Clerodendrum is a genus of flowering plants in the Lamiaceae family. It is a member of the subfamily Ajugoideae, one of four subfamilies transferred from Verbenaceae to Lamiaceae based on morphological and molecular phylogenetics.
Clerodendrum L. is
widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world,
with more the 500 species identified, with ethnomedical use in many
indigenous systems (Indian, Korean, Japanese, Thai, Chinese) for a variety
of disease: syphilis, typhoid, cancer, jaundice and hypertension.
Kayomkom is a hairy tree growing to a height of 15 meters. Twigs are angular and densely covered with tawny hairs. Leaves are often unequal and broadly ovate, up to 25 centimeters wide, usually entire, pointed at the tip, heart-shaped at the base, covered with very dense, soft hairs beneath and less dense hairs above, and borne on stalks 5 to 25 centimeters long. Inflorescences are terminal, corymbose and crowded. Calyx is cone-shaped, broadly and somewhat smoothly toothed. Corolla-tube is scarcely as long as the calyx; the lobes rotately spreading, with white or pink margins. Stamens are much longer than the corolla. Fruit is small, rounded, flattened, smooth, and almost entirely enclosed by the slightly enlarged purplish calyx, which often becomes reflexed.
- Found chiefly in secondary forests at low and medium altitudes in Ilocos Norte, Abra, Bontoc, Kalinga, Benguet, Nueva Viscaya, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, and Sorsogon Provinces in Luzon; and in Polilo, Mindoro, Catanduanes, Leyte, and Mindanao.
- Study of ethanol extract of leaves yielded eudesmin, syringaresinol dimethyl ether, kusaginin and a new glycoside, brachynoside assigned as 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-4-O-(3,4-dihydroxycinnamoyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside.
- The lignin, eudesmin, has been isolated from the leaves of C. brachyanthum (Lin and Kuo, 1992).
- Ethanol extract of leaves yielded eudesmin, syringaresinol dimethyl ether, kusagini, and barchynoside. Brachynoside, a new glycoside, was assigned as 2-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-4-O-(3, 4-dihydroxycinnamoyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside.
- Considered tonic.
- In large doses, considered abortive.
- In the Philippines, a decoction of fresh leaves is given as a tonic for stomach troubles.
- Decoction of fresh leaves
in large doses considered an abortifacient.
• Clerodins / Diterpenoids: Study of a hexane extract of leaves yielded two neoclerodane diterpenoids, clerodins A and B, together with known compounds, clerodin, stigmasta-5,22,25-trien-3ß-ol and 3-epi-glutinol. (1) Clerodin, a diterpene, has been found to be present in the leaves of C. brachyanthum. Diterpenes clerodinin A, B, and C have been isolated from the leaves of C. brachyanthum. (4)
• Brachynoside / Leaves: Study of an ethanol extract of leaves yielded a new glucoside, brachynoside, together with eudesmin, syringaresinol dimethyl ester, kusaginin. (see constituents above) (2)