rhizomes of C. dactylon on cardiac contractility and cardiac functions in right heart failure in rats. Results showed a strong protective effect on RHF, in part by positive inotropic action and improvement of cardiac functions. (35)
Antimicrobial / Anti-Pyretic: Ethanolic and methanolic extracts of C. dactylon showed good inhibitory effect for all tested bacterial and fungal strains. Extracts yielded flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols and glycosides. Both extracts also showed significant dose dependent antipyretic effect in yeast induced fever in experimental rats. (36)

Antioxidant / Alpha-Amylase Inhibitory Activity: Selected isolates from ethyl acetate extract of Cynodon dactylon and Piper betle and the combination of both were found to have antioxidant activity alpha amylase inhibitory activity in different models. The selected isolates showed better activities in combined rather than individual form. (37)
Angiogenic Effect: Study investigated the effects of an aqueous extract of C. dactylon rhizomes on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expressions in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) and angiogenesis in carrageenan induced air-pouch model in rats. Results showed C. dactylon promotes angiogenesis probably through stimulating VEGF expression. (39)
Anti-Parkinson's Effect / Rotenone-Induced Parkinson's Disease: Study investigated an aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon for anti-parkinson's activity in rats induced by rotenone (2 mg/kg s.c.), Pretreatment with AECD resulted in significant (p<0.001) decrease in catalepsy and muscle rigidity along with a significant (p<0.001) increase in locomotion compared to the rotenone-treated control group. Results suggest a therapeutic potential of C. dactylon as antioxidant in Parkinson;s disease and other movement disorders. (40)
Hypolipidemic Effect: Study reports on the study of efficacy of an Ayurvedic herbal formulation of C. dactylon on histopathological study and DNA fragmentation analysis in experimentally induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Histopathological study of thoracic aorta of C. dactylon treated group showed decreased atherogenicity compared to untreated high cholesterol diet fed rats. Results suggest the C. dactylon formulation was associated with hypolipidemic effects. (42)
Anticancer / DEN Induced Hepatic Carcinoma / Roots: Study screened a methanolic extract of roots for hepatoprotective activity in diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) induced liver cancer in Swiss albino mice. Results showed significant anticancer properties. Enhanced levels of antioxidant enzyme and reduced amount of serum aminotransaminase may be major mechanisms in protecting the mice from hepatocarcinoma induced by DEN. (43)
Dual Protection Against Epilepsy and Depression: Study of an ethanolic extract showed promising antidepressant as well as antiepileptic activity. The antiepileptic effect may be mediated through its GABA-mimetic action and the antidepressant effect may be mediated through 5HT2 antagonistic action. (44)
Antifertility Activity: Study evaluated the effect of an aqueous extract of entire plant on reproductive organ weight and estrous cycle in female rats. Results suggest antifertiity activity with a significant (p<0.001) in the weight of uterus and significant decrease (P<0.001) in the weight of the ovaries of the treated group. Moreover, the estrous cycle was found to be irregular and disturbed. (45)
Antitumor / Leaves: Study of methanolic extract of leaves of Cynodon dactylon against Ehrlich ascitic lymphoma (ELA) in Swiss albino mice showed significant antitumor activity and hepatoprotective effect. (see constituents above) (46)
Phytoremediation Potential / Crude Oil Contaminated Soil: A greenhouse experiment investigated the phytoremediation potential of Cynodon dactylon in soils contaminated by various concentrations of crude oil. Study showed with increased contamination, there was positive correlation with residual total petroleum hydrocarbon content uptake in the plants. Results showed C. dactylon to be highly effective in the remediation of crude oil contaminated soils through bioaccumulation ability by roots and shoots. (47)
Cardiac Effects / Negative Inotropic and Chronotropic Effects: Study evaluated a phenolic fraction of C. dactylon for cardioprotective activity using isolated frog's heart perfusion method. The fraction produced negative inotropic and chronotropic actions on isolated frog heart. The effect was inhibited by atropine indicating mediation through muscarinic receptors. (48)
Silver Nanoparticles / Leaves: Study reports on a rapid, reliable and eco-friendly process for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Cynodon dactylon leaf extract. (49)
Cardioprotective Against I/R-Induced Arrhythmias: Study investigated the possible antiarrhythmic effects of C. dactylon against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced arrhythmias in isolated rat heart. Results showed protective effects in isolated rat hearts probably by increase in myocardial contractility and as a result of hemodynamic factors. (50)
Haemostatic Effect / Nanoparticles / Leaves: Study evaluated the haemostatic activity of Cynodon dactylon in albino rats through bleeding time (BT) and clotting time (CT) determinations. In the study, freshly prepared juice of C. dactylon significantly reduced both BT and CT. Effect on bleeding time may be through effect on integrity of blood vessel or enhancing the formation of platelet plug. Clotting time effects may be through enhancement of coagulation process via intrinsic pathway involving factors XII, XI, IX or VIII. (51)
Antagonist to Angiotensin II Type I Receptor: Study in diabetes induced retinopathy rat models evaluated the ability of secondary metabolites of C. dactylon to serve as an antagonist to angiotensin II type 1 receptor. Activation of this receptor play a vital role in diabetic retinopathy. Study yielded 24 compounds as secondary metabolites of a hydroalcoholic extract. Sixteen ligands showed effective binding with the target protein; didodecyl phthalate, diazoprogesteron, and 9,12-octadecadienoyl chloride may be considered compounds capable of interacting with angiotensin II type 1 receptor. Results suggest the metabolites of C. dactylon could serve as a natural antagonist to AT1 that could be used to treat diabetic retinopathy. (52)
Silver Nanoparticles / Antibacterial and Anticancer Activity: Silver nanoparticles were synthesized using C. dactylon leaf extract. The biologically synthesized AgNPs showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells and concentration dependent antimicrobial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, M. luteus, and S. typhimurium. (53)


Last Update October 2016

Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Line Drawing / Cynodon dactylon / USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Vol. 1: 222../ USDA Plants Database
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: (1) Cynodon dactylon / Otto Wilhelm Thomé: Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz (1885) - Permission granted to use under GFDL by Kurt Stueber. Source: www.biolib.de Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this image under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License (2) Cynodon dactylon / Hitchcock, A.S. (rev. A. Chase). 1950. Manual of the grasses of the United States. Washington, DC. - Non-Copyrighted Image / alterVISTA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Cynodon dactylon - (L.)Pers. / Bermudajavascript:; Grass - Plants For A Future
Evidence-based Critical Evaluation of Glycemic Potential of Cynodon dactylon / Santosh Kumar Singh / Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2008 December; 5(4): 415–420 / doi: 10.1093/ecam/nem044.
Study on the Diuretic Activity of Cynodon dactylon root stalk Extract in Albino Rats / Shivalinge Gowda KP et al / Research J. Pharm. and Tech.2(2): April.-June. 2009 /
Screening of Antimicrobial Activity of Cynodon dactylon and Caesalpinia bonducella extracts

Effect of Cynodon dactylon and tenoxicam on the lysosomal enzyme activities in the cartilage tissue of osteoarthritic guinea pigs / Poonguzhalik K P et al / Journal of clinical biochemistry and nutrition • 1998, vol. 24, no3, pp. 141-146

Chemopreventive effect of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. extract against DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis in experimental animals / Arul Albert-Baskar and Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu / Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology / doi:10.1016/j.etp.2009.06.003
/ M B Patil, S S Jalalpure, N S Prakash, C K Kokate, S S Patil / ISHS Acta Horticulturae 680: III WOCMAP Congress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Volume 6: Traditional Medicine and Nutraceuticals
/ Santosh Kumar Singh et al / Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 2009 / 24 (4) 410-413

Assessment of antidiabetic potential of Cynodon dactylon extract in streptozotocin diabetic rats / Santosh Kumar Singh et al /
Efficacy of Cynodon dactylon for immunomodulatory activity / R Santhi and S annapoorani / R.Santhi et al. / Drug Invention Today 2010,2(2),112-114
Cynodon Dactylon; An Ordinary Plant With Extraordinary Cardioprotective Effects / Moslem Najafi, Hossein Nazemiyeh, Alireza Garjani, Hamed Ghavimi and Afshin Gharakhani / Traditional & Complementary Medicine Exhibition 2007 (TCME 2007), Putra World Trade Centre (PWTC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
An Updated Overview on Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. / Datta K Animesh et al / IJRAP 3(1), Jan-Feb 2012
Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus leaf extracts against the mosquito vectors / Arjumam N, Murugan K, et al / Parasitol Res, 2011, Sep 23.
Preliminary Phytochemical Study and Antimicrobial Activity from Various Extract of Cynodon Dactylon (L.) Pers. (Bermuda) Against Selected Pathogens / Syahriel Abdullah, Januarius Gobilik, Khim Phin Chong / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (Impact Factor: 1.59). 12/2012; 4(5):227-230.
A study on the protective effect of Cynodon dactylon leaves extract in diabetic rats. / Karthik D, Ravikumar S. / Biomed Environ Sci. 2011 Apr;24(2):190-9. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.02.014.
Effects of Cynodon dactylon on Stress-Induced Infertility in Male Rats / VR Chidrawar, HR Chitme, and KR Vadalia / Journal of Young Pharm, 2011 Jan-Mar; 3(1): 28-35
Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Aqueous Extract of Cynodon dactylon / Vipin Kumar Garg and Sarvesh Kumar Paliwal / International Journal of Pharmacology, 2011, Vol 7, Issue 3, Pp 370-375 / DOI: 10.3923/ijp.2011.370.375
/ PAYAL DANDE*, ANIS KHAN / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research Vol 5, Suppl 3, 2012
Anticonvulsant activity of ethanolic extract of Cynodon dactylon / Vipin K. Garg*and Sarvesh K. Paliwal / Der Pharmacia Sinica, 2011, 2 (2): 86-90
Indigenous Effect of Cynodon dactylon in Experimental Induced Ulcers and Gastric Secretions / Kondaveeti Suresh Babu, Ivvala Anand Shaker, Dabburu Kumaraswamy, S. Saleem Basha, Inampudi Sailaja / International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 2012, 3(5)
/ Krishnamoorthy M.* and Ashwini Prabhu / Journal of Environmental Research And Development Vol. 5 No. 3 January-March 2011
Evaluation of antiemetic effect of aqueous rhizome extract of Cynodon dactylon against all emetogenic stimuli / Imran Ahmad Khan, Abdul Aziz, Muzammal Sattar, Shaukat Hussain Munawar, Zahid Manzoor, Muhammad Asif Raza, and Ghayoor Fatima / Scientific Research and Essays, Vol 9 (14), pp 628-633, 30 July 2014 / DOI: 10.5897/SRE2014.6046
Study on the mechanism of the bronchodilatory effects of Cynodon dactylon (Linn.) and identification of the active ingredient. / Patel MR, Bhalodia YS, Pathak NL, Patel MS, Suthar K, Patel N, Golwala DK, Jivani NP / J Ethnopharmacol. 2013 Dec 12;150(3):946-52
Preventive effect of Cynodon dactylon against ethylene glycol-induced nephrolithiasis in male rats / Abolfazl Khajavi Rad, Mousa-Al-Reza Hajzadeh*, Ziba Rajaei, Mohammad- Hadi Sadeghian, Nooshin Hashemi, Zakieh Keshavarzi / Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine, Vol. 1, No. 1, Summer 2011, 14-23
Aerial parts of Aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon shows hypotensive effect in high fructose treated Wistar rats / Deepak Bharti, Pradnya Jagtap*, vaishali Undale and Ashok Bhosale / International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, Vol 3 (2), April-June 2012
In-Vitro Anticancer Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Cynodon dactylon Against HEP-2, HELA and MCF-7 Cell Lines. / Kanimozhi D* / IJSRR 2012, 1(1), 10-23
Cynodon Dactylon Effect as Hepatoprotective on CCl4 Induced Experimental Mice / Uday Sasi Kiran Kantheti*, K. Sonali Chowdary, Y. Sudheer Kumar Reddy / Pharma Research Library
Antidiarrheal activity of Cynodon Dactylon. pers / DS Ravindra Babu, V Neeharika, V Pallavi, Madhava B Reddy / Pharmacognosy Magazine, 2009, Vol 5, Issue 19, Pp 23-27.
Heavy Metal Bioaccumulation by Eisenia fetida, Cynodon dactylon and Vigna radiata in Single, Bi and Tri-Metal Soil Systems / Vaibhav Rathi, Swati .S. Sambyal, Himani Kulshreshtha and Pranveer S Satvat / International Journal of Technology And Engineering System(IJTES): Jan –March 2011- Vol.2.No.3.
Inhibitory effects of Cynodon dactylon L. on inflammation and oxidative stress in adjuvant treated rats / G. Sindhu, M. Ratheesh, G. L. Shyni, and A. Helen / Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, December 2009, Vol. 31, No. 4 , Pages 647-653 / doi:10.3109/08923970902947325
Neuroprotective and antioxidant potential of indian traditional herb Cynodon dactylon / S. Palani / 4th World Congress on Bioavailability and Bioequivalence: Pharmaceutical R&D Summit, May 2013.
Protective effects of hydroalcoholic extract from rhizomes of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. on compensated right heart failure in rats / Alireza Garjani*, Arash Afrooziyan, Hossein Nazemiyeh, Moslem Najafi, Ali Kharazmkia and Nasrin Maleki-Dizaji / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2009, 9:28 doi:10.1186/1472-6882-9-28
In vitro antioxidant and alpha-amylase inhibitory activity of isolated compounds from ethyl acetate extract of Cynodon dactylon and Piper betle / Thiruvengada Rajan V S, Ellaiah P, Madhusudhana Chetty C / Int. J. Pharm & Ind. Res., Vol 01, Issue 04, Oct-Dec 2011
Cynodon dactylon / Synonyms / The Plant List
Angiogenic effect of the aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon on human umbilical vein endothelial cells and granulation tissue in rat / Hamid Soraya, Milad Moloudizargari, Shahin Aghajanshakeri, Soheil Javaherypour, Aram Mokarizadeh, Sanaz Hamedeyazdan, Hadi Esmaeli Gouvarchin Ghaleh, Peyman Mikaili, Alireza Garjani / DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, December 2015, 23:10 / DOI: 10.1186/s40199-015-0093-x
Effect of Cynodon dactylon on rotenone induced Parkinson’s disease / Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine / Neha SharmaPallavi Bafna / Orient Pharm Exp Med (2012) 12: 167 / doi:10.1007/s13596-012-0075-1
Protective Effect of Cynodon dactylon Aqueous Extract in Streptozotocin Diabetes Induced Liver Damage in Rats – Histological Study / Madhankumar S J* / International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 2016; 8(2): 137-141
Hypolipidemic Effect of Cynodon dactylon on Histopathological Study and DNA Fragmentation Analysis in Experimentally Induced Hypercholesterolemic Rats / C Selva Kumar and R Kalaivani / IJPSR (2011) Vol 2, Issue 11
Anticancer activity of Cynodon dactylon L. root extract against diethyl nitrosamine induced hepatic carcinoma / R Kowsalya, Jagatheesh Kaliaperumal, M Vaishnavi, Elangovan Namasivayam / South Asian Journal of Cancer (2015) Vol 4, Issue 2: pp 83-87
Dual Protective Effect of Cynodon dactylon in Epilepsy as Well as Depression / Suvarna P. Ingale and Komal A. Gupta / Pharmacologia (2015) Vol 6, Issue 8
EFFECT OF CYNODON DACTYLON EXTRACT ON ESTROUS CYCLE AND REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS IN FEMALE WISTAR RATS / Nayanatara AK, Akshatha Alva, Sharannya Kottari, Anwar Amemar Soofi, Rejeesh E P, Bhagyalakshmi K, SnehaB Shetty, Rekha D Kini, Sheila R Pai / IJAPBS, Vol 1, Issue 3: July-Sept 2012
Bioaccumulation Potential of Cynodon dactylon Linn. in Crude Oil Contaminated Soil. / Idris Olawale Raimi*, Augustine Onwuegbukiwe Isichei / Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation 12: 87–98, 2015
Negative Inotropic and Chronotropic Effects of Phenolic Fraction from Cynodon dactylon (linn) on Isolated Perfused Frog Heart / M. M. Shabi*, C. David Raj, C. Sasikala, K. Gayathri, and J. Joseph / J. Sci. Res. 4 (3), 657-663 (2012)
Green Synthesis Of Silver Nanoparticles From Cynodon Dactylon Leaf Extract
/ Supraja S*, Mohammed Ali S, Chakravarthy N, Jayaprakash Priya A, Sagadevan E, Kasinathan M.K , Sindhu S, Arumugam P / International Journal of ChemTech Research, Vol.5, No.1, pp 271-277, Jan-Mar 2013
Effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Cynodon dactylon (L.) pers. on ischemia/reperfusion-induced arrhythmias / Najafi M., Nazemiyeh H., Ghavimi H., Gharakhani A., Garjani A. / DARU Vol. 16, No. 4 2008
EVALUATION OF HAEMOSTATIC EFFECT OF CYNODON DACTYLON PERS IN ALBINO RATS / Leela Hugar, Ramesh H / Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences 2014; Vol. 3, Issue 11, March 17; Page: 2711-2713 / DOI: 10.14260/jemds/2014/2197
Secondary metabolites of Cynodon dactylon as an antagonist to angiotensin II type1 receptor: Novel in silico drug targeting approach for diabetic retinopathy / RK Jananie, V Priya, K Vijayalakshmi / Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics (2012) Vol 3, Issue 1: pp 20-25.
Antibacterial and Anticancer Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Cynodon dactylon Leaf Extract / S. Supraja* and P. Arumugam / Journal of Academia and Industrial Research (JAIR), Volume 3, Issue 12 May 2015

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