HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT

Family Locaniaceae / Scrophulariaceae
Buddleja asiatica Lour.

Bai bei feng

Scientific names Common names
Buddleja acuminatissima Blume Alatin (Bag.)
Buddleja armentacea Kraenzi. Amuging (Ig.)
Buddleja arfakensis Kaneh. & Hatus. Anaiop (If.)
Buddleja asiatica Lour. Doknam (Ting.)
Buddleja densiflora Blume Dumdumaui (If.)
Buddleja discolor Roth Dungalau (Ibn.)
Buddleja neemda Buch.-Jam. ex Roxb. Lagien-ti-subisub (Ilk.)
Buddleja salicina Lam. Lagundisalasa (Bis.)
Buddleja serrulata Roth Malasambung (Tag.)
Buddleja subserrata Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don Maligus (Bon.)
Buddleja sundaica Blume Salibug (Tag.)
Buddleja virgata Blanco [Illegitimate] Sambong-gala (Tag.)
Vitex esquirolii H. Lev. Taliknono (Tag.)
  Tugnang (Ilk.)
  Butterfly bush (Engl.)
  Dogtail (Engl.)
  White butterfly bush (Engl.)
Buddleja asiatica Lour. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Newarpati, Bhimsenpati.
CHINESE: Bai bei feng, Bai yu wei.
HINDI: Neemda, Dhurbana.
INDONESIA: Jugul, Daun putihan, Kayu saludang.
KANNADA: Karakan, Karakaani.
LAOS: Dok fon, Dok khap.
THAILAND: Khrai bok, Kiang phaa lai, Mae maai.
VIETNAM: B[oj] ch[os], T[us]y ng[uw] th[ar]o, B[us]p l[eej].

Malasambung is an erect, branched shrub growing 1 to 2 meters high. Branches and lower surfaces of the leaves are densely hairy, soft and smooth to the touch on account of the small, numerous, grayish or brownish hairs. Leaves are lanceolate, 5 to 15 centimeters long, pointed at the base, tapering to a sharp and pointed tip, and toothed at the margins. Flowers are white, sweetly scented, 3.5 to 4 millimeters long, hairy and borne in large numbers on ample panicles which grow up to 15 centimeters long. Fruit is a reflexed capsule, oblong, and about as long as the flower.

- In thickets and recently cleared places at medium altitudes, sometimes at sea level and up to 2,000 meters, from northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao.
- Also occurs in India, Nepal, Bangladesh, China, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, and New Guinea.

- Study yielded free sugars (mannitol and sucrose), steroids (beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, stigmasterol-O-glucosdie, beta-sitosterol-O-glucoside), iridoid glucosides (methyl catalpol, catalpol, aucubin), phenylpropanoids (isoacteoside and aceoside), a triterpene saponin (mimengoside A), flavonoids (linarin and disomin).
- Studies have yielded terpenoids, flavonoids, iridoids, phenylethanoids, and saponins.
- Study of chloroform soluble fraction of B. asiatica yielded 7 compounds:
dihydrobuddledin-A, buddledone-B, ursolic acid, 2-phenylethyl-β-D-glucoside, 7-deoxy-8-epiloganic acid (6) and scutellarin-7-O- β-D-glucopyranoside. (see study below) .
- Study of ethanolic extract of flowers yielded four flavonoidal compounds viz., apigenin, acacetin, 7-O-ß-D-glucoside, linarin, and a phenyl ethanoid glycoside, verbascoside.
- Major constituents of essential oil from aerial parts were n-tridecane (55.87%), 5-methylundecane (10.62%), n-dodecane (2.84%) and n-hexadecanol (2.76%). (11)
- Phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of leaves and flowers yielded triterpenoids, steroids, flavonoids, and saponins. (See study below) (12)
- Aerial parts yielded two new oleanane-type triterpenoids, 13,28-epoxy-23-hydroxy-11-oleanene-3-one (1) and 13,28- epoxy-21β ,23-dihydroxy-11-oleanene-3-one (2), along with seven known compounds.
- Phytochemistry studies have yielded more than 80 compounds including phenyl propanoids, flavonoids, phenyl ethanoid glycosides, phenylpropanoid esters, non-phenolic compounds, triterpene saponins, iridoid glucosides, benzoates, triterpenoids, monoterpenes, acetogenins, steroids, shikimates, and other trace elements. (23)
- Fragrant flowers yielded many flavonoids including apigenin, acacetin-87-O-ß-D-glucoside, diosmin, rutin, etc. Leaves are rich in essential oil with main constituents of tridecane, ß-caryophyllene oxide, anethole, and phytol. (23)
- Essential oil of leaves yielded 17 constituents 14 of which were identified as four monoterpene hydrocarbons, four oxygenated monoterpenes, one hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes and five oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Major constituents was 1,8-cineole (38.1%); others were ß-sinensal 1,10-secxo-1-hydroxy-calamenen-10-one and a-phellandrene at 11.8%, 10.2%, and 5.8%, respectively. (see study below) (25)

Parts used
Roots, leaves.


- In Meghalaya, India, flowers reportedly cooked as vegetable. (17)
- In the Philippines, plant used to induce abortion.
- Also used for various skin diseases.
- Used as cure for weight loss.
- In Pakistan used as abortifacient and contraceptive.
- Used for skin complains.
- Paste of roots mixed with rice water used as tonic.
- Roots and leaves used to treat tumor-like growths.
- Concentrated infusion of roots used to treat malaria.
- In
Bangladesh leaf paste applied to forehead for treatment of fever. For high fever in children, root extract is taken, and warm root extract is rubbed onto the whole body. Roots also used in skin diseases. (19)
- Wood: Moderately hard, used for making walking sticks.
- Beer:
Leaves and twigs are ingredients in the making of Judima, an indigenous alcohol of the Dimasa tribe in India. (18

Study isolated a new compound, buddlin, from the whole plant of B asiatica. (1)
Asiatisides: Study yielded four new phenylpropanoid esters of rhamnose, asiatisides A-D, with the known compounds, buergeriside C1, p-methoxycinnamic acid, ferulic acid, and O-methylferulic acid, from the aerial parts of B asiatica. (2)
Antihepatotoxic: Study isolated a new natural compound, 6-O-(3",4"-dimethoxycinnamoyl) catalpol, from the defatted alcoholic extract of the flowering parts of B asiatica. The flowering parts and roots showed substantial antihepatotoxic activity comparable to the lignan silymarin. (3)
Non-Phenolic Antioxidants: Study of methanol extract of leaves of B asiatica showed antioxidant activity towards well known in vitro antioxidant tests. Four non-phenolic compounds were isolated and identified. (4)
Antibacterial / Antifungal / Antispasmodic / Calcium Antagonist: Study showed a crude extract and fractions exhibited significant antibacterial and antifungal activities and concentration-dependent relaxation of spontaneous and high K+-induced contractions. Results indicated antibacterial, antifungal, antispasmodic and Ca++ antagonist potential. (6)
Antimicrobial Constituents: Study of chloroform soluble fraction of B. asiatica yielded 7 compounds. Compounds 5 -7
(2-phenylethyl-β-D-glucoside, 7-deoxy-8-epiloganic acid (6) and scutellarin-7-O- β-D-glucopyranoside) showed significant antimicrobial activity against P vulgaris, S. typhi E. coli, Trichophyton longifusus, C. albicans, M. canis, Candida glabrata, Fusarium solani and Aspergillus flavus. (7)
Pb Phytoremediation Potential: Study showed both Buddleja asiatica and B. paniculata are suitable for use in the phytoremediation of lead-contaminated soil. (8)
Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic / Antipyretic / Antioxidant / Antimicrobial: Study of ethanol and aqueous extracts of leaves and flowers of B. asiatica and B. madagascariensis exhibited marked anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic, and antioxidant activities. The extracts also showed antimicrobial activities against some of the tested organisms. (9)
Essential Oil from Leaves / Antifungal / Antibacterial / Anthelmintic: Study of essential oil from shade-dried leaves of the plant yielded 18 compounds, including monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids. Oil was found rich in ß-caryophyllene oxide, citroneliol, and ß-caryophyllene. The oil showed in vitro antifungal, antibacterial and anthelmintic activities. (11)
Antimicrobial / Flowers and Leaves: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of a methanol extract of B. asiatica flowers and leaves against 6 bacteria and 2 fungi. Results showed the flower extract exhibited good antimicrobial activity compared to the leaves extract. (12)
Antioxidant / Flowers: Fresh flowers of B. asiatica were found to contain hesperitin and its glycoside hesperitin-7-O-rutinoside. The glycoside is a strong antioxidant property that can inhibit lipid peroxidation. (13) T
Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Study of ethyl acetate soluble fraction of Buddleja asiatica whole plant yielded two new benzoates, asiatoate A and asiatoate B. Both showed significant inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butylcholinesterase (BChE) in a dose dependent manner. (15)
Buddlejol / α-Chymotrypsin Inhibitor: Study of ethyl acetate
soluble fraction of B. asiatica isolated a new sterol, Buddlejol, along with stigmasterol, lignoceric acid, taraxerol, and α-amyrin. Budddlejol showed to be a competitive inhibitor of chymotrypsin. (16)
• Hypotensive / Leaves: Study showed an alcoholic extract of leaves produced persistent and prolonged fall of blood pressure in pentobarbitone-anesthetized dogs and cats. (21)
• Toxicological Study / Cytotoxicity / Analgesic / Bark and Leaves: Study evaluated B. asiatica for cytotoxic and phytotoxic activities. Toxicological studies showed the plant was safe for human consumption. A leaf extract showed significant cytotoxic effect with LD50 of 469.63 µg/ml while a bark extract showed non-significant cytotoxic effect. Lemna minor phytotoxicity assay of both extracts showed non-significant phytotoxic effect. Both extracts showed dose dependent analgesic effect in mice. (22)
• Antinociceptive / Muscle Relaxant / Leaf and Bark: Study evaluated the antinociceptive and skeleton relaxant effect of ethanolic extract of leaves and barks of B. asiatica in animal models. Extracts showed marked dose dependent antinociceptive effect. In chimney test and traction test, the extracts evoked muscle relaxant effects. (24)
• Antimicrobial / Anti-Cholinesteraze / Essential Oil: Essential oil exhibited (66%) strong antibacterial activity against Shigella boydii and significant inhibition (79%) against Aspergillus flavus on fungicidal assay. The essential oil showed outstanding anticholinesterase (IC50 5.2µM) and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory effect (IC50 27.9 µM). (25)
• Flower Odorants: Study of volatile compounds collected from air over clusters of butterfly bush flowers yielded the consistent presence of nine chemicals: benzaldehyde, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, hexyl acetate, 4-oxoiso- phorone, (E,E)-α-farnesene, (Z)-cinnamaldehyde, dihydrooxoisophorone, β-cyclocitral, and oxoisophorone oxide. Some of the compounds may be attractants or co-attractants for moths and may play a role in locating flowers as nectar sources. (26)


Updated June 2017 / June 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: Photo / File:Buddleja asiatica 2.jpg / Franz Xaver / 19 February 2011 / Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license / click on photo to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
IMAGE SOURCE: Illustration / Buddleja asiatica Lour. [as Buddleja discolor Roth] / Asian butterfly bush, dog tail / Wight, R., Icones Plantarum Indiae Orientalis, vol. 3: t. 894 (1846) [ Rungiah] / Illustration contributed by the library of the Missouri Botanical Garden, U.S.A. / PlantIllustrations.org

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Buddlin, a new compound from Buddleja asiatica / Hao Chen, Chen Xu et al / Fitoterapia, Volume 76, Issue 6, September 2005, Pages 588-589 / doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2005.04.012
Phenylpropanoid Esters of Rhamnose from Buddleja asiatica / Ya-Ping Liu, Xiang-Hai Cai et al / Helvetica Chimica Acta, Volume 91, Issue 7, pages 1299–1304, July 2008 / DOI: 10.1002/hlca.200890141
Antihepatotoxic activity and chemical constituents of Buddleja asiatica Lour. / El-Domiaty MM, Wink M, et al /
Z Naturforsch C. 2009 Jan-Feb;64(1-2):11-9.
Non-phenolic antioxidant compounds from Buddleja asiatica / el-Sayed MM, Abdel-Hameed el-SS, Ahmed WS, el-Wakil EA /
Z Naturforsch C. 2008 Jul-Aug;63(7-8):483-91.
Observations on antifertility and abortifacient herbal drugs / Ghulam Mujtaba Shah et al / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 8 (9), pp. 1959–1964, 4 May 2009
Studies on Buddleja asiatica antibacterial, antifungal, antispasmodic and Ca++ antagonist activities
/ Farman Ali, Irshad Ali1, Hidayat Ullah Khan, Arif-ullah Khan, and Anwarul Hassan Gilani / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 10 (39), pp. 7679-7683, 27 July, 2011
Antimicrobial Constituents from Buddleja asiatica / FARMAN ALI, MUHAMMAD IQBAL, RUBINA NAZ, ABDUL MALIK AND IRSHAD ALI / J.Chem.Soc.Pak., Vol. 33, No. 1, 2011 90
Evaluation of Pb Phytoremediation Potential in Buddleja asiatica and B. paniculata
/ Piyaporn Waranusantigul, Maleeya Kruatrachue, Prayad Pokethitiyook and Choowong Auesukaree / WATER, AIR, & SOIL POLLUTION, Volume 193, Numbers 1-4, 79-90, DOI: 10.1007/s11270-008-9669-0
Buddleja asiatica Lour. / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
Comparative study of essential oil composition of Buddleja asiatica and Buddleja davidii aerial parts / Shivani Joshi, Devendra Mishra, Ganga Bisht, K S Khetwal / International Journal of Green Pharmacy 12/2012; DOI:10.4103/0973-8258.97114
Antimicrobial Evaluation of Buddleja asiatica Lour. Leaves and Flowers Extract / Shivani Joshi, Devendra Mishra, K S Khetwal and Ganga Bisht / Research Journal of Phytochemistry, 2012 / DOI: 10.3923/rjphyto.2012
Antioxidant activity of Buddleja asiatica / *A.Ravindarraj and Dr.A.John Merina / INDIAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH, Vol 5, Issue 1, Jan 2015
Two New Oleanane-type Triterpenoids from Buddleja asiatica / Ya-Ping Liu, Xiang-Hai Cai, Zhi-Zhi Du, Wei-Qi Li, and Xiao-Dong Luo / Z. Naturforsch. 2008, 63b, 915 – 919
Two new cholinesterase inhibitors asiatoates A and B from Buddleja asiatica / Farman Ali, Hidayat Ullah Khan, Masood Afzal, Abdul Samad, Shafi Ullah Khan & Irshad Ali* / Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, Vol 15, Issue 6, June 2013 / DOI: 10.1080/10286020.2013.794417
Buddlejol , a new α-chymotrypsin inhibitor from Buddleja asiatica / Farman Ali Khan, Nasir Mehmood Khan, Hidayat Ullah Khan, Shahanz Khan, Nayab Ali, Shujaat Ahmad, Derek James Maitland / Medicinal Chemistry Research, March 2015, Volume 24, Issue 3, pp 980-986
STUDY OF SOME WILD FLOWERS AS POSSIBLE FOOD- SUPPLEMENT TO THE MALNUTRIONED PEOPLE OF JHARKHAND / *Sudhanshu Kumar / Indian Journal of Plant Sciences, 2014 Vol. 3 (4) October-December, pp. 42-45
Method of preparation and biochemical analysis of local tribal wine Judima: an indegenous alcohol used by Dimasa tribe of North Cachhar Hills District of Assam, India / *Arjun, J., Verma, A. K. and Prasad, S. B. / International Food Research Journal 21(2): 463-470 (2014)
Buddleja asiatica Lour. / Bangladesh Ethnobotany Online Database
Buddleja asiatica Lour. / Synonyms / The Plant List
A Study on the Mechanism of the Hypotensive Activity of Buddleja asiatica (Newarpati) / S. P. Singh, A. K. Mathur, J. N. Sinha, N. Singh & R. P. Kohli / Qurterly Journal of Crude Drug Research, Vol 18, Issue 2 (1980) /
Toxicological Profile of Ethanolic Extract of Leaves and Barks of Buddleja asiatica Lour / Barkatullah, Muhammad Ibrar, Nazia Ikram, Abdur Rauf and Haroon Khan / Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 21 (5): 772-775, 2014 / DOI: 10.5829/idosi.mejsr.2014.21.05.21583
A REVIEW ON ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY, PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGY  OF  BUDDLEJA ASIATICA / S. Raja * and I. Ramya / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research
In vivo antinociceptive and muscle relaxant activity of leaf and bark of Buddleja asiatica L. / Barkatullah, Muhammad Ibrar, Nazia Ikram, Abdur Rauf*, Taibi Ben Hadda, Saud Bawazeer, Haroon Khan and Samreen Pervez / Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., Vol.29, No.5, September 2016, pp.1509-1512
GC/MS analysis, antimicrobial and in vitro anti-cholinesterase activities of the essential oil from Buddleja asiatica / Farman Ali Khan, Abdul Khaliq Jan, Nasir Mehmood Khan, Nayab Ali Khan and Shahnaz Khan / Pharmacol. 2015; 10: 891-95. / DOI: 10.3329/bjp.v10i4.23991
Odorants of the Flowers of Butterfly Bush, Buddleja Davidii, as Possible Attractants of Pest Species of Moths / Christelle Guédot, Peter J. Landolt, Constance L. / Florida Entomologist, 91(4):576-582. / https://doi.org/10.1653/0015-4040-91.4.576

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT