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Family Leguminosae
Mangkit-parang
TAYAM
Desmodium heterocarpon Linn.

FALSE GROUND NUT
Jia di dou

Scientific names  Common names
Desmodium buergeri Miq. Huyop (If.)
Desmodium heterocarpon (L.) DC. Huyop-huyop (If.)
Desmodium heterocarpum (L.) DC. [Spelling Variant] Mangkit-parang (Tag.)
Desmodium ovalifolium (Prain.) Wallich ex Ridley Mani-mani (P. Bis.)
Desmodium polycarpum (Poir.) DC. Mani-manian (Tag.)
Desmodium toppinii Schindl. Naangkonod (Mbo.)
Hedysarum heterocarpon Linn. Tagiktik (Mbo.)
Hedysarum polycarpum Poir. Tayam (Tag.)
Hedysarum siliquosum Burm.f. Timbalau (Basg.)
Meibomia buergeri (Miq.) Kuntze Asian ticktrefoil (Engl.)
Meibomia heterocarpa (L.) Kuntze Carpon desmodium (Engl.)
  False ground nut (Engl.)
Mangkit is a shared common names for (1) Dikit-dikit (Desmodium gangeticum Linn.) and (2) Dalupang (Urena Lobata Linn.) and (3) Tayam (Desmodium heterocarpus Linn) also called mankit-parang.
Desmodium heterocarpum (L.) DC. is a synonym of Desmodium heterocarpon (L.) DC. The Plant List
Desmodium heterocarpon (L.) DC. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CAMBODIA: Baay dam'nnaep.
CHINESE: Jia de dou.
INDONESIA: Buntut meyong sisir, Kaci, Akar entimor.
MALAYSIA: Rumput kerbau derapah, Kacang kayu betina.
VIETNAM: Tra[n]g qu'a di qu'a.

Botany
Tayam is an erect or sub-erect perennial undershrub or creeping woody rootstock, with slightly angular and slender branches, clothed upwards with short, adpressed, grey hairs. Leaves usually have three leaflets, but single leaflets may be found on the lower stems of mature plants. Leaflets are green, hairy above, and thinly clothed with adpressed hairs beneath; the end one obovate-oblong, 2.5 to 7.5 centimeters long, the side ones smaller. Racemes are terminal and lateral, 2.5 to 7.5 centimeters long. Pods are 1.2 to 2 centimeters long.

Distribution
- In thickets and open grasslands at low and medium altitudes from northern Luzon to Mindanao.
- Also occurs in India, Sri Lanka, Malacca, Malaya, Zanzibar, China, Japan and Polynesia. Also found in tropical Africa.

Constituents
- Study isolated
eight compounds identified as betulic acid,friedelin ,n-hexadecanoic acid, β-sitosterol, (Z,Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic acid,1-hentetracontanol, octacosane, and vitexin. (3)

Properties
- Tonic.
- Most Desmodium species are considered anti-inflammatory.
- Studies have shown antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxic, insecticidal properties.

Parts used
Leaves, roots.

Uses
Folkloric
Boiled roots used as poultice for sore breasts.
Plant decoction considered tonic and useful for coughs.
In West Java, roots and leaves used for women's problems.
Santals use a plant preparation for fainting and convulsions.
Others
• Fodder: Practical and resilient long-term grass-legume pasture.

Studies
Antimicrobial / Cytotoxic / Antioxidant:
Study evaluated a methanolic extract and fractions of powdered whole plant for antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities. Fractions Fc and Fd showed mild antimicrobial activity. Significant free radical scavenging (DPPH) activity was shown by ME (IC50 19.14±0.14 µg/mL) and Ff (IC50 29.71±0.44 µg/mL). Fractions Fb and Fd showed strong cytotoxicity in brine shrimp lethality bioassay with LC50 of 8.19±0.08 µg/ml and 6.46±0.09 µg/ml, respectively. (2)
Antioxidant: In a study that evaluated 10 Desmodium species for antioxidant activity, D. heterocarpon showed strong antioxidant activity in the ABTS and DPPH assays. (4)
Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study evaluated a methanolic leaf extract of DH for antimicrobial activity against various bacterial and fungal strains. Results showed very good antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhi and excellent antifungal activity against all test fungal strains (A. niger, P. chrysogenum, S. cerevisiae, and Candida albicans). The antifungal activity showed more inhibition zone than standard drug ketoconazole. (5)
Insecticidal: Desmodium heterocarpon whole plant showed insecticidal activity against adult beetles of T. castaneum. (6)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Updated May 2017 / June 2015

© Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
IMAGE SOURCE: Closeup of flower / Desmodium herterocarpon / Dinesh Valke / Sept 30,2007 / click on image to go to source page / CC / Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial / flickr /
SOURCES

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Desmodium heterocarpon (L.) DC. / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
(2)
Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Activities of Desmodium heterocarpon / Abdullah Al Hasan, Choudhury Mahmood Hasan and A.T.M. Zafrul Azam* / Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal, Vol. 14, No. 1, January 2011
(3)
Study on Chemical Constituents of Desmodium heterocarpon / HUANG Zhong-bi, ZHANG Qian-jun, KANG Wen-yi, LI Chuan-kuan, CHEN Qing / Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formula, 2010-17
(4)
Desmodium heterocarpon (L.) DC. / Synonyms / The Plant List
(5)
Antimicrobial studies of leaf extracts from Desmodium heterocarpon (L.) DC / Arora Shefali, Yadav Vandana, Kumar Pankaj, Kumar Deepak / International Journal of Phytomedicines and Related Industries, 2014, Vol 6, Issue 3 / DOI: 10.5958/0975-6892.2014.00011.2
(6)
REPELLENT ACTIVITIES OF SOME INDIGENOUS MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST THE STORED GRAIN PESTS TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (HBST.) (COLEOPTERA: TENEBRIONIDAE) /  Z. Yesmin Roly, Md. M. Islam , Md. P. Ebna Shaekh , S. Md. Shahik , S. Ala Moududee , S. Mohammad Nur, A.S.M.H.K Chowdhury, Tasnim Faizah Nishi and Md. Khalekuzzaman * /  http://dx.doi.org/10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.IJP.1(9).579-86

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.
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SOURCES
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