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Family Leguminosae
Desmodium heterocarpon Linn.

Jia di dou

Scientific names  Common names
Desmodium buergeri Miq. Huyop (If.)
Desmodium heterocarpon (L.) DC. Huyop-huyop (If.)
Desmodium heterocarpum (L.) DC. [Spelling Variant] Mangkit-parang (Tag.)
Desmodium ovalifolium (Prain.) Wallich ex Ridley Mani-mani (P. Bis.)
Desmodium polycarpum (Poir.) DC. Mani-manian (Tag.)
Desmodium toppinii Schindl. Naangkonod (Mbo.)
Hedysarum heterocarpon Linn. Tagiktik (Mbo.)
Hedysarum polycarpum Poir. Tayam (Tag.)
Hedysarum siliquosum Burm.f. Timbalau (Basg.)
Meibomia buergeri (Miq.) Kuntze Asian tick trefoil (Engl.)
Meibomia heterocarpa (L.) Kuntze Carpon desmodium (Engl.)
  False ground nut (Engl.)
Mangkit is a shared common names for (1) Dikit-dikit (Desmodium gangeticum Linn.) and (2) Dalupang (Urena Lobata Linn.) and (3) Tayam (Desmodium heterocarpus Linn) also called mankit-parang.
Desmodium heterocarpum (L.) DC. is a synonym of Desmodium heterocarpon (L.) DC. The Plant List
Desmodium heterocarpon (L.) DC. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CAMBODIA: Baay dam'nnaep.
CHINESE: Jia di dou.
INDONESIA: Buntut meyong sisir, Kaci, Akar entimor.
KANNADA: Kaadu moovile.
MALAYALAM: Nilathuvara.
MALAYSIA: Rumput kerbau derapah, Kacang kayu betina.
MARATHI: Jambhali dashami.
SANSKRIT: Salaparni.
TELUGU: Chepputattaa.
VIETNAM: Tra[n]g qu'a di qu'a.

The scientific name derives from Greek words desmos (band or chain) referring to the jointed seed pods, and heteros (different) and karpos (fruit). (Dave's Garden) (10)

Tayam is an erect or sub-erect perennial undershrub or creeping woody rootstock, with slightly angular and slender branches, clothed upwards with short, adpressed, gray hairs. Leaves usually have three leaflets, but single leaflets may be found on the lower stems of mature plants. Leaflets are green, hairy above, and thinly clothed with adpressed hairs beneath; the end one obovate-oblong, 2.5 to 7.5 centimeters long, the side ones smaller. Racemes are terminal and lateral, 2.5 to 7.5 centimeters long. Pods are 1.2 to 2 centimeters long.

- In thickets and open grasslands at low and medium altitudes from northern Luzon to Mindanao.
- Also occurs in India, Sri Lanka, Malacca, Malaya, Zanzibar, China, Japan and Polynesia. Also found in tropical Africa.

- Study isolated
eight compounds identified as betulic acid,friedelin ,n-hexadecanoic acid, β-sitosterol, (Z,Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic acid,1-hentetracontanol, octacosane, and vitexin. (3)
- Study of aerial parts yielded new 2-carboxy-dihydrostilbene glucoside, 2-carboxy-3,5,4′-trihydroxydihydrostilbene 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (1) and a new flavan diglycoside, (2S)-5,7,4′-trihydroxyflavan 7-O-β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1 → 6)-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3), together with five known compounds, lunularic acid 4′-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (2), vitexin (4), isovitexin (5), (−)-epi-catechin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (6), and (−)-epi-afzelachin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (7).  (10)

- Tonic.
- Most Desmodium species are considered anti-inflammatory.
- Studies have shown antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxic, insecticidal properties.

Parts used
Leaves, roots.

- Boiled roots used as poultice for sore breasts.
- Plant decoction considered tonic and useful for coughs.
- In West Java, roots and leaves used for women's problems.
- Santals use a plant preparation for fainting and convulsions.
- Plant used for reducing fever and treating contusions and strains. (7)
• Fodder: Practical and resilient long-term grass-legume pasture.

• Ground cover: Used as weed-controlling ground cover. Shade-tolerant and can be used as cut-and-carry for restoration of degraded soils. (7)

Antimicrobial / Cytotoxic / Antioxidant:
Study evaluated a methanolic extract and fractions of powdered whole plant for antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities. Fractions Fc and Fd showed mild antimicrobial activity. Significant free radical scavenging (DPPH) activity was shown by ME (IC50 19.14±0.14 µg/mL) and Ff (IC50 29.71±0.44 µg/mL). Fractions Fb and Fd showed strong cytotoxicity in brine shrimp lethality bioassay with LC50 of 8.19±0.08 µg/ml and 6.46±0.09 µg/ml, respectively. (2)
Antioxidant: In a study that evaluated 10 Desmodium species for antioxidant activity, D. heterocarpon showed strong antioxidant activity in the ABTS and DPPH assays. (4)
Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study evaluated a methanolic leaf extract of DH for antimicrobial activity against various bacterial and fungal strains. Results showed very good antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhi and excellent antifungal activity against all test fungal strains (A. niger, P. chrysogenum, S. cerevisiae, and Candida albicans). The antifungal activity showed more inhibition zone than standard drug ketoconazole. (5)
Repellent / Insecticidal: Desmodium heterocarpon whole plant showed insecticidal activity against adult beetles of T. castaneum. (6)
• Antioxidative / Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated ethanol extract of D. heterocarpon for antoxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. The EE showed potent antioxidative activity by DPPH assay and induced expression of antioxidative enzyme heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in a dose-dependent manner. The EE also effectively suppressed H2O2-induced ROS on RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. The EE also inhibited LPS-induced NO formation as a consequence of iNOS down-regulation. (8)
• Cytotoxicity / Brine Shrimp Lethality / Leaves: Study evaluated the cytotoxicity of jiinjit leaves using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test. Results showed cytotoxic activity against Artemia salina Leach larvae with LC50 value <1000 µg/ml. (9)


Updated March 2019 / May 2017 / June 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: Closeup of flower / Desmodium herterocarpon / Dinesh Valke / Sept 30,2007 / click on image to go to source page / CC / Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial / flickr /

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Desmodium heterocarpon (L.) DC. / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Activities of Desmodium heterocarpon / Abdullah Al Hasan, Choudhury Mahmood Hasan and A.T.M. Zafrul Azam* / Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal, Jan 2011; Vol 14, No 1
Study on Chemical Constituents of Desmodium heterocarpon / HUANG Zhong-bi, ZHANG Qian-jun, KANG Wen-yi, LI Chuan-kuan, CHEN Qing / Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formula, 2010-17
Desmodium heterocarpon (L.) DC. / Synonyms / The Plant List
Antimicrobial studies of leaf extracts from Desmodium heterocarpon (L.) DC / Arora Shefali, Yadav  Vandana, Kumar Pankaj, Kumar Deepak / International Journal of Phytomedicines and Related Industries, 2014; Vol 6, Issue 3 / DOI: 10.5958/0975-6892.2014.00011.2
REPELLENT ACTIVITIES OF SOME INDIGENOUS MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST THE STORED GRAIN PESTS TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (HBST.) (COLEOPTERA: TENEBRIONIDAE) /  Z. Yesmin Roly, Md. M. Islam , Md. P. Ebna Shaekh , S. Md. Shahik , S. Ala Moududee , S. Mohammad Nur, A.S.M.H.K Chowdhury, Tasnim Faizah Nishi and Md. Khalekuzzaman /  http://dx.doi.org/10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.IJP.1(9).579-86
Desmodium heterocarpon / Useful Tropical Plants
Anti-oxidative and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Desmodium heterocarpon Extract in RAW 264.7 Cells / Lee Su Hyeon, Jim Kyong-Suk, Son Yu Ri, Kwon Hyun Ju, Kim Byung Woo /
Journal of Life Science, 2018 Feb; 28(2): pp 216-222 / DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.5352/JLS.2018.28.2.216
Citotoxic Test of Etanol Extract of Jinjit Leaves (Desmodium heterocarpon (L.) D.C var.Strigosum Van Meeuwen) Against Artemia salina Leach Larvae Using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT) method. / Prayogi KramyTriawantiAstri Widiarti /  DOI 10.5281/zenodo.1498593
2-Carboxy-dihydrostilbene and flavan glycosides from Desmodium heterocarpon / Poolsak Sahakitpichan, Piyawadee Chadmuk et al / Phytochemistry Letters, Marcj 2017; Vol 19: pp 94-97 / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytol.2016.12.011

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.
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