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Family Rosaceae
Fragaria vesca Linn.

Ye cao mei

Scientific names  Common names 
Dactylophyllum fragaria Spenn. Sow-teat strawberry (Engl.)
Fragaria abnormis Tratt. Woodland strawberry (Engl.)
Fragaria aliena Weihe Wild strawberry (Engl.)
Fragaria alpina (Weston) Steud.  
Fragaria boyformis Duchesne  
Fragaria chinensis Losinsk.  
Fragaria concolor Kitag.  
Fragaria eflagellis Duchesne  
Fragaria florentina Poit. & Turpin  
Fragaria insularis Rydb.  
Fragaria sylvestris (L.) Weston  
Fragaria unifolia Steud.  
Fragaria vesca Linn.  
Fragaria vulgaris Ehrh.  
Potentilla vesca (L.) Scop.  
Fragaria vesca L. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Al farawlah, Frawlah (Egypt), Shulayk.
CHINESE: Ou zhou cao mei, Ye cao mei, Sen lin cao mei.
CZECH: Jahodník obecný.
DANISH: Havejordbaer , Skovjordbær, Skov-Jordbær, Vild jordbær.
DUTCH: Bosaardbei, Bosaardbeien.
ESTONIAN: Metsmaasikas.
FINNISH: Ahomansikka.
FRENCH: Fraise des bois, Fraisier comestible, Fraisier commun, Fraisier des bois.
GERMAN: Walderbeere, Wald-Erdbeere.
HUNGARIAN: Erdei szamóca.
ITALIAN: Fragola comune, Fragola di bosco, Fragola selvatica, Frangola alpina.
JAPANESE: Wairudo sutoroberii.
NORWEGIAN: Markjordbær.
PERSIAN: Tut farangy.
POLISH: Poziomka pospolita.
PORTUGUESE: Moranga, Morango-silvestre, Morango silvestre europeu, Morangueiro-bravo.
SPANISH: Fresa de los bosques, Fresa silvestre, Frutilla de los bosques.
SWEDISH: Månadssmultron , Skogssmultron, Smultron.
THAI: Satroboery.

Fragaria vesca is perennial herb spreading through runners, 5-20 centimeters high with short rhizomes. The leaves , borne on long stalks, are compound with three-foliate and toothed . The flowers are white with five petals that fall off shortly after pollination, and from the receptacle forms the sweet and red fruit.

Widely cultivated in the Trinidad valley of Benguet.

Parts utilized
Whole plant.

- Studies have yielded ellagic acid, flavonoids, carotenoids and terpenoids responsible for antioxidant activity.
- Leaves and roots yield tannins (argimonin and pedunculagin), vitamin C, traces of oil, proanthocyanins, flavonoids (quercetin and rutin), phenolic acids (salicylic acid, coffee acid and chlorogenic acid), among others, (15)
- Fruit yields salicylic acid, invert sugar ( a mixture of glucose and fructose( vitamins A and B, and anthocyanin *fragarine." (15)
- Leaf and fruit yield flavonoid, tannin, borneol and ellagic acid.
- Fruit and leaves have been shown to contain: cissotanic, malic and citric acids, sugar, pectin, vitamin C, potassium, manganese, fiber, ellagitannins, ellagic acid, pelargonidin, cyanidin, anthocyanins, omega-3 FA, riboflavin, folate, magnesium, copper.
- Study for secondary metabolites in fruits yielded flavonoids, phenolic acids, tannins, and anthocyanins. There was greater yield of anthocyanins in wild strawberry than in cultivated ones. Mean phenolic concentration ranged from 1.648 mg/g-2.348 mg/g, with higher yield in the wild form. (9)
- Nutrient analysis for raw strawberries per 100 g yielded: (Proximates) water 90.95g, energy 32 kcal or 136 kJ, protein 0.67 g, total lipid (fat) 0.30 g, ash 0.40 g, carbohydrates by difference 7.68 g, total dietary fiber 2.0 g, total sugars 4.89 g, sucrose 0.47 g, glucose 1.99 g, fructose 2.44 g, starch 0.04 g; (Minerals) calcium 16 mg, iron 0.41 mg, magnesium 13 mg, phosphorus 24 mg, potassium 153 mg, sodium 1 mg, zinc 0.14 mg, copper 0.048 mg, magnesium 0.386 mg, selenium 0.4 µg, fluoride 4.4 µg; (Vitamins) vitamin C 58.8 mg, thiamin 0.024 mg, riboflavin 0.022 mg, niacin 0.386 mg, pantothenic acid 0.125 mg, vitamin B6 0.047 mg, total folate 24 µg, total choline 5.7 mg, betaine 0.2 mg, vitamin A RAE 1 µg, beta carotene 7 µg, vitamin A 12 IU, lutein +zeaxanthin 26 µg, vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol 0.29 mg, vitamin K (phylloquinone) 2.2 µg; (Lipids) total saturated fatty acids 0.015 g, total monosaturated FA 0.043 g, total polyunsaturated FA 0.155 g, transfat 0, cholesterol 0, phytosterols 12 mg; along with amino acids, flavanones, flavones, flavonols, isoflavones, and proantocyanidins. (16)

- Considered alterative, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, astringent, calmative, depurative, diuretic, laxative, refrigerant and tonic.

- Fresh leaves used to make tea.
- In India, roots used to make a coffee substitute.
The leaf tea claimed to improve the appetite; also as a mild astringent for diarrhea and digestive upsets and a cleansing diuretic for rheumatic disorders
The leaf decoction also used for chronic diarrhea.
The roots has same medicinal properties.
Fruit used for intestinal worms, gout, arthritis, jaundice, liver and stomach problems.
For bladder stones, the juice of fresh strawberry is taken before breakfast; also, preventive.
Also used for podagra.
In Campania, Italy, leaf infusion used as appetizer. Leaves used topically on wounds. source
In folk medicine elsewhere, for diabetes, cancer, hypertension, tuberculosis, tumors, and urogenital problems.

Cosmetics: Fruit has been used for toning and whitening the skin, for combating wrinkles and freckles, soothing sunburn and whitening teeth.

Cardiovascular Effects / Leaves: Study on the aqueous extracts of wild strawberry leaves showed direct, endothelium-dependent vasodilation activity mediated by NO and cyclooxygenase products, with a potency similar to hawthorn aqueous extract.
Analgesic: Study evaluated ethanolic extracts of fruit and whole plant for analgesic activities in experimental animal models using tail flick method (central action) and acetic acid-induced writhing (peripheral action). Results showed significant central and peripheral analgesic activity, the the fruit extract showing better analgesic effect than the plant extract. (2)
Antioxidant: Study of 23 Bulgarian medicinal plants included Fragaria vesca to be one of five plants extracts that exhibited higher antioxidant activity. A positive correlation between antioxidant activity and polyphenol content. (3) Study data indicated that wild strawberries have a slightly higher total antioxidant capacity content than cultivated strawberries. Altitude did not report differences. (4)

Diuretic / Nephroprotective / Fruits: Study evaluated the diuretic and nephroprotective activity of different extracts of Fragaria vesca fruits in rats. Results showed good diuretic activity by Lipschitz method with increase in urine volume and K+ ion excretion. The fruit extracts showed moderate nephroprotective effect against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. (10)
Ellagitannin / Anti-Cancer / Fruits: Study evaluated the anticancer properties of an elligitannin-enriched fraction from Fragaria vesca leaves in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). Results showed EEF promoted cell cycle arrest at G2/M checkpoint and modulated autophagy, processes that are targets for therapeutic strategies in oncological diseases. (11)
Antibacterial / Leaves: In a study comparing the antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of various plants, Fragaria vesca leaf extract showed zones of inhibition against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (12)
Antibacterial against Metallo-Beta-Lactamase VIM-2 Producers P. aeruginosa: Study evaluated F. vesca extract and polyphenol rich fractions against isolates of MBL VIM-2 producers P. aeruginosa. Results showed interesting activity against the PA clinical isolates. One or more of the polyphenols can have potential as novel antibacterial therapies against these bacteria. (13)
Hypolipidemic / Leaves: Study evaluated the hypolipidemic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of F. vesca in high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in Wistar rats. Results showed significant hypolipidemic activity. The ethanolic extract at 500mg/kg was almost equal to atorvastatin. (14)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study evaluated a hydroalcoholic extract from F. vesca leaves for anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of nitric oxide production and expression of pro-inflammatory proteins in lipopolysaccharide-triggered macrophages. The extract showed direct nitric oxide scavenging activity supporting its traditional use for anti-inflammatory disorders. The extract also affected the proteolytic systems. (15)

Pesticides: Strawberries not organically grown probably contain pesticides, especially in the U.S. On average, strawberries receive a dose of up to 500 pounds of pesticides per acre. Other countries use less-than-stringent regulations for pesticide use. (5)

- Cultivated
- Leaf tinctures in the cybermarket.

Updated September 2018 / September 2015

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
IMAGE SOURCE: Public Domain / Wald-Erdbeere, Potentilla vesca / File:Fragaria vesca Sturm21.jpg / Deutschlands Flora in Abbildungen / Johann Georg Sturm (Painter: Jacob Sturm) / 1796 / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Cardiovascular effects in vitro of aqueous extract of wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca, L.) leaves / I Mudnic D et al / Phytomedicine, Volume 16, Issue 5, Pages 462-46 / doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2008.11.004 /
A comparative study of analgesic property of whole plant and fruit extracts of Fragaria vesca in experimental animal models / Lalit Kanodia and Swarnamoni Das / Bangladesh J Pharmacol 2008; 4: 35-38 / DOI: 10.3329/bjp.v4i1.1049
Correlation between the in vitro antioxidant activity and polyphenol content of aqueous extracts from Bulgarian herbs / Yoana Kiselova et al /Phytother Res. 2006 Nov;20(11):961-5
Total Antioxidant Capacity and Content of Phenolic Compounds in Wild Strawberries (Fragaria vesca) Collected in Bolivia / J Mauricio Peñarrieta et al / International Journal of Fruit Science, Volume 9, Issue 4 October 2009 , pages 344 - 359 / DOI: 10.1080/15538360903378526 /

Allah’s Medicine Chest: Strawberries (Fragaria vesca) / Hwaa Irfan
Fragaria vesca L / Synonyms / The Plant List

Sorting Fragaria names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia.
Comparative analysis of secondary metabolites contents in Fragaria vesca L. fruits.
/ Najda A, Dyduch-Siemi?ska M, Dyduch J, Gantner M / Ann Agric Environ Med. 2014;21(2):339-43. doi: 10.5604/1232-1966.1108601.
Ellagitannin-enriched fraction from Fragaria vesca leaves induces G2/M cell cycle arrest in the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 / JT Liberal, G Costa, A Carmo, C Marques, M Cruz, M Batista / Planta Med 2013; 79 - PJ30 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0033-1352234
A comparative study of the antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extracts of Vitex negundo L., Fragaria vesca L., Terminalia arjuna and Citrus maxima / Borah, Mukundam; Ahmed, Shagufa; Das, Swarnamoni / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Research (AJPBR);Jul2012, Vol. 2 Issue 3, p183
Activity of strawberry (Fragaria vesca) leaf phenolic extracts on metallo-beta-lactamase VIM-2 producers Pseudomonas aeruginosa / F.A. Pereira, T. Santos, S.G. Pereira*, M.T. Amaral, O. Cardoso, M.T. Batista / 22nd European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) 31.03.2012 - 03.04.2012
Evaluation of Hypolipidemic Activity of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Fragaria vesca in High Fat Diet Induced Hyperlipidemia in Rats / Madhavi Eerike*, Ruckmani.Arunachalam, Venkata Ramana.Yeddula, Venu Gopala Rao Konda, Prasanthchary R / Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 28(2), September – October 2014; Article No. 34, Pages: 191-196
Bioactivity of Fragaria vesca leaves through inflammation, proteasome and autophagy modulation / Joana Liberal, Vera Francisco, Gustavo Costa, Maria Teresa Batista / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Oct 2014; 158 / DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2014.09.043
Raw strawberries: Nutrient analysis / National Nutrient Database / USDA
Strawberry / Wikipedia

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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