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Family Moraceae
Sikir
Fatoua pilosa Gaudich.
HAIRY CRABWEED

Shui she ma

Scientific names Common names
Fatoua pilosa Gaudich. Sarungkar-a- babasit (Ilk.)
Fatoua japonica Blume Sikir (Ilk.)
Fatoua villosa (Thunberg) Nakai Kuwa kusa (Japanese)
Urtica japonica Thunb. Hairy crabweed (Engl.)
Urtica manillensis Walp. Mulberry weed (Engl.)
Fatoua pilosa Gaudich. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Shui she ma, Xiao she ma.

Botany
Sikir is an ascending or erect, slightly branched, half-woody, slightly hairy perennial herb, 50 centimeters high or less, with slender, terete branches. Leaves are ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 2 to 6 centimeters long, and 1 to 4 centimeters wide, the tip pointed, and broad at the base, truncate or somewhat heart-shaped, 3-nerved, with crenate-dentate margins. Fruit is usually a drupe, rarely an achene, enveloped by an enlarged calyx or immersed in a fleshy receptacle. Seed is solitary.

Distribution
- In dry thickets, on walls, cliffs, etc. at low altitudes from northern Luzon to Mindanao.
- Also occurs in Japan and China, and southward to Malaya.

Properties
- Febrifuge, diuretic.
- Plant reported to cause itching of mild degree.
(4)

Constituents
- Study isolated umbelliferone, phellodenol A, psoralen and scopoletin, bergapten, (+)-(S)-marmesin, (+)-(S)-rutaretin, and xanthyletin from the whole plants of Fatoua pilosa.
(See study below) (5)
- Study reports calcium carbonate in the leaves--cytoliths were located in the epidermal lithocysts. (6)


Parts used
Fresh roots.

Uses

Folkloric
- In the Visayas, decoction of fresh roots is given in fevers.
- Also effective for swollen gums when used as a gargle.
- Infusion of roots used for irregular menstruation.
- Root infusion also used as diuretic.

Studies
Prenylcoumarins / Fatouains:
Study of the whole plant yielded six new prenylcoumarins: (+)-fatouain A, (−)-fatouain B, (+)-fatouain C, (−)-fatouain D, (+)-fatouain E, and (−)-fatouain F, along with two new bis-prenylcoumarins, (+)-fatouain G and (+)-fatouain H. (1)
Fatouapilosin / Antimycobacterial: Study yielded one novel dimeric coumarin analog, fatouapilosin, together with 18 known compounds. Compounds 3, 12, and 14 exhibited the strongest antimycobacterial activities against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. (2)
Coumarins / Umbelliferone and Scopoletin / Antimycobacterial: Study isolated umbelliferone, phellodenol A, psoralen and scopoletin, bergapten, (+)-(S)-marmesin, (+)-(S)-rutaretin, and xanthyletin from the whole plants of Fatoua pilosa. Umbelliferone and scoploletin exhibited antimycobacterial activity. (5)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update October 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: Fatoua villosa / File:Fatoua villosa 2007.07.15 14.37.23-p7150082.jpg / Michael Becker / 15 July 2007 / GNU Free Documentation License / Wikimedia Commons / Modifications by G. Stuart

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Prenyl Coumarins from Fatoua pilosa / Chun-Ching Chiang, Ming-Jen Cheng et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2010, 73 (10), pp 1718–1722 / DOI: 10.1021/np100354c
(2)
A Novel Dimeric Coumarin Analog and Antimycobacterial Constituents from Fatoua pilosa / Chun-Ching, Ming-Jen Cheng et al / Chemistry & Biodiversity, Volume 7, Issue 7, pages 1728–1736, July 2010 / DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.200900326
(3)
Fatoua villosa (Thunb.) Nakai / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(4)
MORACEA (Mulberry family) / Botanical Dermatology Database Info / BoDD
(5)
Review on Natural Coumarin Lead Compounds for Their Pharmacological Activity / K. N. Venugopala, V. Rashmi, and B. Odhav / BioMed Research International, Volume 2013 (2013) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/963248
(6)
Calcium crystals in the leaves of some species of Moraceae / Chi-Chih Wu / Botanical Studies, An International Journal.

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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