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Family Agavaceae

Spotted dracaena
Dracaena surculosa Lindl.
GOLD DUST DRACAENA

Scientific names Common names
Dracaena godseffiana Sander ex Mast. Gold dust dracaena (Engl.)
Dracaena surculosa Lindl. Spotted dracaena (Engl.)
Draco surculosa (Lindl.) Kuntze  
Nemampsis ternifolia Raf.  
Pleomele godseffiana ( Sander ex Mast.) N.E.Br.  
Pleomele surculosa (Lindl.) N.E.Br.  
Dracaena surculosa Lindl. is an accepted name The Plant List


Botany
Dracaena surculosa is a small, slender shrub growing up to 2 meters, with wiry spreading stems. Leaves are opposite or whorled, elliptic or oblong-elliptic and cuspidate. Blade is thin, glossy, deep green with numerous, irregular small, yellow spots, with entire margins. Flowers are greenish. Fruit is a red berry.

The variety D. surculosa var. surculosa has a racemose inflorescence. D. surculosa var. capitata flowers in a capitate or headlike inflorescence. D. godseffiana 'Florida beauty' has leaflets almost entirely covered by creamy-white blotches. D. surculosa 'Friedman' has elliptic, olive green leaves with cream blotches and a broad ivory center band.

Distribution
- Recently introduced to the Philippines.
- Native to Congo.

Constituents
- Study of whole plant isolated nine steroidal saponins, including three new bisdesmosidic spirostanol saponins, surculosides A, B, and C (1-3), and a new bisdesmosidic furastanol saponin (4). (see study below) (1)
- Study isolated two new 3,5-cyclospirostanol saponins (1, 2) and two new 3,5-cyclofurostanol saponins (3, 4), established as (24S,25R)-1b-[(b-D-fu- copyranosyl)oxy]-6b-hydroxy-3a,5a-cyclospirostan-24-yl b-D-glucopyranoside (1), (24S,25R)-1b-[(b-D-glucopyra- nosyl)oxy]-6b-hydroxy-3a,5a-cyclospirostan-24-yl b-D-glucopyranoside (2), (25S)-1b-[(b-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]- 6b-hydroxy-22a-methoxy-3a,5a-cyclofurostan-26-yl b-D-glucopyranoside (3), and (25S)-1b-[(b-D-fucopyra- nosyl)oxy]-6b-hydroxy-22a-methoxy-3a,5a-cyclofurostan-26-yl b-D-glucopyranoside (4), respectively. (2)

Uses
Folkloric
• No known medicinal folkloric use in the Philippines.
• Dracaena produces a bright red resin - dragon's blood - used medicinally in ancient times.

Studies
Steroidal Saponins / Cytotoxicity: Phytochemical study isolated nine steroidal saponins, including three new bisdesmosidic spirostanol saponins–surculosides A, B and C and a new bisdesmosidic furostanol saponin. The isolated saponins were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells. (1)
Steroidal Saponins: Study isolated two new 3,5-cyclosspirostanol saponins (1,2) and two new 3,5-cyclofurostanol saponins (3,4). (2)

Toxicity
• Reported toxicity to cats. (4)

Availability
Cultivated.

Last Update August 2016

Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Steroidal Saponins from Dracaena surculosa / Akihito Yokosuka et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2000, 63 (9), pp 1239–1243 / DOI: 10.1021/np000145j
(2)
Four New 3,5-Cyclosteroidal Saponins from Dracaena surculosa / Akhito Yokosuka et al / CHEMICAL & PHARMACEUTICAL BULLETIN, Vol. 50 (2002) , No. 7 992
(3)
Dracaena surculosa / Synonyms / The Plant List
(4)
Dracaena surculosa: Plants toxic to cats / Ritchie Feed & Seed

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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