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Family Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbia thymifolia Linn.

Qian gen cao

Scientific names Common names
Anisophyllum thymifolium (L.) Haw. Makikitot (Tag.)
Aplarina microphylla (Lam.) Raf. Nayoti (India)
Chamaesyce mauritiana Comm. ex Denis Golondrina (Span.)
Chamaesyce microphylla (Lam.) Sojak Chickenweed (Engl.)
Chamaesyce rubrosperma (Lotsy) Millsp. Gulf sandmat (Engl.)
Chamaesyce thymifolia (L,) Millsp. Thyme leaf spurge(Engl.)
Chamaesyce thymifolia f. suffrutescens (Boiss,) Hurus.  
Euphorbia afzelii N.E.Br.  
Euphorbia foliata Buch.-Ham. ex Dillwyn  
Euphorbia microphylla Lam.  
Euphorbia rubicunda Blume  
Euphorbia rubrosperma Lotsy  
Euphorbia thymifolia L.  
Euphorbia thymifolia L. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Nanha pusi toa, Raktakerui, Shwet-keruee.
CHINESE: Xi ye du jian cao, Xiao fei yang, Ziao lei yang cao, Qian gen cao.
HINDI: Choti-dudhi, Chothadudhi, Chhotidudhi, Chhoti-dudhi, Duddhi, Dudhiya, Nigachuni.
INDONESIAN: Patikan china, Gelang pasir, Krokot china, Ki mules, Nanagkaan gede, Jalu-jalu tona.
KANNADA : Bilechitra phala, Bilee chitraphala.
MALAYALAM: Caicotten-pala, Nilappala.
MALAYSIA: Gelang susu, Jarak blanda, Rumpot janggot, Sedang padang, Sisik merah.
ORIYA: Rangoalathi.
PERSIAN: Hazardanah.
RUSSIAN: Molochai tim'ianolistnyj.
SANSKRIT: Dugdhika, Gorakshadugdhi, Laghudugdhi, Laghududhika, Raktabinducchada.
SINHALESE : Bindadakiriya, Chittirapalavi.
SPANISH: Golondrina.
TAMIL: Ammam pacharisi, Peṟu siththiṟa pāllādai, Peṟu siththirai pālāvi, Peṟung kuṟumpai.
THAI: Nam nom ratchasi lek.
TELUGU: Bidurunabiyam, Bidurunanabiyam.
VIETNAMESE: Co sa dat.

Makikitot is an annual, spreading or prostrate, much branched, slender, smooth or somewhat hairy herb. Stems are usually reddish, growing up to 20 centimeters in length. Leaves are opposite, distichous, somewhat oblique, elliptic to oblong, 4 to 7 millimeters long and obscurely crenulate. Involucres are about 1 millimeter long, purplish and borne on the axils of much reduced leaves or bracts on crowded short branchlets from the leaf axils. Fruits are capsules, hairy, 3-angled and about 1.5 millimeters long.

- Throughout the Philippines in waste places along roads and trails in fallow, rice paddies, etc.
- Pantropic.

- Contains quercetin, a crystalline alkaloidal principle.
- Studies revealed phenolics, tannins, flavonoids, steroids.
- Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, flavanoids, sterols, triterpenoids, and saponins. (17)
- Study of methanolic extract of whole herb isolated flavan-3-ol isomers, compounds 1 and 2, as catechin and epicatechin, respectively. Catechins are the part of flavan-3-ols including (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-ent-catechin, (+)-ent-epicatechin and their derivatives (C-3-O-esters). (21)

- Traditionally used as an aromatic, astringent, demulcent, stimulant, vermifuge, antidermatoses, anthelmintic, and laxative.
- Slightly acidic tasting and cooling.
- Studies have suggested antimicrobial, antiviral, antispasmodic, anti-asthmatic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, and antibacterial properties.

Parts utilized:
· Entire plant.
· Collect from May to October.
· Rinse and sun-dry.

· Acute bacillary dysentery, enteritis, diarrhea: use 15 to 30 gms dried material in decoction.
· Anaphylactic dermatitis, eczema, skin pruritus: use decoction of fresh material and apply as external wash.
· Poultices of leaves to counteract effects of snake bites.
· Leaves used as efficient vulnerary.
· Latex used for corneal opacities.
· Juice of powdered plants mixed with wine for venomous bites; also applied externally to the bite.
· Mixed with ammonium chloride, used for dandruff and ringworm.
· Used for coughs as expectorant.
· In Konkan juice used for ringworm.
· In Indo-China plant used as a cathartic.
· In La Reunion plant used for diarrhea and dysentery.
· In Java infusion used for diarrhea and dysentery.
· Root decoction for amenorrhea and gonorrhea.
· Seeds and small leaves are aromatic and astringent and given in powder form for bowel complaints of children.
· In northern India used as stimulant and laxative.
· Javanese and Arabs use the leaves for wounds.
· Poultice of leaves applied to areas of dislocated bones and skin complaints.
· Used for asthma.
· In India, leaves used as ingredient in vegetable soup for diarrhea, bleeding hemorrhoids. Also, as antihelmintic.
· Latex used for ringworm, dandruff and boils.
· Root used for amenorrhea. Leaf as astringent in diarrhea.
· Leaf, seeds and latex used as purgative.
· In Ayurveda, plant pacifies vitiated vata, flatulence, constipation, chronic cough, asthma, bronchitis, skin disease.
· Dried leaves and seeds in butter-milk given to children for bowel complaints. (20)
· Oil used in medicinal soaps for treatment of erysipelas. (20)
· Plant juice applied with ammonium chloride for treatment of dandruff. (20)
· Repellent: Oil used as spray to repel flies and mosquitoes. (20)
· Veterinary: Oil used as vermifuge for dogs and farm foxes. (20)

Anti-viral: Study showed anti-HSV2 activity by inhibiting multiplication through reduction of virus infectivity. (1)
Review: Review reports on antimicrobial activities, antibacterial against E coli and S flexneri, antioxidant and antiviral (HSV2) activities, anti-lipid peroxidation activity, free-radical scavenging, anti-superoxide radical formation, etc. (2)
Antioxidant / Anti-HSV-2 Activities: The water extract and pure compounds of E thymifolia exhibited superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. Results concluded that ET possess antioxidant and anti-HSV2 activities. (3)
Anthelmintic Activity: Study on the methanolic and aqueous extracts of Euphorbia thymifolia on Pheretima posthuma and Ascardia galli showed significant anthelmintic activity. (4) Ethanol extracts and and petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions showed significant anthelmintic activity against adult Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma. (17)
Diuretic / Laxative Activity: Study of crude ethanol extracts in albino rats showed significant diuretic and laxative activities with potentiation by the fractions. Furosemide and agar-agar were used as standards, respectively. (5) Study of crude ethanolic extract and fractions showed significant dose dependent diuretic activity. (20)
Laxative Activity: Study of crude aqueous extract of Euphorbia thymifolia produced a significant laxative effect in a dose-dependent manner. (6)
Anti-Inflammatory / Antioxidant: Study of an ethanolic extract of E. thymifolia showed significant anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema method and antioxidant activity through Nitric Oxide free radical assay. (16)
Protection Against Female Reproductive Dysfunction / Antioxidant / Root: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of root in treating stress induced female reproductive dysfunctions induced by Forced Swimming Stress and Restraint Stress methods. Results showed an antioxidant effect against stress induced female reproductive dysfunction. (18)
CNS Depressant / Phytosterol: Study evaluated the CNS activity profile of an enriched phytosterol fraction using thiopental induced hypnosis, locomotor activity and rotarod testing. The Euphorbia thymifolia steroid showed marked CNS depressant and muscle relaxant activity with sub-maximal anti-stress and anxiolytic effect. (19)
• Flavon-3-ols / Catechin: Study of methanolic extract of whole herb isolated flavan-3-ol isomers, compounds 1 and 2, as catechin and epicatechin, respectively. Catechins are the part of flavan-3-ols including (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-ent-catechin, (+)-ent-epicatechin and their derivatives (C-3-O-esters). (21)


© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D. / StuartXchange

Updated August 2018 / March 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
EUPHORBIA THYMIFOLIA SUPPRESSES HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS-2 INFECTION BY DIRECTLY INACTIVATING VIRUS INFECTIVITY / Chien-Min Yang, Hua-Yew Cheng et al / Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, Vol 32 Issue 5-6, Pages 346 - 349 / DOI 10.1111/j.1440-1681.2005.04194.
Phcog Rev.: Plant Review Therapeutic Uses of Euphorbia thymifolia: A Review
Antioxidant and antiviral activities of Euphorbia thymifolia L.
/ Chun-Ching et al / Journal of Biomedical Science 2002;9:656-664 (DOI: 10.1159/000067281)

ANTIHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS ANDMETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF EUPHORBIA THYMIFOLIA / Sandeep Kane et al / International Journal of PharmTech Research • No.3, pp 666-669, July-Sept 2009
Diuretic and laxative activity of ethanolic extract and its fractions of Euphorbia Thymifolia Linn / Sandeep Kane / International Journal of ChemTech Research • ISSN : 0974-4290 •Vol.1, No.2, pp 149-152 , April-June 2009
Antibacterial activity of Euphorbia thymifolia Linn / Indian J Med Res 1988 Apr;87:395-7
LAXATIVE ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF EUPHORBIA THYMIFOLIA LINN. / S R Kane, S K Mohite et al / Journal of Herbal Medicine and Toxicology 3 (1) 139-140 (2009)
PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL STUDIES OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF EUPHORBIA HIRTA L. / Bhuvaneshwar Upadhyay, K.P. Singh and Ashwani Kuma / Journal of Phytology 2010, 2(6): 55–60
Euphorbia thymifolia / Ayurvedic medicinal plants
Sorting Euphorbia names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
Euphorbia thymifolia L. (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
Indian Herbal Remedies / C. P. Khare
Euphorbia thymifolia / Vernacular names / GLOinMED
Euphorbia thymifolia L. / Synonyms / The Plant List
A review on phyto-pharmacological potentials of Euphorbia thymifolia L. / Prashant Y. Mali and Shital S. Panchal / Anc Sci Life. 2013 Jan-Mar; 32(3): 165–172. / doi: 10.4103/0257-7941.123001
A Comprehensive Study of Phytochemical constituents and Screening of Anthelmintic activity of Euphorbia thymifolia Linn. / *Sobin K Paul, Vipin Sharma, Akhil S Sharma, Sunil Goyal / International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 2012-13; 4(4); 219-220
Role of Euphorbia thymifolia L. ethanolic root extract in treating female reproductive dysfunction in rats / Sivaprasad Gudipudi*, Dayanand Subrao Puranik, Ramoji Alla Upendranadh Ajjarapu and Thirupathi Reddy Kistammagari / International Journal of Pharmacological Research / DOI:10.7439/ijpr
CNS Depressant Profile of Euphorbia thymifolia Linn Phytosterol in Mice
/ Papiya Bigoniya, Brijesh Sirohi, Alok Kumar Shukla / International Journal of Indigenous Medicinal Plants, Vol.46, Issue.4 1452
A review on phyto-pharmacological potentials of Euphorbia thymifolia L. / Prashant Y. Mali and Shital S. Panchal / Anc Sci Life, Jan-Mar 2013; 32(3): pp 165-172 / doi:  10.4103/0257-7941.123001
Flavan-3-ol Isomers Isolated from Euphorbia Thymifolia Linn
/ Sushma Kainsa, Randhir Singh / Pharmacogn. Commn. 2016; 6(1): pp 28-33

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