- Genus name Callicarpa derives from the Greek word 'kalli' meaning beautiful and "karpos" meaning fruit. (15)
Palis is a shrub growing 1 to 3 meters high. Younger plant parts are thinly or densely covered with short, stellately arranged, brownish or pale hairs. Leaves are ovate-lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, 5 to 15 centimeters long, 2.5 to 6 centimeters wide, with a long slender, pointed tip and pointed to blunt base. Lowers surfaces of the leaves are densely covered with stellate hairs, and with numerous, small, waxy, yellow glands. Cymes are axillary, short-stalked, and 2 to 4 centimeters long. Flowers are pale purplish or lavender, and about 3 millimeters long. Fruit is a berry, fleshy, rounded, pale lavender, and 4 to 5 millimeters in diameter.
- Throughout the Philippines in thickets and secondary forests at low and medium altitudes.
- Sometimes cultivated as an ornamental.
- Also in China, Taiwan, and Japan.
- Ethanol extract yielded four new iridoid glycosides, 6-O -benzoylphlorigidoside B, 6-O-trans-cinna- moylphlorigidoside B, 6-O-trans-p-coumaroylshanzhiside methyl ester, and 4'- O-trans-p-coumaroylmussaenoside together with known constituents, 6b-hydroxyipolamiide and phlorigidoside B, in addition to five known clerodane diterpenoids, hardwickiic acid, monomethyl kolavate, echinophyllin C, clerodermic acid methyl ester, and 15,16-dihydro-15-methoxy-16-oxo- hardwickiic acid. (3)
- Study of fresh leaves yielded two new naturally occurring flavonoids, 3,4',5,7-tetramethoxyflavone and 3,3',4',5,7-pentamethoxyflavone, along with known compounds, 5-hydroxy-3,4',7-trimethoxyflavone, 5-hydroxy-3,3',4,7tetramethoxyflavone, ursolic acid, 2α,3α-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid, phytosterols, and phytosteryl glucosides. (4)
- Study of essential oil from the leaves of C. formosana yielded 48 constituents. Main components were (-) spathulenol (20.3%), ß-caryophyllene (17.22%), germacrene D (8.06%), ß-eudesmene (5.52%). (see study below) (2)
- Phytoconstituent studies of leaves yielded flavonoids (5-hydroxy-3,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone, 5-hydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone, 5,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone, 3,5,7,3',4'-pentamethoxyflavone) and phytosterols (ß-sitosterol, ß-sitosterol-d-glucoside, stigmasterol, stigmasterol-D-glucoside), triterpenoids (2a,3a-dihhydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid, ursolic acid). (10)
- Study of fresh leaves yielded two new naturally occurring flavonoids, 3,4′,5,7-tetramethoxyflavone and 3,3′,4′,5,7-pentamethoxyflavone, along with known compounds, 5-hydroxy-3,4′,7-trimethoxyflavone, 5-hydroxy-3,3′,4,7-tetramethoxyflavone, ursolic acid, 2α,3α-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid, phytosterols, and phytosteryl glucosides. (11)
- Study of ethanol extracts of twigs and leaves isolated four new iridoid glycosides i.e., 6-O-benzoyl- phlorigidoside B (1), 6-O-trans-cinnamoylphlorigidoside B (2), 6-O-trans-p-coumaroylshanzhiside methyl ester (3), and 4'-O-trans-p-coumaroylmussaenoside (4). (12)
- Insecticidal, repellent, antioxidant.
- Studies have shown repellent, antioxidant, antibacterial, analgesic properties.
- Leaves are smoked like stramonium to combat dyspnea.
- In Agusan del Sur, used for cough. (14)
- Used as insecticide.
- In Taiwanese folk medicine, used to treat rheumatism and disorders of the digestive tract (oral infections and various stomach and intestinal complaints).
- In Taiwan, entire plant used for treatment of hepatitis. Leaves used as insecticidal.(10)
- Fish poison: Fresh and crushed leaves used to stupefy fish.
- Insecticidal: Leaves used as insect feeding deterrent. (10)
• Essential Oils / Antioxidant: Study of essential oil from the leaves of C. formosana yielded 48 constituents. Main components were (-) spathulenol (20.3%), ß-caryophyllene (17.22%), germacrene D (8.06%), ß-eudesmene (5.52%). The tested oils at three concentrations displayed scavenging ability of radical DPPH in a concentration-effect relationship. (2)
• New Iridoid Glycosides: Ethanol extract yielded four new iridoid glycosides. (See Constituents) (3)
• Repellent: Study of Callicarpa americana yielded three repellent chemicals: callicarpenal, intermedeol, and spathulenol. The chemicals exhibited repellent activities against mosquitoes known to transmit yellow fever and malaria. (5) (6)
• Callicarpenal and Intermedeol / Repellant: Studies have shown callicarpenal and intermedeol to have significant bite-deterring activity against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. Study evaluated the compounds for repellent activity against host-seeking nymphs of the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis (a vector for Lyme disease) and Amblyomma cajennense (Rocky Mountain spotted fever), and A. americanum (vector for erlichiosis). Results showed both compounds showed more effective repellent activity than DEET against both mosquito species. (7)
• Analgesic: Study evaluated the analgesic effect of C. formosana extract by hot-board method and writhing assay in mice. Results showed significantly improved inhibition rate of body twist and increment percentage of pain threshold in ethyl acetate and butanol extracts. (9)
• Antibacterial / Antioxidant: In a study of 15 medicinal plants, three extracts i.e., Melastoma candidum, Callicarpa formosana and Scutellaria barbata showed antibacterial activities.
C. formosana showed good antibacterial activity only towards Gram-positive bacteria. On DPPH assay, Callicarpa formasana showed good radical scavenging activity and also yielded high total flavonoid content. (13)