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Family Lamiaceae
Callicarpa peduncalata R.Br.

Zi zhu

Scientific names Common names
Callicarpa aspera Hand.-Mazz. Anadhiu (Ig.)
Callicarpa bicolor Fern.-Vill. Anoyop (Ilk., Ibn.)
Callicarpa blancoi Rolfe Anoyot (Ilk.)
Callicarpa brevipes var. gkabrescens Moldenke Anuyup ( Ibn., Ilk.)
Callicarpa cuspidata Roxb. Atolba (If.)
Callicarpa dentata Roth Palis (Tag.)
Callicarpa formosana Rolfe Tambalabasi (Tag.)
Callicarpa integerrima var. serrulata H.L.Li Tiagau (Tag.)
Callicarpa ninpoensis Matsuda Tigau (Tag., Bik., Bis.)
Callicarpa obtusifolia Merr. Tigau-tigau (C. Bis.)
Callicarpa ovata C. B. Rob. Tigbabasi (Bik.)
Callicarpa pedunculata R.Br. Timbabasi (Tag.)
Callicarpa pedunculata var. longifolia Suzuki Tubang-dalag (Tag.)
Callicarpa pedunculata var. typica H.J.Lam Tubaybasi (Tag.)
Callicarpa rubella f. robusta C.Pei Beautyberry (Engl.)
Callicarpa taiwaniana Suzuki Beauty bush (Engl.)
Callicarpa tiliifolia Teijsm. & Binn. ex C.B.Clarke Formosan beauty berry (Engl.)
Callicarpa viridis Domin Native lantana (Engl.)
  Sour bush (Engl.)
  Taiwan beauty berry (Engl.)
  Vekvet leaf (Engl.)
Palis, in Dr. E. Quisumbing's compilation, is a local name shared by (1) Callicarpa cana Linn. (2) Callicarpa formosana Rolfe (3) Callicarpa erioclona (4) Abutilon indicum, malbas, palis (Bis).
Tubang-dala is a local name shared by (1) Tigau, Callicarpa cana (2) Callicarpa erioclona (3) Callicarpa formosana
Quisumbing's compilation lists Callicarpa formosana and C. americana as synonyms. The Plant List lists them as separate species.
Callicarpa formosana is a synonym of Callicarpa pedunculata R. Br,
Callicarpa pedunculata R.Br. is an accepted name. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Zi zhu, Du huong hua, Tzu-chu ts'ao, Tzu-chu shu.
FRENCH: Callicarpe de Formose.
INDONESIAN:  Meniran, Memeniran, Ringan-ringan.
VIETNAMESE: Nang nang dai Loan, Tu chau dai Loan.

- Genus name Callicarpa derives from the Greek word 'kalli' meaning beautiful and "karpos" meaning fruit. (15)
- Species names 'pedunculatus, a, um,' is Latin, meaing 'equipped with peduncle', referring to the peduncle of inflorescences longer than the petioles. (21)

Palis is a shrub growing 1 to 3 meters high. Younger plant parts are thinly or densely covered with short, stellately arranged, brownish or pale hairs. Leaves are ovate-lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, 5 to 15 centimeters long, 2.5 to 6 centimeters wide, with a long slender, pointed tip and pointed to blunt base. Lowers surfaces of the leaves are densely covered with stellate hairs, and with numerous, small, waxy, yellow glands. Cymes are axillary, short-stalked, and 2 to 4 centimeters long. Flowers are pale purplish or lavender, and about 3 millimeters long. Fruit is a berry, fleshy, rounded, pale lavender, and 4 to 5 millimeters in diameter.

- Native to the Philippines.
- Throughout the Philippines in thickets and secondary forests at low and medium altitudes.
- Sometimes cultivated as an ornamental.
- Also native to Assam, Bismark Archipelago, China, Hainan, Himalaya, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Maluku, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, New Guinea, New South Wales, Queensland, Solomon Is., Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam.

- Ethanol extract yielded four new iridoid glycosides, 6-O -benzoylphlorigidoside B, 6-O-trans-cinna- moylphlorigidoside B, 6-O-trans-p-coumaroylshanzhiside methyl ester, and 4'- O-trans-p-coumaroylmussaenoside together with known constituents, 6b-hydroxyipolamiide and phlorigidoside B, in addition to five known clerodane diterpenoids, hardwickiic acid, monomethyl kolavate, echinophyllin C, clerodermic acid methyl ester, and 15,16-dihydro-15-methoxy-16-oxo- hardwickiic acid. (
- Study of fresh leaves yielded two new naturally occurring flavonoids, 3,4',5,7-tetramethoxyflavone and 3,3',4',5,7-pentamethoxyflavone, along with known compounds, 5-hydroxy-3,4',7-trimethoxyflavone, 5-hydroxy-3,3',4,7tetramethoxyflavone, ursolic acid, 2α,3α-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid, phytosterols, and phytosteryl glucosides. (4)
- Study of essential oil from the leaves of C. formosana yielded 48 constituents. Main components were (-) spathulenol (20.3%), ß-caryophyllene (17.22%), germacrene D (8.06%), ß-eudesmene (5.52%).
(see study below) (2)
- Phytoconstituent studies of leaves yielded flavonoids (5-hydroxy-3,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone, 5-hydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone, 5,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone, 3,5,7,3',4'-pentamethoxyflavone) and phytosterols (ß-sitosterol, ß-sitosterol-d-glucoside, stigmasterol, stigmasterol-D-glucoside), triterpenoids (2a,3a-dihhydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid, ursolic acid). (10)
- Study of fresh leaves yielded two new naturally occurring flavonoids, 3,4′,5,7-tetramethoxyflavone and 3,3′,4′,5,7-pentamethoxyflavone, along with known compounds, 5-hydroxy-3,4′,7-trimethoxyflavone, 5-hydroxy-3,3′,4,7-tetramethoxyflavone, ursolic acid, 2α,3α-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid, phytosterols, and phytosteryl glucosides. (11)
- Study of ethanol extracts of twigs and leaves isolated four new iridoid glycosides i.e., 6-O-benzoyl- phlorigidoside B (1), 6-O-trans-cinnamoylphlorigidoside B (2), 6-O-trans-p-coumaroylshanzhiside methyl ester (3), and 4'-O-trans-p-coumaroylmussaenoside (4). (12)
- Leaf essential oil of C. formosana from Vietnam was dominated by caryophyllene oxide (38.9%), ß-bisabolene (18.6%), and (E)-caryophyllene (6.5%). Composition is notably different from EO collected in Guangdong China, which was composed largely of spathulenol (20.2%), (E)-caryophyllene (17.2%), germacrene D (8.1%), and ß-eudesmol (5.5%).   (see study below) (18)
- Study of C. pedunculata yielded four diterpenes: 14α-hydroxy-7, 15-isopimaradien-18-oic acid; 16α,17-dihydroxy-3-oxophyllocladane; 8,11,13,15-abietatetraen-18-oic acid; 6α-hydroxy nidorellol. (19)
- Study of chloroform extract of whole plant yielded 14 α-hydroxy-7, 15-isopimaradien-18-oic acid (1), 16 α, 17-dihydroxy-3-oxo-phyllocladanetriol (2), 8, 11, 13, 15-abietetraen-18-oic acid (3), and 6 α-hydroxy nidorellol (4); 2 flavonoids: 5-hydroxy-3, 4′, 7-trimethoxy-flavone (5), and 3, 5-dimethyl kaempferol (6); and the others were ursolic acid (7), myoinositol (8), β-sitosterol (9), and β-amyrin (10) Conclusion Compounds 1-4 were found in this plant for the first time. (5)

- Insecticidal, repellent, antioxidant.
- Studies have shown repellent, antioxidant, antibacterial, analgesic, stanching and platelet enhancing properties.

Parts used
Leaves, flowers, roots.


- Leaves are smoked like stramonium to combat dyspnea.
- In Agusan del Sur, used for cough. (14)
- Used as insecticide.
- In Taiwanese folk medicine, used to treat rheumatism and disorders of the digestive tract (oral infections and various stomach and intestinal complaints).
- In Taiwan, entire plant used for treatment of hepatitis. Leaves used as insecticidal.(10) Crushed flowers and leaf buds are applied as styptic to wounds. Roots used for treatment of gonorrhea and as emmenagogue. Whole plant used to treat hepatitis. (17)
- Leaves, roots, and young branches utilized in traditional medicine as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiphlogistic, and haemostatic. (21)
- Fish poison: Fresh and crushed leaves used to stupefy fish, shrimp, and eels.
- Insecticidal:
Leaves used as insect feeding deterrent. (10)

Essential Oils / Antioxidant:
Study of essential oil from the leaves of C. formosana yielded 48 constituents. Main components were (-) spathulenol (20.3%), ß-caryophyllene (17.22%), germacrene D (8.06%), ß-eudesmene (5.52%). The tested oils at three concentrations displayed scavenging ability of radical DPPH in a concentration-effect relationship. (2)
New Iridoid Glycosides: Ethanol extract yielded four new iridoid glycosides. (See Constituents) (3)
Analgesic: Study evaluated the analgesic effect of C. formosana extract by hot-board method and writhing assay in mice. Results showed significantly improved inhibition rate of body twist and increment percentage of pain threshold in ethyl acetate and butanol extracts. (9)
• Antibacterial / Antioxidant: In a study of 15 medicinal plants, three extracts i.e., Melastoma candidum, Callicarpa formosana and Scutellaria barbata showed antibacterial activities. C. formosana showed good antibacterial activity only towards Gram-positive bacteria. On DPPH assay, Callicarpa formosana showed good radical scavenging activity and also yielded high total flavonoid content. (13)
• Mosquito Larvicidal / Leaf Essential Oil: The leaf essential oils of C. formosana, C. rubella (Nam Giai), C. rubella (Tay Giang) and C. sinuata showed comparable larvicidal activities with 24-h LC50 ranging from 24.2 to 31.9 µg/mL. The chemical compositions were very different. (see constituents above) (18)
Stanching and Platelet Effects: Study evaluated the stanching effect of C. pedunculata on mice using measures of coagulation time by capillary method, bleeding time and platelet count. Results showed significantly shorter coagulation and bleeding time. C. pedunculata could increase platelets of mice (p<0.05, p<0.01). Results indicated CP had stanching effect  (stopping the flow of blood from a wound) and can increase platelet count. (20)


Updated October 2022 / October 2018 / August 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: Photo / Callicarpa pedunculata / Photographer: M Fagg / Feb 2017 / Southeastern North America / click on image to go to source page / Photo No: dig. 45734 / Non-commercial Use / APII: Australian Plant Image Index
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Illustration / Plate: Callicarpa americana Blanco / Callicarpa bicolor / File:Callicarpa formosana Blanco2.427b-cropped.jpg / Flora de Filipinas / 1880 - 1883 / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A) / Modifications by Carol Spears / Public Domain / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph / Callicarpa formosana / Hong Kong Botanical Garden / 阿橋 HQ / click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
LAMIACEAE Callicarpa / Plants For Use
Chemical Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oils from the Leaves of Callicarpa formosana Rolfe / Lin Chao-Zhan, Zhu Chen-chen et al / / CNKI:SUN:RYZB.0.2009-04-016
New iridoid glycosides from the twigs and leaves of Callicarpa formosana var. formosana / Yu-Mei Wang , Huai Xiao, Ji-Kai Liu & Fei Wang / Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, 12:3, 220-226
Studies on the constituents of callicarpa formosana rolfe
/ Rong-shiow Chen, Jeng-Shiow Lai, Tian-Shung Wu / Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society 33(4) : p.329-334 (1986), 2011-10-24T06:19:42Z
Studies on chemical constituents of Callicarpa pedunculata / Yiming Hu, Yuemao Shen, X Hao et al / Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs / Corpus ID: 98921141
Callicarpa pedunculata / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Study on Analgesic Effect of Callicarpa Formosana Extracts / Song Chun / China Pharmaceuticals , 2012-22
BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE NATURAL PRODUCTS OF THE GENUS CALLICARPA / William P Jones and A Douglas Kinghorn / Curr Bioact Compd., 2008 Jun 1; 4(1): pp 15–32 / doi: 10.2174/157340708784533393
Studies on the Constituents of Callicarpa Formosana Rolfe / Rong-Shiow Chen, Jeng-Shiow Lai, Tian-shung Wu / DOI: 10.1002/jccs.198600047
New iridoid glycosides from the twigs and leaves of Callicarpa formosana var. formosana / Huai Xiao,Ji-Kai Liu, Fei Wang / Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, 2010 /
DOI: 10.1080/10286020903569434
Ethnobotanical study of indigenous plants used by local people of Agusan del Sur, Philippines
/ Rose D. Arquion, Cesario C. Galanida, Brenda Villamor, Henry T. Aguilar / Jan 2015 / Philippine Normal University, Prosperidad, Agusan del Sur
Etymology: Callicarpa formosana / NParks Flora & Fauna Web
Sorting Callicarpa names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The Univers ity of Melbourne. Australia.
Callicarpa formosana Rolfe / PROSEA: Plant Resources of South-East Asia
Callicarpa Species from Central Vietnam: Essential Oil Compositions and Mosquito Larvicidal Activities / Nguyen Huy Hung, Le Thi Huong, Nguyen Thanh Chung et al / Plants, 9(1) / DOI: 10.3390/plants9010113
Four diterpenes from Callicarpa pedunculata / Yiming Hu, Yuemao Shen, Fanyuan Gan, Xiaojiang Hao / Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 2002; 30: pp 999-1001
Experimental study of Callicarpa pedunculata R.Br. on stanching effect /
Lu Sulin, Zhong Hengliang, Xia Shuhua, Wang Liping / Journal of Guiyang Medical College, 1999; 24(3): pp 241-242
Callicarpa pedunculata /  Pietro Puccio , Mario Beltramini / Monaco Nature Encyclopedia

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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