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Family Myrtaceae
Malbas
Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet
CHINESE BELL FLOWER
Mo pan cao

Scientific names Common names
Abutilon albidum (Willd.) Sweet . Dalupang (Bis.) 
Abutilon album Hill. [Invalid] Giling-giliñgan (Tag,) 
Abutilon arborescens Medik. Kuakuakohan (Tag.) 
Abutilon asiaticum (L.) Sweet. Lulupau (Ilk.) 
Abutilon cavaleriei H.Lév.. Luplupao (Ilk.)
Abutilon croizatianum Moscoso Malbas (Tag,) 
Abutilon cunninghamii Benth. Malis (Tag.) 
Abutilon cysticarpum Hance ex Walp. Malvas (Ilk.) 
Abutilon frutescens Medik. Marbas (Tag.)  
Abutilon grandiflorum G.Don Palis (Bis.) 
Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet Pilis (Bis.) 
Abutilon leiospermum Griseb.
Tabing (Tag.) 
Abutilon malvifolium (Benth.) J.M.Black Taratakopes (Bis.) 
Abutilon oxycarpum var. malvifolium Benth. Takbitakbi (Sul.) 
Abutilon populifolium (Lam.) Sweet Country mallow (Engl.)
Abutilon subpapyraceum Hochr. Indian abutilon (Engl.)
Abutilon vesicarium (Cav.) Sweet Indian lantern flower (Engl.)
Beloere cistiflora Shuttlew. ex a.Gray Indian mallow (Engl.)
Sida albida Willd.  Chinese bell flower (Engl.) 
Sida asiatica L.  
Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Khitmi hindi.
AYURVEDA: Bhav prakash, Raj-nighantu.
BENGALI: Potari.
CHINESE: Mo pan cao.
FRENCH: Fausse guimauve satinée, Guimauve, Herbe de douze heures, Mauve du pays.
GERMAN: Indische Schönmalve.
GREEK: Avutilon to indikon.
HINDI: Kanghi.
ITALIAN: Abutilone, Fiore di dodici ore.
JAPANESE: Takasago ichibi.
KANNADA: Shrimud rigida, Tutti.
MALAYALAM: Ooram, Velluram.
MARATHI: Petaari.
PORTUGUESE: Abutilão (Brazil), Abutilo.
RUSSIAN: Kanatnik indijskij.
SANSKRIT: Atibala.
SPANISH: Botón de oro, Malva amarilla.
TAMIL: Paniyaratutti,Tutti, Thuthi.
TELUGU: Tuturabenda.
THAI: Khrop chak krawaan.
VIETNAMESE: Cây cối xay, Cối xay.

Botany
Malbas is a perennial, half-woody, branched, erect shrub, 0.5 to 3 meters high. Leaves are green and toothed, orbicular-ovate to broadly ovate, 5 to 12 centimeters long and nearly as wide, with a prominently heart-shaped base and pointed apex, the margins entire or irregularly toothed. Flowers are yellow, 2 to 2.5 centimeters, solitary, borne in the axils of the leaves, and opens in the evening. Fruits is a rounded capsule, 1.5 to 2 centimeters in diameter, with 15 to 20 somewhat hairy, shortly awned carpels.

Distribution
- Throughout the Philippines in thickets and waste places in and about towns at low and medium altitudes.
- A common garden plant.
- Certainly introduced.
- Now pantropic.

Constituents
- Whole plant contains mucilaginous substances and asparagines.
- Phytochemical screening yielded steroids, sapogenins, carbohydrates, coumarins and flavonoids.
- Leaves contain a mucilage, tannin, organic acid, traces of asparagin, and ash which contains alkaline sulfates, chlorides, magnesium, phosphate, and calcium carbonate.
- Roots also contain asparagin.
- Study yielded two new compounds: abutilin A and (R)-N-(1'-methoxycarbonyl-2'-phenylethyl)-4-hydroxybenzamide plus 28 known compounds.

- Plant yields essential oils consisting mainly of alpha-pinene, caryophyllene oxide, endesmol, farnesol, borenol, geraniol, geranyl acetate, elemene, and alpha-cineole with other minor constituents. (19)
- Phytochemical analysis of leaf extract yielded alkaloids, carbohydrate, phenol, tannin, saponins, steroids, gums and mucilage. Glycosides, anthraquinones, proteins and amino acids were absent. (see study below) (26)
- A methanol extract of leaves yielded eudesmic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid. (see study below)      
(29)
- Study of fruit yielded 13 new bioactive compounds: 2-Pentanone,4-hydroxy-4- methyl, 2-Hexanol,2-methyl, 2-Pentanol,2,3-dimethyl-, m-xylene, p-xylene, o-xylene, c-sitosterol, a-sitosterol, cholest-5-en-3-ol, 4,4-dimethyl-,(3a)-, lupeol, lup-20(29)-en-3- ol,acetate,(3a)-, 9,19-Cyclo-9a-lanostane- 3a,25-diol, taraxerol. (49)

Properties
- Considered analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, astringent, demulcent, digestive, diuretic, expectorant, laxative.
- Studies have shown hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, immunomodulatory, antinociceptive, antimicrobial, antimalarial, antifertiity, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, analgesic, anti-malarial, and wound healing properties.
- Leaves considered stomachic and antiperiodic.

Parts used
Leaves, bark, roots, seeds, flowers.

Uses
Folkloric
- In the Philippines, decoction of leaves used for cleansing wounds and ulcers.
- Decoction of leaves also used as enemas or vaginal injections.
- Leaves used as emollient decoction, used by Filipinos as demulcent, diuretic, sedative, and aphrodisiac.
- Plant leaves are demulcent; given as decoction for bronchitis, bilious diarrhea, gonorrhea, bladder inflammation, urethritis and fevers. Decoction also for fomentation over aching body parts for its emollient benefits.
- Bark is astringent and diuretic.
- Seeds are demulcent, laxative, expectorant and aphrodisiac; useful for gonorrhea and cystitis.
- In China, used for tinnitus, deafness, earaches, fevers, hives, tuberculosis, weeping ulcers; as diuretic.
- In India, used for coughs and fevers, body aches, hemorrhoids, gonorrhea, bronchitis, dysuria, diabetes, dysmenorrhea, diarrhea, boils and skin ulcers. Bark and root used as diuretic.
- Infusion of root used to relieve strangury and hematuria; also used for leprosy.
- Infusion of leaves and roots used as cooling medicine in fevers.
- Decoction of leaves used as mouthwash in toothache and tender gums; also used in gonorrhea and bladder inflammation.
- Flowers and leaves applied locally to boils and ulcers.
- Leaf decoction used as eyewash and mouthwash for toothaches and tender gums.
- Decoction of leaves yield a mucilage to hot water and used as fomentation for painful parts.
- Decoction of seeds used for piles and wounds. Also used for gonorrhea, gleet, and chronic cystitis.
- Seeds burnt on charcoal, and the recta of threadworm affected children are exposed to the smoke.
- In Indo-China, the young flowers and seeds are used as diuretic, emollient, and tonic.
- In Tamil, India, leaf juice and root taken orally for dental problems.
(52)

Studies
Wound Healing: PHCOG MAG.: Research Article Wound Healing activity of Abutilon Indicum: Study showed wound healing activity which may be due to increase in collagenation deposition, better alignment and maturation. (1) Study evaluated the wound healing activity of AI in Wistar albino rats using two excision and incision models. Results showed good wound healing activity, with the petroleum ether extract showing greater activity than the ethanolic extract. (27)
Hypoglycemic / Leaves: Alcohol and water extracts of leaves showed significant hypoglycemic effect in normal rats 4 hours after administration. (2)
Hepatoprotective: The aqueous extract of AI exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity by reducing CCL4 and paracetamol-induced changes. The extract may interfere with free-radical formation which may be responsible for the hepatoprotective action. (3) An aqueous extract of flowers was assessed using CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Results showed hepatoprotection attributed to its flavonoid content. (34)
Larvicidal: Isolation and identification of mosquito larvicidal compound from Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet: Study showed the petroleum extract of A indicum may be a potent source of ß-sitosterol as a new natural mosquito larvicidal agent.
(4)
Analgesic / Eugenol: Analgesic principle from Abutilon indicum: Eugenol, isolated from AI, was found to possess significant analgesic activity. (5)
Antidiabetic: Study showed aqueous extract of A indicum has antidiabetic properties evidenced by inhibition of glucose absorption and stimulation of insulin secretion. Phytochemical studies yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides and saponins that could account for the pharmacologic effects. (6) Study showed antidiabetic activity via PPARy stimulation, enhancement of insulin secretion, increased peripheral glucose consumption through activated GLUT-1 promoter activity, and inhibition of glucose absorption. (34) A chloroform fraction at dose of 50 mg/kg showed significant reduction in blood sugar level in diabetic rat when compared to diabetic rat controls. (45)
Antimycotic Activity: Methanolic extract of leaves of Abutilon indicum shows remarkable antifungal activity against Tricophyton rubrum and suggests further studies for possible therapeutic use. (7)
Lipid-Lowering Activity: The ethanolic and water extract of A indicum inhibited the elevation in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in rats and an increase in HDL lipoproteins in high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Comparatively, atorvastatin and gemfibrozil showed slightly better effects. (8)
Anti-Inflammatory Activity: Study of extracts of leaves of Abutilon indicum showed a biphasic effect on membrane stabilization, a measure of antiinflammatory activity comparable to standard drug diclofenac sodium. (9)
Anti-Diabetes / Adipocyte Differentiation / Insulin Resistance: Study results suggest that the extract of A. indicum may be beneficial for reducing insulin resistance through its potency in regulating adiposity differentiation and by increasing glucose utilization. (10)
Immunomodulatory / Leaves: Study on the immunomodulatory activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves of AI on albino mice demonstrates it triggers both specific and non-specific immunological responses. Its immunostimulant effect could be attributed to the flavonoid content. (11)
Bronchial Asthma / Mast Cell Stabilizing Effect: Study showed A indicum's possible mechanism of action in the treatment of bronchial asthma may be due to its mast cell stabilizing and anti-inflammatory effect.
Cytotoxic / Antimicrobial: Study of the crude methanolic extract of leaf of Abutilon indicum showed promising cytotoxic activity and the carbon tetrachloride extract showed mild to moderate antimicrobial activity. (12)
Analgesic Activity: Study showed the extracts of A. indicum possess significant dose-dependent peripherally acting analgesic activity with a feeble centrally acting analgesic effect. (13)
Antioxidant / Radical Scavenging Activity: Study showed dose-dependent antioxidant and radical scavenging activity in the extracts of both A indicum and A muticum. (14) Study of methanol leaf extract showed strong antioxidant activity on Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay. (23)
Analgesic / Antiinflammatory: Study showed both analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. In both the activity of the methanol and aqueous extract was more than the other extracts.
(15) Study of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Abutilon indicum showed analgesic (formalin induced paw licking and tail flick method) and anti-inflammatory (carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model) activity.
(47)
Antibacterial: Extracts of Abutilon indicum was tested against for antibacterial activity. The highest antibacterial potentials were observed against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumonia.
Antibacterial / Roots:
Study of root extracts showed analgesic activity. The mechanism was attributed to a central mechanism or a peripheral analgesic mechanism. (17)
Acute Toxicity Study: Study investigated the acute toxicity of Abutilon indicum plant material in Swiss mice. Up to 10 g/k and 10 mL/kg, the plant was shown to be non toxic with no marked changes in behavioral, food and water intake, with no lethality or adverse toxic signs in a 14-day observation period. (19) Acute toxicity study in Swiss mice showed the plant to be safe, with no lethality or adverse toxic signs during 14 days of observation. (25) Acute toxicity study of petroleum ether extract of root in female wistar albino rats showed the roots to be safe, at 2000 mg/kbw, with no lethality or adverse effects in a 14-day observation period. (28)
Nephroprotective / Cisplatin Toxicity: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of Abutilon indicum for protective efficacy against cisplatin-induced toxicity in albino Wistar rats. Results showed pretreatment with EEAI before cisplatin treatment significantly prevented the increase of serum creatinine, BUN, and other lab chemistry levels and markedly decreased cisplatin-induced renal damaged confirmed by biochemical assays and histopathological changes. (21)
Diuretic Activity / Seeds: Study evaluated a seed extract for diuretic activity in rats. Results showed significant diuresis and increased sodium elimination. (22)
Anticonvulsant / Leaves: Study showed the anticonvulsant activity of Abutilon indicum leaf and aqueous extracts by PTZ and MES induced convulsions in wistar rats. (24)
In Vitro Calcium Oxalate Inhibition / Antilithiatic / Leaves: Study evaluated aqueous extracts of fresh leaves for antilithialitic activity. Results showed the plant possess in vitro calcium oxalate inhibition potential. (see constituents above) (26)
Antibacterial / Leaves: Methanol extract of leaves showed antibacterial activity, with gram negative E. coli being the most susceptible followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (see constituents above) (29)

Bronchial Asthma / Leaves: Study investigated the efficacy and safety of powdered dried aerial parts of A. indicum in patients with bronchial asthma. After 4 weeks of treatment, results showed statistically significant improvement in various parameters of pulmonary functions., with observed significant improvement in clinical symptoms and severity of asthmatic attacks. (30)
Essential Oil / Antifungal / Leaves: Study showed the essential oil of leaves of Abutilon indicum and Lantana camara showed good effective antifungal efficiency against against Aspergillus Niger, Aspergillus Nidulans, Rhizopusnigricans, Cladosporium Herbarium, Penicillum Digitatum. (31)
Anti-Ulcer / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-ulcer activity of a methanol extract of Abutilon indicum leaves in pylorus ligated and ethanol induced ulceration in albino rats. Results showed significant dose dependent antiulcer properties which may be attributed to flavonoids (quercetin), alkaloids and tannins.
    (32)
Anti-Diarrheal / Leaves: Study evaluated leaf extracts of A. indicum for anti-diarrheal activity in albino rats. Methanol and aqueous extracts possessed significant antidiarrheal activity in castor oil-induced diarrhea and prostaglandin E2-induced diarrhea. (33)
Fertility Control / Seeds: Study evaluated the effect of Abutilon indicum seed powder on genital organs and fertility of female albino rats. The higher dose caused 100% control of fertility with histopathological changes in the ovary and uterus. (35)
Anti-Venom Potential / Seeds: Study evaluated the in vitro anti-venom potential of A. indicum leaves against Echis carinatus (Saw Scaled Viper) venom. Results showed inhibition of all enzymes present in the venom: acetylcholinesterase, phospholipase, hyaluronidase, L-amino acid, phosphomonoesterase, and phosphodiesterase. (36)
Modulation / Alcohol Induced Hepatotoxicity / Leaves: Study showed A. indicum leaves will likely reduce the increased peroxidative damage in the liver induced by alcohol, possibly through enhancement of antioxidant potential through free radical scavenging due to presence of flavonoids and micronutrients. (37)
Larvicidal / Adult Emergence Inhibition / Vector Mosquitoes / Leaves: Leaf extracts of Abutilon indicum showed showed larvicidal effects and promising results as an adult emergence inhibitor against vector mosquitoes viz., Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus (38)
Chromium Absorption: Study evaluated the removal of chromium ion from aqueous solution using A. indicum. Results suggest A. indicum may be used as a low cost absorbent. (39)
Anti-Diabetic / α- glucosidases Inhibition: Study evaluated evaluated a methanol leaf extract of A. indicum for hypoglycemic effect in normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats. An in-vitro study showed the AI extract inhibited α-glucosidases, the disaccharide-digesting enzyme in the small intestine. There was a potent sucrase inhibition, with less potent maltase inhibition. Results suggest the AI extract would be effective for lowering and suppressing elevation of blood glucose. (40)
Anti-Anxiety / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-anxiety property of various doses of leaf extracts of Abutilon indicum in albino mice. Results showed dose-dependent anxiety effect. (41)
Cytotoxicity Against U87MG Human Glioblastoma Cells / Leaves: Study evaluated various extracts and sub-fractions of AI leaves for cytotoxicity on U87MG human glioblastoma cells. The extracts exhibited considerable activity. The most active AIM-C fraction yielded four compounds, with compound 2 (methyl caffeate) being the most active.(42)
Anthelmintic: Study of various extracts showed good anthelmintic activity against two parasitic worms: Pheretima posthuma and Ascaris lumbricoides. (43)
Antiproliferative / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study of ethanolic leaf extract of A. indicum showed anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties with interactive mechanism with MAP kinase pathway. The leaf extract showed antioxidant activity attributed to phenolics and flavonoids present in the extract.  (46)
Anticataract Potential / Leaves: Study evaluated the in vitro anticataract potential of a hydroalcoholic leaf extract of Abutilon indicum against glucose-induced cataractogenesis using goat lenses. Results showed anticataract activity evidenced by a reduction in the opacity of lens incubated with the plant extract. (48)
Anticataract Potential / Leaves: GCMS analysis of fruit yielded 13 new bioactive compound. Some of the identified compounds are reported to possess significant applications, i.e., antimicrobial, antipsoriatic, antioxidant, anticancer, antiarthritic, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperglycemic, among others. (see constituents above)
(49)
Phytol from A. indicum / Cytotoxic / Apoptotic / Leaves: Study evaluated the apoptosis inducing ability of leaf extract of A. indicum. A hydroalcoholic leaf extract showed cytotoxicity on Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells by affecting growth and viability. The active principle was identified as phytol which was found responsible for inducing ROS mediated apoptosis in S. pombe. (50)

Antimicrobial Activity from A. indicum / Cytotoxic / Apoptotic / Leaves: Study evaluated the formulation and evaluation of methanolic extract of A. indicum and MEAI loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) against a wide range of bacterial pathogens that can cause diabetic foot and urinary tract infections. Results showed stearic acid-SLN exhibited enhanced antibacterial effect compared to MEAI against all tested microorganisms in vitro. Results suggest the nanoparticle system could be an effective carrier for oral delivery of Abutilon indicum. (51)

Availability
- Wild-crafted.
- Powders and extracts in the cybermarket.

Last Update September 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: File:Abutilon indicum Blanco2.557.png / Flora de Filipinas / 1880 - 1883 / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A) / Public Domain / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
PHCOG MAG.: Research Article Wound Healing activity of Abutilon Indicum
(2)
Hypoglycemic activity of Abutilon indicum leaf extracts in rats / Seetharam YN, Chalageri G, Setty SR, Bheemachar
/ Fitoterapia. 2002 Apr;73(2):156-9.
(3)
Hepatoprotective activity of Abutilon indicum on experimental liver damage in rats
/ E.PORCHEZHIAN / Phytomedicine, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 62-64
(4)
Isolation and identification of mosquito larvicidal compound from Abutilon indicum / A Abdul Rahuman et al / Parasitology Research • Volume 102, Number 5 / April, 2008 / DOI 10.1007/s00436-007-0864-5
(5)

Analgesic principle from Abutilon indicum.
(6)
Aqueous extract of Abutilon indicum Sweet inhibits glucose absorption and stimulates insulin secretion in rodents / C. Krisanapun, P. Peungvicha, R. Temsiririrkkul, Y. Wongkrajang / Nutrition Research, Volume 29, Issue 8, Pages 579-587
(7)
Antimycotic activity of the componenets of Abutilon indicum (Malvaceae) / Rajalakshmi Padma Vairavasundaram and Kalaiselvi Senthil / Drug Invention Today 2009, 1(2),137-139
(8)
Lipid lowering activity of Abutilon indicum (L.) leaf extracts in rats / Ranjan Kumar Giri et al / Journal of Pharmacy Research 2009, 2(11),1725-1727
(9)
Anti-inflammatory Action of Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet Leaves by HRBC Membrane Stabilization / Ravi Rajurkar et al / Research J. Pharm. and Tech.2(2): April.-June. 2009
(10)
Antidiabetic Activities of Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet are Mediated by Enhancement of Adipocyte Differentiation and Activation of the GLUT1 Promoter / Chutwadee Krisanapun et al / eCAM, doi:10.1093/ecam/neq004
(11)
Immunomodulatory Activity of Abutilon Indicum linn on Albino Mice / N L Dashputre, N S Naikwade / International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research (IJPSR) Vol.1(3), 2010, 178-184
(12)
Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Activity of the Crude Extract of Abutilon Indicum / Muhit Md. Abdul et al / International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 2010; 2(1);1-4
(13)
Antinociceptive Activity OF Abutilon indicum (Linn) Sweet Stem Extracts / Guno Sindhu Chakraborthy and Prashant M Ghorpade / Arch Pharm Sci & Res Vol 2 No 1 241 - 245 January 2010
(14)
Antioxidant potential and radical scavenging effects of various extracts from Abutilon indicum and Abutilon muticum / Sammia Yasmin et al / Pharmaceutical Biology, March 2010, Vol. 48, No. 3 , Pages 282-289 / (doi: 10.3109/13880200903110769)
(15)
PHYTO CHEMICAL INVESTIGATION, ANALGESIC AND ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ABUTILON INDICUM LINN
. / R.SARASWATHI, LOKESH UPADHYAY, R.VENKATAKRISHNAN, R.MEERA, P.DEVI / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 3, Suppl 2, 2011
(16)
IN-VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL STUDY ON LEAF EXTRACTS OF ABUTILON INDICUM LINN. / Gurumurthy, H. et al. EJEAFChe, 10(2), 2011 [1892-1896]
(17)
Analgesic effects of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum linn / Naveen Goyal, Sumitra Singh, Surendra K Sharma / Journal of Pharmacy and BioAllied Sciences, 2009, Vol 1, No 1, Pp 43-46

(18)
Sorting Abutilon names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
(19)
Evaluation of acute toxicity for Abutilon indicum
/ Shirish S. Pingale and Popat S. Virkar / Scholars Research Library Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2011, 3(3):37-42
(20)
Review on Pharmacological Properties of Abutilon indicum. / Mohite M. S., Shelar P. A., Raje V. N., Babar S. J., Sapkal R. K. / Asian J. Pharm. Res. 2012; Vol. 2: Issue 4, Pg 156-160
(21)
Protective Effect of Abutilon indicum L. (Malvaceae) Against Cisplatin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats / Mohana Lakshmi S, Usha Kiran Reddy, Ashok Kumar C. K, Sateesh Kumar D / Innovare Journal of Life Science
(22)
Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profile of Abutilon Indicum L. Sweet : A Review / Archna Sharma, R.A. Sharma, and Hemlata Singh* / Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 20(1), May – Jun 2013; , pp 120-127
(23)
Antioxidant Potential of Abutilon indicum (L.) Sw. / Javed Ahmad* and Iffat Khan / J Plant Pathol Microb 2012, 3:3
(24)
ANTICONVULSANT ACTIVITY OF ABUTILON INDICUM LEAF/ DHARMESH K. GOLWALA*, LAXMAN D. PATEL, SANTOSH K. VAIDYA, SUNIL B. BOTHARA, MUNESH MANI, PIYUSH PATEL / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol 2, Issue 1, 2010
(25)
Evaluation of acute toxicity for Abutilon indicum / Shirish S. Pingale and Popat S. Virkar / Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2011, 3(3):37-42
(26)
Screening the In vitro Calcium Oxalate Crystal Inhibition Potential of Abutilon indicum L.: A Common Weed Plant from the Indian Medicine System / Anita Surendra Patil*, Ankit Subhash Kale and Hariprasad Madhukar Paikrao / Austin J Biotechnol Bioeng. 2014;1(6): 4
(27)
Evaluation of Wound Healing Activity of "Sbutilon Indicum" Linn, In Wister Albino Rats.
/ P Ganga suresh* , R Ganesan, M Dharmalingam, S Baskar, P.Senthil kumar / Int J Biol Med Res. 2011; 2(4): 908 - 911
(28)
EVALUATION OF ACUTE TOXICITY STUDY OF ROOT OF ABUTILON INDICUM [L] SWEE
T / Kousalya .M*, Kokila. N and Balamurugan. N / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FRONTIERS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, Vol 2, Issue 3, July-Sept 2014
(29)
Chemical investigation and biological activity of phytoconstituents from methanol extract of Abutilon indicum leaves / Ambarsing, P. Rajput* and Milind, K. Patel / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2012, 4(8):3959-3965
(30)
A study on clinical efficacy of Abutilon indicum in treatment of bronchial asthma / Archana N Paranjape and Anita A Mehta*
/ Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine 2006 6(4), 330-335
(31)
Study of some Essential Oil to show Antifungal activity with Special Reference to Abutilon Indicum and Lantana Camara / Thakkar Atul / Research Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 3(2), 1-2, February (2014) Res. J. Pharmaceutical Sci.
(32)
Evaluation of Anti-Ulcer Activity of Methanolic Extract of Abutilon indicum Linn Leaves in Experimental Rats / N. L. Dashputre*, N. S. Naikwade / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research 2011; 3(2): 97-100
(33)
Anti-diarrhoeal activity of Abutilon indicum Linn leaf extracts / V. M. Chandrashekhar*, A. N. Nagappa, T. S. Channesh, P. V. Habbu, K. P. Rao / JOURNAL OF NATURAL REMEDIES, Vol. 4/1 (2004) 12 - 16
(34)
HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT AND MECHANISMS OF ACTION OF EXTRACT FROM ABUTILON INDICUM SWEET / CHUTWADEE KRISANAPUN / Thesis
(35)
Fertility Control Of Female Rat Through Abutilon Indicum Seeds / Dr. Naveen Chandra Khanduri / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TECHNOLOGY ENHANCEMENTS AND EMERGING ENGINEERING RESEARCH, VOL 2, ISSUE 3 89 ISSN 2347-4289
(36)
In vitro anti snake venom potential of Abutilon indicum Linn leaf extracts against Echis carinatus (Indian saw scaled viper) / Vineetha M. Shrikanth, Bhavya Janardhan, Sunil S. More, Uday M.Muddapur, Kiran K.Mirajkar / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2014; 3 (1): 111-117
(37)
Modulatory Influence of Abutilon Indicum Leaves on Hepatic Antioxidant Status and Lipid Peroxidation against Alcohol-Induced Liver Damage in Rats / Dharmendra Singh and Radhey Shyam Gupta* / Pharmacologyonline 1: 253-262 (2008)
(38)
Larvicidal and adult emergence inhibition activity of Abutilon indicum (Linn.) (Malvaceae) leaf extracts against vector mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) / S. Arivoli* and Samuel Tennyson / Journal of Biopesticides, 4 (1): 27 - 35 (2011)
(39)
Adsorption of Chromium Ion by Acid Activated Abutilon Indicum-Kinetic, Mechanistic, Thermodynamic and Equilibrium Studies / A. Kasthuri, A. Peter Pascal Regis, S Arivoli and V Marimuthu / International Journal of Current Research
(40)
Influence of the methanolic extract from Abutilon indicum leaves in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats / S. Adisakwattana, K. Pudhom and S. Yibchok-anun* / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 8 (10), pp. 2011-2015, 18 May, 2009
(41)
Evaluation of Anti-anxiety Property of Alcoholic Extract of Abutilon indicum Leaves in Albino Mice / Jayasree Tirumalasetty, Shankar, Chandrasekhar Nutalapati, Prakash.M, Harini K. / Int. J. Pharm. Phytopharmacol. Res. 2013; 2 (6): 397-399
(42)
Cytotoxic constituents of Abutilon indicum leaves against U87MG human glioblastoma cells / Rukaiyya Sirajuddin Khan, Mahibalan Senthi, Poorna Chandra Rao, Ameer Basha, Mallika Alvala, Dinesh Tummuri, Hironori Masubuti, Yoshinori Fujimoto, Ahil Sajeli Begum / Nat Prod Res 2015 25;29(11):1069-73. Epub 2014 Nov 25.
(43)
COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF IN-VITRO ANTIHELMINTHIC ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF ABUTILON INDICUM / Aditya M Pattewar, Pravin Pandurang Honmane,, Jayant Himmatrao Kumbhar, Amol Adhikrao Patil, Shrinivas Krishna Mohite, Ganesh Hindurao Wadkar, Ashok B Nighute / Pharma Utility, Vol 6, No 3, 2012
(44)
Abutilon indicum / Synonyms / The Plant List
(45)
Antidiabetic Actifity of the Plant Abutilon indicum in Streptozotocin-Induced Experimental Diabetes in Rats / Pawan Kaushik et al / International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 2010; 2(2); 45-49
(46)
Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory and Anti-proliferative Activity of Abutilon indicum L. Plant Ethanolic Leaf Extract on Lung Cancer Cell Line A549 for System Network Studies / Kaladhar DSVGK*, Swathi Saranya K, Varahalarao Vadlapudi and Nagendra Sastry Yarla / J Cancer Sci Ther 6: 195-201 / doi:10.4172/1948-5956.1000271
(47)
Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory activity of Abutilon indicum / Sharma Satish Kumar*, Sharma Seshasai Marella, Saini Vipin, Mohapatra Sharmistha / International Journal of Drug Development and Research, January-March 2013, 5(1): 99-102.
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EVALUATION OF ANTICATARACT POTENTIAL OF Abutilon indicum: AN IN Vitro STUDY
/ N. ROSHENI, K. NITHYA, S. BRINDHA, N. ELANGOd, V. GOKILA, S. NISHMITHA AND S. KOKILA / Indian J.Sci.Res. 7(1) : 81-84, 2016

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Identification of New Bioactive Compounds from Fruit of Abutilon indicum through GCMS Analysis / Sidharth Tiwari, Saumya Mishra, Dharm Raj Misra and Richa Upadhyay / Biological Forum – An International Journal 8(1): 548-554(2016)
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Extraction and purification of phytol from Abutilon indicum: cytotoxic and apoptotic activity / Parth Thakor, Japan B. Mehta, Ravi R. Patel, Disha D. Patel, Ramalingam B. Subramanian and Vasudev R. Thakkar* / RSC Adv., 2016,6, 48336-48345 / DOI: 10.1039/C5RA24464A
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FORMULATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ABUTILON INDICUM LOADED SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES AGAINST MICROORGANISMS CAUSING DIABETIC FOOT AND URINARY TRACT INFECTION / J. Rajesh, S. Mohana Lakshmi K. Thamizhvanan T. Viswasanthi / JGTPS/ 5(4)-(2014) 2093–2102
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Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Kancheepuram District of Tamil Nadu, India / Chellaiah Muthu, Muniappan Ayyanar, Nagappan Raja and Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu / Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2006, 2:43 / DOI: 10.1186/1746-4269-2-43

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