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Family Geraniaceae
Pelargonium x hortorum
L. H. Bailey

Scientific names Common names
Pelargonium x hortorum L.H.Bailey Geranium (Engl.)
  Garden geranium (Engl.)
Pelargonium iis a genus of flowering plants which include about 200 species of perennials, succulents, and shrubs, commonly known as geraniums. Confusingly, Geranium is the correct botanical name of a separate genus of related plants called cranesbills or hardy geraniums. Wikipedia
There is considerable confusion as to which Pelargonium are true species, which are cultivars or hybrids. Zonal pelargoniums (Pelargonium x hortorum) are often confused being called 'Geranium.' Wikipedia
Pelargonium × hortorum L.H. Bailey is an accepted name The Plant List

Pelargonium hortorum is a low, leafy perennial herb growing to a height of 1 to 2 feet with soft, succulent stems. Leaves are opposite and long petioled, rounded, indented or deeply lobed. Flowers are in various colors, irregular with 5 petals.

- Native to South Africa.
- Introduced.
- Thrives well in Baguio, Tagaytay, and other elevated places.

- BVOCs (biogenic volatile organic compounds) release using HS-SPME in situ were: α-pinene, camphene, ß-pinene, myrcene, limonene, linalool, isocaryophilene, caryophyllene, ß-farnesene, α-humulene, α-acoradiene, α-gurjunene, ß-selinene, ß-bisabolene, y-bisobolene, α-bisabolene, α-cedrol, squalene, y-cadinene, o-cadinene. (8)

- Studies have suggested hemostatic, antimicrobial, phytoremediative, insecticidal, antibacterial, anticancer properties

Parts utilized
Leaves and flowers.

- Leaf infusions used for external skin applications.
- Used for baths, tonics and steams.
- In the Andean regions, used as a local hemostatic medicine.
- Scented flowers and leaves used for sachets.
- Solution from boiled leaves used to wash leprous sores after treatment with Citrus limon.

Hemostatic Effect: Study of the leaves of a geraniaceae (P zonale) was tested on a bleeding rat model.
The bleeding time was shorter in the geranium leaf juice treatment group. Results confirm the hemostatic effect of the leaves, with an efficacy similar (leaf juice) or better (crushed leaves) than a commercial hemostatic sponge. (1)
Antimicrobial: Methanolic extracts of representative species and cultivars of Pelargonium were tested for activity against 25 species of bacteria and Aspergillus niger. All samples showed activity against 18, some were active against all 25. There was poor antifungal activity. (2)
Phytoremediation: Study evaluated five pelargonium species for cleaning up contaminated soil and their ability to phytoextract different metals (Nickel, Chrome, Lead, and Cadmium). Perlargonium hortorum showed best transfer factor (TFS) for lead (Pb). (3)
Essential Oil / Insecticidal Activity: Essential oil from aerial parts yielded 36 components, with principal compounds as 1,8-cineole (23.01%), α-terpineol (13.22%), α-pinene (8.13%) and camphor (8.12%) followed by 4-terpineol (4.63%), β-myrcene (4.56%) and β- caryophyllene (4.08%). The essential oil exhibited contact toxicity and also fumigant toxicity against grain storage insects L. bostrychophilia and S. zeamais. (4)
Essential Oils / Geraniol / Dental Benefits / Antibacterial: Isolated essential oil of geranium (geraniol) was used in the preparation of toothpaste, extracts and mouthwashes which showed a property to prevent dental caries and periodontal disease. It also showed bacterial growth inhibition. Results suggest a potential for a very economical product with particular benefit for the poor. (6)
Anacardic Acid / Anti-Cancer Activity: Anacardic acid (2-hydroxy-6-alkylbenzoic acid) is a dietary and medicinal phytochemical with established anticancer activity in cell and animal models. In the study, AnAc 24:1 inhibits cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis in an ER-dependent manner by reducing ER-DNA interaction and inhibiting ER-mediated transcriptional responses. (7)

Insecticide / Repellent / Oil from Leaves: Study evaluated the insecticide and repellent activity of acetone extract of oil from fresh leaves against 2nd and 4th instar larvae of Spodoptera littoralis. Oil showed medium toxicity against 2nd instar larvae and low toxicity against 4th instar larvae, while the extract showed high significant toxicity at all concentrations against the two instars. Both oil and extract showed highly significant repellency against the two tested instars. (9)
Geranium Oil / Toothpaste and Oral Products / Antibacterial: Study isolated and purified the essential oil of geranium and used in the preparation of toothpaste extracts, and mouthwashes with the potential to prevent dental caries and periodontal disease. Study showed the oil has considerable power to inhibit bacterial growth, especially germs that cause plaque and tooth decay. In the study, nine out of ten plates showed complete inhibition of bacterial growth. (10)
• Anticancer / Anacardic Acid: Anacardic acid purified from garden geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum) has shown inhibitory activity on cancer breast lines. (Schultz 2011) (11)
• Antifungal / Antibacterial / Essential Oil / Leaves: Study evaluated 50 commercial essential oils at four different concentrations against a variety of 25 bacterial genera. Leaves oStreptococcus mutans. (12)


Updated February 2018 / June 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / File:Pelargonium × hortorum (4).JPG/ Tiếng Việt: Phong lữ thảo / Prenn / 22 April 2012 / Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license / click on photo to see source image / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Topical Hemostatic Effect of a Common Ornamental Plant, the Geraniaceae Pelargonium zonale / Ximena Paez and Luis Hernandez / Laboratory of Behavioral Physiology, School of Medicine, Universidad de los Andes, Venezuela.
Antimicrobial effects of hydrophilic extracts of Pelargonium species (Geraniaceae) / M Lis-Balchin and S G Deans / Letters in Applied Microbiology • Volume 23 Issue 4, Pages 205 - 207
Greenhouse Study of Cadmium and Lead phytoextraction by five Pelargonium species / Maryam Manshadi, Parisa Ziarati*, Maryam Ahmadi, Kiarash Fekri / International Journal of Farming and Allied Sciences, Vol., 2 (18): 665-669, 2013
Composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil of Pelargonium hortorum flowering aerial parts from China against two grain storage insects / Xin Chao Liu, Kai Yang, Shu Ying Wang, Xuan Gao Wang, Zhi Long Liu* and Jun Cheng / Journal of Medicinal Plant Research , Vol. 7(44), pp. 3263-3268, 25 November, 2013
/ DOI: 10.5897/JMPR12.280
Pelargonium / Wikipedia
Toothpaste based on medical and therapeutic properties of essential oil of geranium (Pelargonium x
/ Karolina V. Flores Huamán, Susan Laime Soto* / uap.edu.pe/Investigaciones
Anacardic acid inhibits estrogen receptor alpha-DNA binding and reduces target gene transcription and breast cancer cell proliferation / David J. Schultz, Nalinie S. Wickramasinghe, [...], and Carolyn M. Klinge / Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, Mar 2010; 9(3): 594–605 / doi: 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-09-0978
A direct quantitative analysis method for monitoring biogenic volatile organic compounds released from leaves of Pelargonium hortorum in situ / Xianjun Deng, Jinyin Peng, Bin Luo, Ming Wei, Wenli Hu, Jiawei Du / Anal Bioanal Chem (2004) 380: 950-957 / DOI 10.1007/s00126-004-2874-9.
Repellent and Insecticide Activity of Pelargonium x hortorum against Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) / Mohamed Farag, Mohamed H. M. Ahmed, Heba Yousef, Samy S. El-badawey, Melegi A. Abd El-Ghany, Adel A.-H. Abdel-Rahman / Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C / A Journal of BiosciencesVolume 67, Issue 7-8 (Aug 2012)
Toothpaste based on medical and therapeutic properties of essential oil of geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum) / Karolina V. Flores Huamán, Susan Laime Soto* / UAP.edu
Medicinal Plants in Australia, Vol 3: Plants, Potions and Poisons / Cheryl Williams
acqueline Yolande Yvette Lalli / Dissertation 2005 / Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand,, Johannesburg

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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