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Family Verbenaceae
Lantana camara

Ma-ying Tan

Scientific names Common names
Camara vulgaris Benth Bahug-bahug (P. Bis.)
Lantana antillana Raf. Baho-baho (P. Bis.)
Lantana asperata Vis Bangbangsit (Ilk.)
Lantana camara Linn. Diris (Tag.)
Lantana crocea Jacq. Koronitas (Tag.) 
Lantana glandulosissima Hayek Kantutay (Tag.)
Lantana mixta Medik. Lantana (Tag., Engl.)
Lantana montziana f. parvifolia Moldenke Cinco negritos (Span.)
Lantana undulata Raf. Coronitas (Span.) 
Lantana urticofolia Mill. Spanish flag (Engl.)
  Stink grass (Engl.)
  West Indian lantana (Engl.)
  Wild sage (Engl.)
Lantana camara L. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Ma-ying Tan.
INDONESIA: Kembang telek, Tembelekan, Saliara.
MALAYSIA: Bunga pagar, Bunga tahi ayam, Jebat harimau.
THAILAND: Kaam kung, Khee kae, Yeesyun.
VIETNAM: C[aa]y tr[aa]m [oor]i, C[aa]y b[oo]ng [oor]i, C[aa]y t[uws] qu[is].

Gen info
• There are 40 species of the genus Lantana.
• Some are extremely unpleasant and toxic to livestock, as is L. camara.
• In some countries, considered an invasive weed, earning the name, "Jekyll and Hyde of plants." It releases chemicals in its surroundings, preventing germination of the native flora. It is wont to form dense thickets, spreads very quickly, with one plant producing as many as 12,000 seeds a year.

Lantana is a gregarious, erect or half-climbing, somewhat hairy aromatic shrub; when erect, usually 1 to 2 meters high and when scandent, twice as high. Branches four-sided with recurved prickles. Leaves are elliptic, 5 to 9 centimeters long,3 inches long, pointed at the tip and rounded at the base and toothed in the margins. Flowers are pink, orange, yellow, white, lilac and other shades, according to the variety and borne in stalked heads which are 2 to 3.5 centimeters in diameter. Calyx small. Corolla-tube is slender; the limb spreading, 6 to 7 millimeters wide, and divided into unequal lobes. Stamens 4, in 2 pairs. Ovary is 2-celled, 2-ovuled. Fruit is drupaceous, sweet tasting, purple or black, fleshy ovoid, and about 5 millimeters long.

- A gregarious weed in the Philippines, in settled areas in thickets and waste places at low and medium altitudes.
- Certain varieties are cultivated as a trimmed hedge either alone or with other shrubs.

- Native of tropical America.
- Now pantropic in distribution.

· Leaves yield a volatile oil, 0.22%, called Lantanol, together with 80% caryophyllene-like bicyclic terpene, and 10-12 % of l-d-phellandrene.
· Dried flowers yield volatile oil, 0.07%.
· Bark: Lantanine, 0.08%.

· U.S.A. dispensatory reports an allied species, Lantana brasiliensis, containing a quinine-like alkaloid, lantanine, with an antispasmodic effect.
· Toxicity is due to presence of toxic triterpenoids - the lantadenes (lantadene A, B, C, D and icterogenin.)
Leaves contain a steroid, lancamarone, which is a fish poison and considered a cardiotonic.
· Bark of stems and roots contain a quinine-like alkaloid, lantanin, which is antipyretic and antispasmodic.·

· Roots are rich in oleanolic acid, a hepatoprotective triterpenoid.

· Phytochemical analysis detected common secondary metabolites–alkaloids, phenolics, terpenoids and other minor compounds such as phytosterols, saponins, tannins, phycobatannin and steroids (no steroids in the yellow and lavender leaf extracts).
· Phytochemical screening of various extracts of L. aculeata roots yielded triterpenoids, phenolics, flavonoids, glycosides, anthraquinone, and tannins. (19)
· Study of leaves for essential oil yielded chemical compo 30 constituents, mostly mono and sesquiterpenes were identified. Dominant representative constituents were: germacrene D (24.90%), farnesene derivatives (22%) and (E)-cariophylene (14.31%). (see study below) (26)

Root: sweet and bitter tasting, refrigerant, antifebrile.
Leaves: aromatic, minty tasting, cooling natured, antiphlogistic, anti-dermatoses.
· Flowers: sweet tasting, mildly cooling, hemostatic.
· Lantinine considered antipyretic and a good substitute for quinine.
· Alkaloid fraction believed to lower blood pressure, increase respiratory rate, and inhibit uterine motility in rats.
Plant considered antiseptic, antispasmodic, vulnerary, diaphoretic and carminative.
· Phytochemical analysis detected common secondary metabolites–alkaloids, phenolics, terpenoids and other minor compounds such as phytosterols, saponins, tannins, phycobatannin and steroids (no steroids in the yellow and lavender leaf extracts).

Parts utilized
· Leaves, bark, roots, flowering tops.
· May be collected throughout the year.
· Sun-dry.

· Fruit is eaten in Malay and Sierra Leone.
· Fruit used as flavoring.
· In some parts of India, leaves used as tea substitute.
· In the Philippines, decoction of fresh roots used as gargle for toothaches, and a decoction of the leaves and fruits to clean wounds.
· Decoction or syrup of roots (in sugared water) used for asthma.
· In Sinaloa, plant used for snake bites. Strong decoction of leaves taken internally and poultice of wounds applied to the wound.
· Influenza, cough, mumps, incessant high fever, malaria, cervical lymph node tuberculosis: use 30 to 60 gms dried roots or 60 to 120 gms fresh roots in decoction.
· Fever: Take decoction of bark or infusion of leaves and flowering tops as tea.
· Hemoptysis, pulmonary tuberculosis: use 6 to 9 gms dried flowers in decoction.
· Dermatitis, eczema, pruritus: use fresh stems and leaves.
· Rheumatism - Spread oil on leaves, warm over low flame and apply on affected part.
· Sprains, wounds, contusions: Use pounded fresh leaves applied as poultice.
· Leaf oil used for pruritic skin conditions and antiseptic for wounds.
· Decoction of plant used for tetanus, rheumatism, malaria.
· Decoction of fresh leaves used as gargle for toothaches.
· In Java, leaves applied to swellings; also used as lotion or fomentation for rheumatism.
· Decoction of leaves used internally as emetic.
· In West Africa, an aromatic infusion of the leaves and flowering tops, sometimes mixed with Ocimum, is used as febrifuge and diaphoretic.
· In Uganda, used to treat symptoms of tuberculosis.
· In Costa Rica, leaf infusion used as stimulant.
· Infusion of leaves used for bilious fevers and catarrhal affections.
· Lotions used externally for eczematous eruptions.
· Infusion of flowers used as pectoral for children.
· Tincture of bark used as tonic.
· Pounded leaves used as antiseptic for cuts, ulcers and swelling.
· Decoction of leaves and fruits used for wounds.
· In Taiping, toothbrushes are made from the stems.

Extract of shoots showed antibacterial activity against E. coli and Micrococcus pyogenes.
Evaluation of antimotility effect of Lantana camara L. var. acuelata constituents on neostigmine induced gastrointestinal transit in mice: Methanolic extract of L camara showed remarkable antimotility effect from an anticholinergic effect and suggests a potential utility in secretory and functional diarrheas. (2)
Thrombin Inhibition: Translactone-containing triterpenes show thrombin inhibitory activity.
Antiinflammatory / Antimicrobial: Pentacyclic triterpenoids are being studied for anti-cancer, antiinflammatory and antimicrobial activities.
Anti-hyperlipidemic / Anti-tumor: Oleanolic and ursolic acids from the stems, roots and leaves have application for human liver disorders, also as antihyperlipidemic and anti-tumor.
Wound Healing / Antimicrobial:
In an investigation of wound healing activity of Lantana camara L. in Sprague dawley rats using a burn wound model, results showed antimicrobial activity but not wound healing activity on burn wound in rats. (5) In a pre-clinical study evaluating the wound healing activity of Lantana camara L. results showed LC is effective in healing excision wounds in the experimental animal and suggests further evaluation as a therapeutic agent in tissue repair processes associated with injuries. (6)
Cytotoxicity / Leaves: In a study for cytotoxic activity of Lantana camara Linn. results showed the leaf extract of LC is cytotoxic in nature and may possess antitumor activity that may be due to the presence of toxic lantanoids and alkaloids. (7)
Phytochemical / Termiticidal: 5% chloroform extract of Lantana camara var. aculeata leaves showed termiticidal effects against adult termite workers. (8)
Biochemical Compositions/ Antibacterial Activity: Study of the leaves and flowers of four Lantana camara plants with yellow, red, lavender and white flowers showed three of the four to have similar carbohydrates and lipid compositions. The carbohydrate levels were higher in the flowers than the leaves, and the lipids higher in the leaves except for the lavender- and white-flowered kinds. The carbo in lavender L camara was very low. Leaf protein electrophoresis also showed similarities and differences. Antibacterial activities varied according to the type of tissue used. (9)
Mosquito Larvicidal Activity / Phytol: Phytochemical screening of leaves and flowers yielded saponin, terpenoids, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides. Phytol, a diterpene, is present in higher concentration in the methanol leaf extract of Lantana camara. The larvicidal activity noted was attributed to the phytochemicals and results suggests the shrub may have a potential in the control of vector borne diseases. (10)
Antimicrobial / Comparative Study on Various Plant Parts: Study on extracts of root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit of L. camara on a panel of organisms that included 10 bacterial and 5 fungi showed the leaf extract to have the highest antibiotic effect among all parts especially against Gram positive Bacillus cereus and Gram negative Salmonella typhi. Results support the use of the leaf extract in some infectious gastroenteritic disorders. (11)
Anti-Hyperglycemic Activity: Oral administration of a methanol extract of Lantana camara leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic rats showed significant dose-dependent reduction of blood glucose concentration.
In vivo Toxicity Study: Study investigated the toxicity of methanol extract of various parts (root, stem, leaf, flower, and fruit) in Artemia salina. Results showed all tested extracts exhibited very low toxicity in brine shrimp larva. The root extract was the most toxic part of the plant and may have a potential as an anticancer agent. Study concludes L. camara is relatively safe on short-term exposure. (14)
Oil / Antibacterial / Wound Healing: Study showed L. camara leaves oil have sufficient antibacterial activity on human pathogenic strains, and also wound healing properties. (15)
Antimotility: Study of methanolic extract of Lantana camara against neostigmine as promotility agent showed an anticholinergic effect due to Lc constituents. Results suggests a utility in secretory and functional diarrhea and other GI disorders. Further study showed significant inhibition of castor-oil induced diarrhea in mice. (16)
Insecticidal / Anti-Cockroach: Study evaluated
an extract of flowers and leaves for insecticidal activity against cockroach (Periplaneta Americana). Baygon™ was used a control. Results showed an insecticidal effect, with the pure extract of flowers and leaves causing cockroach death. No significant difference was noted between the leaves/flowers and the commercial insecticide. (17)
Anti-Mycobacterial / Roots: Study evaluated chloroform and methanol extracts of L.camara against three strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, including Rifampicin-resistant strain. The methanol extract showed the highest activity against all three strains tested. Results suggest L. camara contains principles active against M. tuberculosis. (21)
Antihelmintic / Leaves: Study evaluated various extractsof leaves, stems and roots for anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma. Results showed the methanolic extract of stems to be most active. (Jitendra patel, 2011) (22)
Antispasmodic / Leaves: Study evaluated the antispasmodic effects of Lantana camara leaf constituents on isolated rat ileum, with atropine as standard anti-spasmodic agent. Results showed the methanolic extract of leaves to have promising antispasmodic action onn excised rat ileum. (23)
Cytotoxicity / Toxicity: Study evaluated the toxicity of Lantana camara methanol extract on adult mice and cytotoxicity test on Vero cell line. Results of both tests confirm L. camara shows a pro toxic effect.(24)
Antiulcerogenic / Leaves: Study evaluated a methanol extract of leaves on aspirin, ethanol, and cld restraint stress induced gastric lesions in rats. Pretreatment showed gastroprotective effects on the ulcer models. (25)
Anti-Leishmaniasis / Essential Oil of Leaves: Study showed the essential oil of leaves exhibited asignificant leishmanicidal against L. amazonensis and a potential toxic effect on Brine shrimp snd macrophage assays. (see constituents above) (26)

• In Himachal Pradesh, L. camara variety aculeata (red flower variety) has been responsible for livestock poisoning.
• Most of the livestock poisoning occur on grazing after prolonged stall feeding and during fodder scarcity or draught periods.
• Toxicity: Toxic chemical constituents are toxic terpenoids: lantadene A, B, C and D, and icterogenin. Lantadene A,B and C constitute nearly 69% of total terpenoids. Triterpenoids are most rapidly absorbed from the small intestine, but slow absorption from and stasis in the rumen causes slow and continuous exposure of the liver that lasts for days.

• Ingestion of lantana foliage causes decreased luminal motility that may progress to ruminal atony and cause constipation and impaction as the animals become anorectic and unable to defecate.
• Sometimes, the afflicted animals present with photosensitization with swollen ears and eyelids.


Last Update March 2012

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
An Insight into the Toxicological and Medicinal Properties of Lantana camara Plant / Dr. R. K. Mandial /
Evaluation of antimotility effect of Lantana camara L. var. acuelata constituents on neostigmine induced gastrointestinal transit in mice / Lenika Sagar, Rajesh Sehgal, and Sudarshan Ojha / BMC Complement Altern Med / 2005; 5: 18./ doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-5-18.
Weed Alert: Lantana / John Patrick
An Overview of the Research on the Hepatotoxic Plant Lantana camara / Om P. Sharma /

Investigation of wound healing activity of Lantana camara L. in Sprague dawley rats using a burn wound model /
International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products / Vol. 1(1), pp. 15-19, March/April 2008

Evaluation of wound healing activity of Lantana camara L. - a Preclinical study / B. Shivananda Nayak, S. Sivachandra Raju et al / Phytotherapy Research / Vol 23 Issue 2, Pages 241 - 245

In vitro cytotoxic activity of Lantana camara Linn / C Raghu, G Ashok, SA Dhanaraj, B Suresh, P Vijayan / Indian Journal of Pharmacology /
RESEARCH LETTER / Year : 2004 | Volume : 36 | Issue : 2 | Page : 94-95
Phytochemical and termiticidal study of Lantana camara var. aculeata leaves / VERMA Rajesh K, VERMA Suman K / Fitoterapia / 2006, vol. 77, no6, pp. 466-468
Biochemical compositions and antibacterial activities of Lantana camara plants with yellow, lavender, red and white flowers / Deepak Ganjewala et al / EurAsia J BioSci 3, 69-77 (2009)
Evaluation of Larvicidal Effect of Lantana Camara Linn Against Mosquito Species Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus
/ M Sathish Kumar and S. Maneemegalai / Avances in Biological Research 2 (3-4): 39-43, 2008
A Comparative Study: Antimicrobial Activity of Methanol Extracts of Lantana camara Various Parts / Mahdi Pour Badakhshan, Srinivasan Sasidharan et al / RESEARCH ARTICLE, 2009m Vol 1, No 6, Page : 348-351
Pharmacognostic and anti-hyperglycemic evaluation of Lantana camara (L.) var. aculeate leaves in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats / Ganesh T, Saikat Sen, Thilagan E, et al / Int. J. Res. Pharm. Sci. Vol-1, Issue-3, 247-252, 2010
STUDIES ON THE CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF LANTANA CAMARA LINN / wahab, Aneela, 2004 / Thesis / Pakistan Research Repository
In vivo toxicity study of Lantana camara / Badakhshan Mahdi Pour, Sreenivasan Sasidharan / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (2011)230-232
A study of Lantana camara linn aromatic oil as an antibacterial agent
/ Smaranika Pattnaik and Banita Pattnaik / IntRJPharmSci.2010; 01(01); 0032.
Evaluation of antimotility effect of Lantana camara L. var. acuelata constituents on neostigmine induced gastrointestinal transit in mice / Lenika Sagar, Rajesh Sehgal and Sudarshan Ojha / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2005, 5:18 doi:10.1186/1472-6882-5-18
THE EFFICACY OF Lantana ( Lantana camara) FLOWERS AND LEAVES EXTRACT ON COCKROACH (Periplaneta Americana) / Thesis / MANILYN F. DIANO / 2012 Presented to the faculty of College of Science University of eastern Philippines University Town, Northern Samar In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirement for the Degree Bachelor of Science in Biology
Lantana camara / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
Lantana camara L. / Synonyms / The Plant List
The anti-mycobacterial activity of Lantana camara a plant traditionally used to treat symptoms of tuberculosis in South-western Uganda / Claude Kirimuhuzya, Paul Waako, Moses Joloba, and Olwa Odyek / Afr Health Sci. 2009 Mar; 9(1): 40–45.
A brief review on: Therapeutical values of Lantana camara plant / Mamta Saxena*, Jyoti Saxena and Sarita Khare / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACY & LIFE SCIENCES, 3(3): Mar., 2012]
In-vitro Antispasmodic Activity Analysis of Methanolic Leaves Extract of Lantana camara Linn. on Excised Rat Ileum. / Prasanna P. Ghodake, Ajit S. Kulkarni, Nagesh H. Aloorkar, Riyaz Ali Osmani, Rohit R. Bhosale, Bhargav R. Harkare, Birudev B. Kale / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
Cytotoxicity and Oral Acute Toxicity Studies of Lantana camara Leaf Extract / Badakhshan Mahdi Pour, Lachimanan Yoga Latha and Sreenivasan Sasidharan* / Molecules 2011, 16, 3663-3674 / doi:10.3390/molecules16053663
Essential oil from leaves of Lantana camara: a potential source of medicine against leishmaniasis
/ Rachel R. P. Machado*; Wilson Valente Júnior; Bernhard LescheI; Elaine S. Coimbra, Nicolli B. de Souza; Clarice Abramo; Geraldo Luiz G. Soares; Maria Auxiliadora C. Kaplan / Rev. bras. farmacogn. vol.22 no.5 Curitiba Sept./Oct. 2012 Epub Apr 24, 2012 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-695X2012005000057

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