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Family Onagraceae
Ludwigia adscendens (L.) H.Hara
Cao li yin chao

Scientific names  Common names
Jussiaea adscendens L.  Gabi-gabi (Mag.)
Jussiaea repens L.  Sigang-dagat (Tag.) 
Ludwigia adscendens  (L.) H. Hara Creeping water primrose (Engl.)
Infraspecific taxa Floating primrose-willow (Engl.)
Ludwigia adscendens  subsp. diffusa (Forssk.) P.H.Raven Water dragon (Engl.)
  Water primrose (Engl.)
Jussiaea repens L. is a synonym of Ludwigia adscendens (L.) H. Hara The Plant List
Ludwigia adscendens (L.) H.Hara is an accepted name The Plant List
Sigang-dagat is a shared common name for three herbal medicinal plants of different Genus: (1) Jussiaea inclinata, gabi-gabi (2) Trichodesma zeylanicum, dilang-usa, mabulo (3) Pseudelephantopus spicatus, dilang-aso, dila-dila.

Other vernacular names
ASSAMESE: Pani khutora.
BENGALI: Keshardam, Mulcha, Mulsi, Mochi, Pokal panlawang.
CHINESE: Yu chai cao, Shui lung.
KANNADA: Neeru bachhali, Neeti theegalu.
MALAYALAM: Nir-charambu.
MANIPURI: Ising kundo.
NEPALI: Jadelo.
TELUGU: Neeru bachhali, Neeti theegalu.

Sigang-dagat is a perennial creeping or floating, smooth herbaceous aquatic plant. Leaves are obovate to oblong-ovate, rounded or obtuse, 1.5 to 5 centimeters long, the floating stem frequently with cylindric white vesicles at the node. Flowers are 5-parted and borne in the axil of the leaves. Calyx-lobes are lanceolate, about 7 millimeters long. Petals are obovate, white, pale yellow at the base and about 12 millimeters long. Stamens are 8, inserted; ovary 4-celled. Fruits are capsular, linear, cylindric, 2 to 3 centimeters long, about 3 millimeters in diameter, narrow at the base, and somewhat longitudinally ridged.

- In the shallow water of quiet streams, in shallow lakes, and in fresh-water swamps throughout the Philippines at low and medium altitudes.
- Common weed in rice paddies.
- Pantropic.

- Study of aerial parts of J. repens L. isolated a new acylated avicularin, avicularin 2''-(4'''-O-n-pentanoyl)-gallate (1) along with 12 metabolites, viz., trifolin 2''-O-gallate, quercetrin, guaijaverin, reynoutrin, juglanin, avicularin, hyperin, trifolin, hyperin 2''-O-gallate, rutin, kaempferol and quercetin.
- Leaves, stems and flower petals yield flavonoid glycosides, kaempferol-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoglucoside (rutin), quercetin-3-galactoside, mericetin-3-rhamnoside and isosalipurposide. Plant also yields terpenes, triterpenoids, flavonoids, anthraquinones, phenols, tannins, alkaloids, ursolic acid, carbohydrates, and proteins. (Ghani, 2003)
- Air-dried powder of L. adscendens yielded squalene (1), betulonic acid (2), betulin (3), betulinic acid (4), a mixture of (24R)-6b-hydroxy-stigmast-4-en-3-one and (22E,24R)-6b-hydroxy-stigmast- 4,22-dien-3-one (5a and b), pteleoellagic acid (6), 3,30,40-tri-O- methyl ellagic acid (7), dihydroquercetin or (þ)-trans taxifolin (8), quercetin (9), protocatechuic acid (10), afzelin (11), quercitrin (12), methyl gallate (13, gallic acid (14), and myricitrin (15).
- Mineral content analysis (ppm) yielded Cu 0.019, Fe 2.633, Cr 0.001, Pb 0.11, Mn 3.618, Cd 0.017, Ca 22.4, Mg 2.28, Na 2.12, K 5.82, and Zn 2.39. (15)

- Antipyretic, diuretic, blood refrigerant and antidote.
- Astringent, emetic, antidysenteric.
- Antibiotic, antiphlogistic, alleviates swelling.
- Plain or sweet tasting, slightly cooling to refrigerant in nature.

- Studies have suggested antioxidant, antibacterial, molluscicidal, contraceptive, antifertility, uterotonic, and hematinic properties.

Parts utilized
- Entire plant, leaves, stems.

- In southwestern China, plant is eaten as vegetable.

- Decoction of dried material used for colds with fever, intense coughing, and inability to urinate.
- Pounded fresh material applied as poultice to carbuncle, sprains, and snake bites.
- In the Antilles, used as an emollient.
- Decoction used as astringent for dysentery.

- Malays used it for poulticing skin complaints.
- In Papua New Guinea, stems and leaves of the plant used as contraceptive.
- In India, leaf decoction with black pepper taken orally for stomach pain and treatment of intestinal worms. (15)
- In Thailand, decoction of whole plant used orally for fever and diarrhea. (16)
- In West Bengal, India, whole plant paste applied to bone fracture and rheumatism. (17)

Antioxidant: Study showed crude extract and four fractions to show antioxidant activities, most active in the rosmarinic acid, kaempferol and quercetin components. (1)
Molluscicidal: In a study of 43 plant species from 33 different families, 11 species, including J repens showed molluscicidal activity against snails (Bullinus truncatus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi). (2)
Flavonoids / Biologic Activities: Study of an ethyl acetate extract of aerial parts yielded a new acylated avicularin along with 12 metabolites. (See above) The extract was non-toxic and exhibited significant antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities. Some of the isolated flavonoids showed cytotoxicity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells. (4)
Antioxidant / Mechanisms: Study of three extracts for antioxidant effects showed the ethyl-acetate soluble fraction to have the highest antioxidant activity. Results showed rosmarinic acid,quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside are the major antioxidant constituents, and the antioxidant activities of phenolics depended mainly on the number of hydrogen-donating hydroxyl groups on the aromatic ring of the phenolic molecules. (5)
Antibacterial: Study of methanolic extract of whole pants of Ludwigia adscendens showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against all bacteria tested except Staphylococcus aureus. (6)
Antifertility / Antigonadal Herbal Contraceptive: Study evaluated crude aqueous extracts of J. repens on adult male albino Wistar rats. Results showed oral administration of extract may be considered a nontoxic antigonadal with dose- and duration-dependent male antifertility effects. (8) In a study that confirmed the anti-fertility effects of J. repens and potential as herbal male contraceptive, reversal studies caused recovery of reproductive parameters towards normal revealing the nontoxicity. (9)
Uterotonic: Study evaluated crude aqueous extract of J. repens (except roots) for effect on in vitro uterine contraction on isolated non-pregnant uterus of adult female rats in-vitro and compared it to oxytocin. Results showed significant increase in force and frequency of contraction than normal. The extract may act as oxytocin which is antagonized by atropine. J. repens extract acts as herbal uterotonic and can be applied after full term pregnancy. Results could justify the use of extract in traditional medicine to facilitate childbirth, milk ejection, placental expulsion, abortion, etc. (11)
Haematinic / Antianemic Potential: Study evaluated the potential of medicinal herb Jussiaea repens in preventing anemia in three groups of adult male albino rats: control n=6; 2,4-DNPH induced anemia (2 mg/100 gm bw/day ip/n=18); and JR supplementation and treatment (20 mg/100 gm bw/day p.o./n=6). Various parameters were observed including PCV, MCHC, free hemoglobin, and erythrocyte morphology. Results suggest the crude ethanolic extract can prevent anemia, with a potential for use as a potent antianaemic drug. (13)


© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Updated June 2018 / June 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: / Jussiaea repens L. - JURE6 / Wildflowers and ferns of Kentucky. University Press of Kentucky. /©Thomas G. Barnes, hosted by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Barnes, T.G., and S.W. Francis. 2004. Wildflowers and ferns of Kentucky. University Press of Kentucky. / click on image to go to source page / USDA
Photo / Leaves © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Onagraceae - Jussiaea repens - Jussiaea grandiflora. / From: Dictionnaire des sciences naturelles. Planches … Botanique classée d'après la méthode naturelle de M. Antoine-Laurent de Jussieu by Pierre Jean François Turpin. / Paris & Strasbourg, F.G. Levrault, 1816-1829, volume 5, plate 218. Hand-coloured engraving after Turpin (sheet 120 x 213 mm)./ Meemelink

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Antioxidative principals of Jussiaea repens: an edible medicinal plant
/ Hai-Lan Huang et al / International Journal of Food Science & Technology • Volume 42 Issue 10, Pages 1219 - 1227

Ludwigia adscendens (L.) Hara / Catalogue of Life, China
Flavonoids and biological activities of Jussiaea repens / Marzouk MS, Soliman FM, Shehata IA, Rabee M, Fawzy GA. / Nat Prod Res. 2007 May;21(5):436-43.
Study on Antioxidant Effects and Medchanism of Extracts from Jussiaea repens on Edible Oil and Fat
HUANG Hai-Lan, WANG Zhen-Gong, FU Bing-Zhong, XU Bo / FOOD SCIENCE 2008, Vol. 29 Issue (8): 80-82
Antibacterial activity of Ludwigia adscendens. / Ahmed F, Selim MS, Shilpi JA. / Fitoterapia. 2005 Jul;76(5):473-5.
Chemical constituents from Ludwigia adscendens / Jamil A. Shilpi, Alexander I. Gray, Ve ́ronique Seidel* / Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 38 (2010) 106–109 /
DOI: 10.1016/j.bse.2009.12.014
Jussiaea repens as a Herbal Cotraceptive - A Mating Study in Male Rats / Subhasis Ghoshal, Arnab Das, Kajari Bhattacharya, Maitrayee Mondal, Indrani Chakraborty, Nimai Masanta, Nirmal Pradhan / Journal of Environment and Sociobiology, 2015
Ludwigia adscendens / Synonyms / The Plant List
Jussiaea repens (L) Acts as an Uterotonic Agent - An In vitro Study / Indrani Chakraborty, Subhasish Ghosal, Nirmal Pradhan* / Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 27(2), July – August 2014; Article No. 64, Pages: 368-372
Ludwigia adscendens / Medicinal Plants of Bangladesh
Haematinic Potential of Jussiaea repens L – A Search for Antianaemic Herb / Arnab Das, Subhasish Ghosal, Indrani Chakraborty and Nirmal Pradhan* / British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 8, Issue 5
Water primrose / Common names / Flowers of India
Elemental analysis of some ethnomedicinaly important hydrophytes and marsh plants of India used in traditional medicine / Somnath Bhowmik*, Badal Kumar Datta / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (2012); S1227-S1231
A SURVEY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS AROUND UPPER SONGKHLA LAKE, THAILAND / Oratai Neamsuvan*, Narumon Sengnon, Nittaya Seemaphrik, Metinee Chouychoo, Rojjana Rungrat, Sujittra Bunrasri / Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2015) 12(2):133-143 / http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v12i2.20
Local folk use of plants in Dakshin Dinajpur district of West Bengal, India / Chowdhury Tanmay, De Sarker Dilip and Roy Chandra Subhas / International Research Journal of Biological Sciences, May 2014; Vol. 3(5): pp 67-79

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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