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Family Myrtaceae
Syzygium jambos (Linn.) Alston

Pu tao

Scientific names Common names
Eugenia decora Salisb. Balobar (Tag.)
Eugenia jamboides Wender. Bunlauan (P. Bis.)
Eugenia jambos L. Dambo (Tag.)
Eugenia jambosa Crantz Tampoi (Tag., Bik.)
Eugenia malaccensis Blanco Tampoy (Tag.)
Eugenia malaccensis Lour. Tanpul (Ibn.)
Eugenia malaccensis f. cericarpa (O.Deg) H.St.John Yambo (Tag.)
Eugenia monantha Merr. Yampoi (Bis.)
Eugenia vulgaris Baill. Cloud apple (Engl.)
Jambosa jambos (L.) Millsp. Jambrosade (Engl.)
Jambosa leptostachya Blume Malabar plum (Engl.)
Jambosa malaccensis f. cericarpa O.Deg. Malay apple (Engl.)
Jambosa palembanica Blume Mountain apple (Engl.)
Jambosa vulgaris DC. Plum rose (Engl.)
Myrtus jambos (L.) Kunth Rose apple tree (Engl.)
Plinia jambos (L.) M.Gómez Water apple (Engl.)
Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston  
Syzygium jambos var. linearilimbum H.T.Chang & R,H.Miao  
Syzygium leptostachyum (Blume) Merr. & L.M.Perry  
Syzygium merrillii Masam.  
Syzygium monanthum (Merr.) Merr. & L.M.Perry  

Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Tampoi and Tampoy are common names shared by Syzygium jambos and Baccaurea macrocarpa.

Other vernacular names
ASSAMESE: Bogi jamuk.
BRAZIL: Jambo.
BURMESE: Thabyu thabye.
CHINESE: Pu tao.
FRENCH: Jambosier, Pomme rose, Pommier rose jambosier.
GERMAN: Jambubaum , Rosenapfel, Rosenapfelbaum.
JAPANESE: Futo momo.
KHMER: Châm'puu.
LAOTIAN: Chièng, Kièng.
MALAY: Jambu air mawar (Indonesia), Jambu ayer mawar, Jambu kelampok, Jambu kelampol, Jambu kraton, Jambu mawar (Indonesia), Jambu mawer.
MALAYALAM: Yamu panawa.
MYANMAR: Lily fruit.
NEPALESE: Gulaav jaamun.
PORTUGUESE: Jambo amarelo, Jambo branco, Jambo rosa, Jambeiro.
RUSSIAN: Sizigium iamboza, Sitsigium dzhamboza.
SPANISH: Jambo amarillo, Manzana rosa, Manzanita rosa, Pomarrosa (Puerto Rico), Pomarrosa manzana rosa (Cuba), Pomarrosa pomo (Dominica Rep.), Pera de agua.
THAI: Jambu kelampok, Yamu panawa.
VIETNAMESE: Bô dào, Ly, Roi.
OTHERS: Chomphûu náam dok mái, Ma nom hom.

Gen info
• Syzygium is a genus of flowering plants belonging to the myrtle family, Myrtaceae, comprising about 1200-1800 species.
• Etymology: The genus name Syzygium derives from Greek suzugos, meaning "joining together or conjunction".
Syzygium used to be the name of a Jamaican plant species with paired leaves and branches. Specific epithet jambos is mix of derivations from Portuguese and Latin, which is from Malay jambu from Sanskrit jambuh meaning "pink apple".
• The common name Yambo is the namesake of Lake Yambo, one of the Seven Lakes of San Pablo City, Laguna. (32) The common name Rose Apple refers to the rosewater that can be distilled from the fruits. (33)

• Tampoi is a small tree growing to about 8 meters high. Leaves are narrowly oblong or elliptic-lanceolate, 12.5 to 20 centimeters long, 2 to 4 centimeters wide, narrowed at both ends. Flowers are large, strongly scented, greenish-white, 5 to 7 centimeters across, borne in groups of 2 to 8 at the ends of twigs. Fruit is rounded, 3.5 to 5 centimeters diameter, dull yellow and tinged with pink. Seeds are up to 2.5 centimeters long, ellipsoid to oblong, narrowed at the middle.

Syzygium jambos is a large shrub or small-to-medium-sized tree, typically 3 to 15 meters (10 to 49 feet) high, with a tendency to low branching. Leaves and twigs are glabrous. Bark is dark brown, fairly smooth, with little relief or texture. Leaves are lanceolate, 2 to 4 centimeters (3⁄4 to 1 5⁄8inches) broad, 10 to 20 cm (4 to 8 in) long, pointed, base cuneate with hardly any petiole, lively red when growing, but dark, glossy green on attaining full size. Flowers are in small terminal clusters, sometimes described as fragrant, white or greenish white, the long, numerous stamens giving them a diameter of 5–8 cm (2–3+1⁄4 in). Fruit is shaped like some kinds of guava, often mistaken for one on sight. However, the fragrance, flavor and texture are different. Unlike the many-seeded guava, the fruits contains one or two large, unarmored seeds, about 1 cm diameter, lying loose in a slightly fluffy cavity when ripe, the ripeness indicated by a rattle of the seeds on shaking. Skin is thin and waxy. (32)

- Introduced.
- Cultivated as a shade tree, in and about towns throughout the Philippines.
- Occasionally naturalized.
- Prehistoric introduction.
- Native to Borneo, Cambodia, China, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Myanmar, Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam. (16)

- Bark contains tannin, 12.4 %.
- Bark yields an alkaloid, jambosine
- Root bark contains jambosine and oleoresin.
- Fruit contains 3.45% dextrose; the seeds, 3% tannin and 0.019% gallic acid.

- Leaves yield a yellow essential oil, yielding 26.64% di-a-pinene and 23.84% l-limonene.
- Study of leave extracts yielded three dihydrochalcones, phloretin 4'-O-methylester(2'6'-dihydroxy-4-methoxydihydrochalcone (1), myrigalone G (2',6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-3'-methyldihydrochalcone) (2) and myrigalone B (2′,6′-dihydroxy-4′-methoxy-3,5′ dimethyldihydro-chalcone) (3). (see study below) (5)
- Nutrient analysis of raw rose-apple (per 100 g) yielded: (Proximates) water 93 g, energy 25 kcal, protein 0.60 g, total lipid (fat) 0.30 g, carbohydrate 5.70 g; (Minerals) calcium 29 mg, iron 0.07 mg, magnesium 5 mg, phosphorus 8 mg, potassium 123 mg, sodium 0, zinc 0.06 mg; (vitamins) vitamin C 22.3 mg, thiamin 0.020 mg, riboflavin 0.030 mg, niacin 0.800 mg, vitamin B12 0 µg, vitamin A RAE 17 µg, vitamin A 339 IU; (Lipids) total trans fatty acids 0, cholesterol 0 mg. (18)
- Ethanol and chloroform leaf extracts yielded a total phenolic content of were 42.72 ± 0.07 and 31.06 ± 1.4 GAE/g, respectively. (see study below) (20)
- Phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of leaves yielded carbohydrates +++, phenols +, flavonoids +++, tannins +, steroids ++, terpenoids ++, alkaloids +, saponins +, amino acids ++. (see study below) (22)
- Study S. jambos fruit tree yielded seven new phloroglucinol derivatives (1-7) together with four known triterpenoids (8-11) and two known flavones (12 and 13). Compounds 1-7 were elucidated as jambone A (1), jambone B (2), jambone C (3), jambone D (4), jambone E (5), jambone F (6), and jambone G (7). (see study below) (23)
- Phytochemical screening of leaves and bark extracts yielded polyphenols, anthraquinones, tannins, and steroids. (see study below) (27)
- Study of stems of Syzygium jambos var. jambos yielded twelve compounds from EtOAc and MeOH extracts viz., alphitolic acid (1), urolithin A (2), dibutyl phthalate (3), betulinic acid (4), ursolic acid (5), 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1, 2-propanediol (6), 2, 6-dimethoxy-1, 4-benzoquinone (7), diisobutyl phthalate (8), β-sitosterol (9), 3-acetyl-ursolic acid (10), asiatic acid (11), and arjunolic acid (12). (see study below) (29)
- Study of methanol extracts and fractions of dried stem barks of S. jambos by vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) isolated three compounds: VLC fraction 6-pentacyclic triterpenes (SJ-61); VLC-F9, a sitosterol (SJ-92); and VLC-F16, a triterpene 3-nor-,2,3-fridelan derivative (SJ-184). Structure of the three compounds were elucidated as  ß-sitosterol, friedelin, and 3-nor-2,3-secofriedelan derivative (proposed). (see study below) (33)
- GC-MS study of leaves for volatile oil yielded 15 compounds. Major compounds were ß-caryophyllene, (E,E)-α-farnesene and cariophyllene alcohol. (35)
- Study of fruit and seed for mineral content yielded (mg/100g): calcium 12.71 and 23.72, sulphur 10.31 and 12.73, phosphorus 11.63 and 14.62, manganese 0.045 and 0.093, selenium (below detection limit), iron 0.73 and 1.15, sodium 0.71 and 0.79, potassium 45.62 and 329.32, lead 0.022 and 0.022, zinc 0.24 and 0.39, iodine (below detection limit), copper 0.067 and 0.186. (36)
- GC-MS analysis of fruit identified 80 volatile compounds: 12 hydrocarbons, 8 oxides and acetals, 12 aldehydes, 9 ketones, 5 esters, 31 alcohols, 3 acids. Among identified compounds, geraniol, nerol, ß-phenylethyl alcohol, linalool, hotrienol, citronellol, four linalool oxides (furans and pyrans), rose oxides and nerol oxide are well-known components of Bulgarian rose oil. Other compounds, (E)- and (Z)-cinnamaldehydes and their alcohols and acetates, 3-phenylpropyl alcohol and 3-phenyl propanol are responsible for the cinnamon-spicy-like note of the fruit. (44)

- Flowers sometimes described as fragrant. Fruit has a floral bouquet. a faint odor of rose.
- Considered as digestive, stimulant, cooling.
- Flowers considered cooling
- Studies have shown antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, antinociceptive, antifungal, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, antidermatophytic, cardioprotective, antinociceptive, antiviral, hepatoprotective, cytotoxic, antidiabetic, anti-acetylcholinesterase, anti-quorum sensing, antiurolithiatic properties.

Toxicity concerns
- Seeds are said to be poisonous.
- Roots, stems, and leaves reported to yield an unknown amount of hydrocyanic acid.
- Jambosine, an alkaloid, has been found in the bark and roots. (17)

Parts used
Whole plant.


- Fruit is dry, somewhat sweet, with a faint odor of rose.
- Commonly eaten right out, it is also used in making stews, preserves, jellies and jams.
- In Jamaica, sliced fruits are candied by stewing in cinnamon-flavored heavy sugar syrup.
- In Indo-China, all parts are used as stimulant, digestive and as a remedy for tooth problems.
- In Upper Burma, leaves are boiled and used as a remedy for sore eyes.
- Powdered leaves rubbed on the body in smallpox.
- Leaf decoction used as diuretic, expectorant, and treatment for rheumatism.
- In Cambodia, infusion of leaves given for fever.
- In India, used to treat infections. Fruit is used as tonic for the brain and liver; infusion used as diuretic.
- Conserve of flowers considered cooling.
- Fruit infusion used as diuretic.
- Seeds and fruits used for diarrhea, dysentery, diabetes, and catarrh.
- In El Salvador, pulverized seeds used for diabetes.
- In
Brazil, decoction of leaves used for diabetes.
- In Columbia, seeds used for its anesthetic property.
- In Cuba, roots used for epilepsy.
- In Ayurveda, plant pacifies vitiated pitta, diarrhea, colic, wounds, ulcers, stomatitis, and general debility
- In Homeopathy, used for acne, nausea, headache, heartburn, abdominal colic, fever, diarrhea.
- Seeds used for dysentery, diarrhea, and catarrh. Juice from macerated leaves used for fever. Infusion of powdered leaves used for diabetes. Leaf decoction applied to sore eyes; also as diuretic, expectorant, and to treat rheumatism. Bark decoction used for asthma, bronchitis, hoarseness. Plant used for hemorrahge, leprosy, wounds, ulcers, fever and pains. (34)
- Ritual: In Buddhism, the Rose Apple Tree is considered sacred, referred to as the Enlightenment Tree.
- Tanning / Dye: Bark used for tanning and yields a brown dye. (17)
- Timber: Used to make furniture, construction beams, frames for musical instruments. Also planted as a living fence post.
- Perfumer
y / Essential oil: Essential oil distilled from leaves used in perfumery.
- Apiculture:
Flowers are a rich source of nectar for honeybees. (17)
- Fuel: A good source of small food for fuel; a good source of charcoal.

Antibacterial / Cytotoxicity / Leaves:
Study evaluated methanol extracts of S jambos leaves for antimicrobial activity and toxicity. The leaf extract inhibited 4 of 14 gram-positive and gram-negative test bacteria, with Gram-positive bacteria showing more susceptibility. The leaf extract also showed toxicity in Artemia franciscana bioassay. Results support the use of S. jambos leaf decoction as antiseptic agents. (1)
Antinociceptive: Study showed Syzygium jambos extract has remarkable analgesic effects on both cutaneous and deep muscle pain not mediated by opioid receptors in an efficacy higher than that shown by diclofenac. (2)
Antimicrobial / Tannins: Study show SJ extracts showed antibacterial activity against S aureus, Y enterocolitica, Coagulase-negative staph. The activity seemed related to the high tannin content. (3)
Antidermatophytic / Triterpenoids: Study yielded known triterpenoids - friedelin,
ß-amyrin acetate, betulinic acid and lupeol. Results showed antidermatophytic activity against three species: Microsporum audounii, Tricophyton soudanense and T mentagrophytes. (4)
Radical Scavenging / Dihydrochalcones: Study of leave extracts yielded three dihydrochalcones - phloretin 4'-O-methylester(2'6'-dihydroxy-4-methoxydihydrochalcone (1), myrigalone G (2) and myrigalone B (3)
,which showed radical scavenging properties towards the DPPH assay. (5)
Hypotensive / Leaves: Study of aqueous fraction of the young boiled leaves extract of Syzygium jambos, treated with ethyl acetate, has an important hypotensive effect. (
Antimicrobial: Study evaluated the antimicrobial efficacy of S. jambos against 8 different microorganisms, viz., S aureus, B subtilis, E Coli, K pneumonia, P vulgaris, P aeruginosa, S typhi and V cholera. Different extracts showed varying degrees of inhibitory activity. Overall the acetone extract was found to be more effective. (
Antioxidant / Hepatoprotective / Leaves: Study evaluated the leaves of Syzygium jambos for antioxidant activity in vitro and hepatoprotective activity in vivo. The extract showed significant dose-dependent antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective activity in CCl4-induced liver damage. (11)
Aroma Compounds / Fruit: Study evaluated the rose apple fruit for aroma compounds. Results yielded medium and high volatility components. Hexanal, 3-penten-2-one, hexanol, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, linalool, isovaleric acid, benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethylalcohol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde were potent odorants contributing to the headspace aroma. (12)
Antibacterial / Anti-Inflammatory / Acne Vulgaris: Acne is considered a chronic skin disorder resulting from the production of reactive oxygen species due to involvement of Propionibacterium acnes in the skin. Study showed S. jambos possesses antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects warranting clinical studies for use as possible alternative anti-acne agent. (13)
Leaf Essential Oils / Anti-Inflammatory / Acne Vulgaris: Study showed the main factor that influenced the chemical composition of leaf essential oil was the collection period. Results also suggest composition was influenced mainly by foliar nutrients (N, Mn, Co, Fe, S, and Mg) and soil nutrients (Na, Al, S, and H+Al). (14)
Antioxidant / Ripe and Unripe Fruits: Study showed the rose apple pulp extract in ripe state has lower antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity than that found in unripe state. However, both show benefit as natural antioxidants. (15)
• Antifungal / Seeds and Leaves: Study evaluated aqueous and solvent extracts of 8 medicinal plants for antifungal activity against three human pathogenic fungi. Aqueous extracts of seeds of Syzygium jambos exhibited antifungal activity with 16 mm zone of inhibition against Candida albicans, 28.75 against Microsporum canis, 3025 against Microsporum gypseum. (19) In an in vitro study of leaf extracts for antifungal activity, S. jambos showed significant inhibition against C. neoformans with IC50 values of 34.36 µg/mL. 80-100 µg/mL at MIC >1000 µg/mL was the inhibitory level of S. jambos against all five fungus pathogens. (25)
• DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated leaf extracts for total polyphenol and flavonoid content and DPPH quenching by in vitro method. Total phenolic content of ethanol and chloroform leaf extracts were predicted as 42.72 ± 0.07 and 31.06 ± 1.4 GAE/g of extract, respectively. A positive radical scavenging correlation was exhibited by polyphenolic contents of ethanolic, chloroform, and methanolic extracts. (20)
• Hepatoprotective / Paracetamol Induced Toxicity / Leaves: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of S. jambos leaves against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in Wistar albino rats. Results showed dose-dependent hepatoprotective activity. Histopathology showed improved cytoarchitecture of liver cells in the treated group. (21)
• Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity of a methanolic extract of S. jambos leaf in paracetamol intoxicated Wistar albino rats. Results showed significant antioxidant activity as evidenced by elevated levels of antioxidant enzymes in blood and tissues of treatment groups. (22)
• Phloroglucinol Derivatives / Cytotoxic and Antioxidant: Study S. jambos fruit tree yielded seven new phloroglucinol derivatives (1-7) together with four known triterpenoids (8-11) and two known flavones (12 and 13). Compounds 10 and 11 showed potent cytotoxic activities on melanoma cells and compounds 1, 2, 4-7, and 13 exhibited weak antioxidant activities. (see constituents above) (23)
• Antidiabetic / Enhanced Glucose Uptake in Skeletal Muscle: Study investigated the in vitro glucose uptake of hydromethanolic leaves extract of S. jambos on L6 Cell lines. Results showed enhancement of glucose transport in L6 myotubes. The extract exhibited significant glucose uptake (% glucose uptake 113+12.26) compared with standard insulin (131±17.57). Results suggest a potential for the prevention of diabetic complications such as nephropathy, retinopathy and cancer. (25)
• Anti-Diabetic / Improved Glucose Modulation: Study evaluated the phytochemical profiles and hypoglycemic effects of T. ananassae, C. speciosus, and Syzygium jambos. S. jambos showed the greatest concentration of phenolics. Mice treated with the plant extracts showed better glucose modulation when the extracts were administered in complement with an insulin injection. Mice on T. ananassae and S. jambos showed better glucose modulation over time. (26)
• Antibacterial / Antibiotic Modulating Against Resistant Phenotypes / Bark and Leaves: Study evaluated the antibacterial activity of methanol extracts of bark and leaves of S. jambos and their synergistic effects with selected antibiotics against drug-resistant Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Leaf extract was active against all 26 strains of S. aureus and all 21 strains of Gram-negative bacteria tested, with MIC range of 32-512 µg/mL, the lowest against S. aureus MRSA9 strain. In the study, antibiotic modulating activity of the extracts at MIC/2 on more than 70% tested strains of S. aureus was obtained with associated of leaf and bark extracts with chloramphenicol. The antibiotic modulating activity was also seen with combination of the leaf and bark extracts with antibiotics. Results suggest both extracts can be used as antibiotics resistance modulators, providing a new alternative in bacterial infections involving resistant phenotypes. (27)
• Variability of Essential Oil / Leaves: GC-MS study of leaf essential oil from ten specimens showed EO composition was influenced by foliar nutrients (N, Mn, Co, Fe, S, and Mg) and soil nutrients (Na, Al, S and H+Al). A total of 62 compounds were identified. Compound with the best model obtained was (E)-caryophyllene, with a coefficient of determination equal 0.8113. (28)
• Chemical Constituents / Absence of Cytotoxicity Against Human Liver Cancer Cells Huh-7 / Stems: Study of stems of Syzygium jambos var. jambos yielded twelve compounds from EtOAc and MeOH extracts. None of the tested compounds i.e., 1, 7, 10, and 11+12 showed cytotoxic activity against Huh-7 cells. (see constituents above) (29)
• Potential in Treatment of Sickle Cell Disease (SCD): Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is an oxidoreductase that mediates thio/disulfide interchange reactions, reported to play a critical role in thrombus formation following vascular injury. PDI inhibition has been proposed as a promising therapeutic approach to ameliorate vascular and hematological complications of SCD. This study evaluated in vitro PDI activity in the presence of S. jambos aqueous leaf extract. The extract showed a dose-dependent anti-PDI activity with IC50 of 14.40 µg/mL. The extract also reduced ET-1 (endothelin-1) stimulated ROS to baseline levels (p<0.05). Results suggest S. jambos may represent a novel pharmacological approach to treat complications of SCD. (30)
• Delta-ALA-D Inhibitory Potential / Antioxidant / Protective Action on Stressed Erythrocytes / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of S. jambos and Solanum guaraniticum leaf extracts on delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase (delta ALA-D) activity, antioxidant activity, and protective action on oxidatively stressed erythrocytes. Both extract inhibited delta-ALA-D activity. S. jambos leaf extract exhibited marked efficiency in countering H2O2-induced lipid peroxidation and maintaining cellular integrity against AAPH-induced hemolysis. S. jambos also showed greater H2O2 scavenging activity and stronger reducing power. (31)
• Bioactivities / Cytotoxicity by  Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay/ Fractions / Stem Bark: Study of methanol extracts and fractions of dried stem barks of S. jambos by vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) isolated three compounds. In brine shrimp lethality assay, LC50s for crude methanolic extract, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and n-hexane soluble fractions of ME were 6.97, 18.07, 64.943, 247.596 and 12.75µg/ml, respectively. Chloroform soluble fraction and carbon tetrachloride soluble fraction showed mild to moderate antimicrobial activity. Methanolic extract of stem barks and chloroform soluble fraction showed significant free radical scavenging activity. (see constituents above) (33)

• Anti-Herpes simplex Virus Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated hexane, dichloromethane and methanol extracts of leaves of S. jambos for anti-herpes simples virus type 1 and 2 activity (HSV-1 and HSV-2) using plaque reduction assay.  Hexane and dichloromethane extracts exhibited anti-HSV1 and HSV-2 activities with more than 50% inhibition of plaque formation at concentration of 100 µg/ml. The dichloromethane extract showed highest activity against HSV1 and HSV2 with IC50s of 75 µg/ml. Cytotoxicity in Vero cells of hexane and methanol extract showed CC50 values of 150 and 600 µg/ml, respectively. (37)
• Cardioprotective / Inhibition of Biomarkers of Endothelial Cell Activation / Leaves: Study evaluated the effects of S. jambos extract of leaves on biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and immune responses in the human endothelial cell line, EA.hy926. Incubation of EA.hy926 cells with ET-1 lead to a 6.5 fold increase in IL-6 expression by qPCR, which was blocked by S. jambos ET-1 stimulation led to a significant increases in ROS production that were sensitive to S. jambos. Results suggest a novel cardiovascular protective pharmacological approach to regulate endothelial cell activation, IL-6 expression, and immune cell responses. (38)
• Antibacterial Endophytic Fungi / Stem Bark: Study evaluated the antibacterial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from stem bark of jambu mawar (Syzygium jambos) by disc diffusion method against Gram-positive S. aureus and B. subtilis and Gram-negative E. coli and S. typhi. Eight endophytic fungi, SJ1-SJ8, were obtained from the stem bark. SH6, identified as Fusarium verticillioides, showed highest activity. Pure compounds isolated as yellowish-white solids showed good antibacterial activity against S. aureus and S. typhi with MICs of 64 g/mL each. (39)
• Antiurolithiatic / Leaf Extracts / ZnO Nanoparticles: Study evaluated the antiurolithiatic activity of leaf extracts of S. jambos and its zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) both in vivo and invitro using ethylene glycol induced urolithiatic model in rats and growth inhibition study of struvite crystals, respectively. Results showed the leaf extracts and ZnONPs prevented the growth of urinary stones. Further studies were suggested for pharmacologic action and mechanism. (40)
• Antibacterial against MDR Pathogens / Leaves and Fruits: Study evaluated methanol extracts of fruits and leaves for antimicrobial potentiality of S. jambos against five different MDR bacterial strains i.e., E. coli, Acinetobacter spp., Shigella sonnei, Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas spp. using agar well diffusion method. Both extracts showed promising activity against all tested organisms with maximum zone of inhibition at 800 µg dose for both extracts. The methanolic leaf extract showed maximum ZOI of 15 mm against Shigella sonnei and 13.5 mm against Klebsiella spp. Fruit extract showed maximum ZOI of 10 mm against E. coli. Prominent effects were attributed to higher tannin content. (41)
• α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity: Study compared the α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects of different plant parts (root, stem, leaf, seed, flower and flesh) of S. jambos. Acarbose was used as positive control.  Evaluation of α-amylase inhibition used in vitro inhibition method and α-glucosidase used yeast and small intestine in mice. Among different parts of S. jambos, seeds showed strongest inhibitory effects on activities of α-glucosidase and α-amylase. Results suggest potential for treatment of diabetes or health food. (42)
• Anti-Quorum Sensing Activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is recognized as a multidrug resistant opportunistic infection causing severe  chronic infection in immune-compromised patients. Production of numerous virulence factors and biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa is regulated by cell-to-cell communication known as quorum sensing (QS). Study evaluated the anti-QS property of ethanolic leaf extract of S. jambos in inhibiting the QS-regulated virulence traits. At sub-MIC concentration, the extract attenuated the production of virulence determinants and biofilm formation. Bioactive compounds contributing to anti-QS efficacy were identified as Betulin and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF). Molecular docking of the compounds revealed relatively strong binding affinity of the phytoconstituents for transcriptional activators of the QS circuit in P. aeruginosa. Results suggest potential of S. jambos and its bioactive components as QS antagonist in the treatment of chronic infections caused by P. aeruginosa. (43)
• Anti-Acetylcholinesterase Activity: In vitro and in-silico studies evaluated the anti-acetycholinesterase activity of Macaranga tanarius and Syzygium jambos. A previous work showed Syzygium jambos exhibited 93.81% inhibition against acetycholinesterase (AChE) at 50 µg/ml concentration of hexane fraction. Bioassay-guided isolation yielded anacardic acid derivatives (4,5) from S. jambos. Compound 5 showed strongest anti-AChE potential (IC50 0.54 µM); compound 4, 2.4 µM. In silico molecular docking revealed compound 5 formed stronger molecular interactions. Results suggest potential remedy in neuroprotection. (45)
• Antidiabetic / Bark: Study evaluated the antidiabetic potential of an aqueous bark extract of S. jambos using doses of 750, 1500, and 2250 mg/kg p.o. on normoglycemic and STZ-induced diabetic rats. The highest dose significantly lowered blood glucose level in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, impaired normal glucose absorption from intestine and following glucose challenge, with no change in glycogen content of liver and skeletal muscle. The bark extract also showed marked antioxidant activity in vitro.  Chronic administration of the bark extract did not induced clinical signs of toxicity, hepatotoxicity or renotoxicity, but evoked an encouraging lipid profile. Results suggest the bark extract is well tolerated and possess oral acute antihyperglycemic activity and hypoglycemic activity with chronic treatment. (46)
• Cytotoxic Activity in Liver Cancer Cell Line / Leaves: Study evaluated S. jambos leaves extract for its effect on HepG2 liver cancer cell line and its molecular level of action. Results showed the extract works at an intracellular level and influences the apoptotic cell cycle pathway positively through Bcl-2 and Bax gene expression. (47)


Updated November 2023 / Jan 2019 / Jan 2017

IMAGE SOURCE: Syzygium jambos (fruit). Location: Maui, Makawao / Forest & Kim Starr / Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported / click on image or link to go to source page / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOU RCE / Syzygium jambos (flower) / File:Syzygium jambos.JPG / B Navez / GFDL + CC BY-SA 3.0 / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Syzygium jambos / Leaves and fruit / Jonathunder / GFDL / click on image or link to go to source page / Wikipedia
IMAGE SOURCE: Illustration: Syzygium jambos Blanco / Flora de Filipinas / Francisco Manuel Blanco (OSA) 1880-1883  / Public Domain / Wikimedia Commons
IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Syzygium jambos - half fruit and seed / taken off graphic of Front. Pharmacol. article on Syzygium jambos / click on image of link to go to source page / Frontiers

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Bioactivity of Syzygium jambos methanolic extracts: Antibacterial activity and toxicity / S Mohanty, I E Cock / Pharmacognosy Research, Jan-Feb 2010
; Volume 2, Issue 1: pp 4-9 / doi: 10.4103/0974-8490.60577 / PMID: 21808530
Antinociceptive activity of Syzygium jambos leaves extract on rats / D Avila-Peña et al /
Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 112, Issue 2, 13 June 2007, Pages 380-385 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2007.03.027
Antimicrobial activity of bark extracts of Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston (Myrtaceae)
/ Corine Djadjo Djipa, Michele Delmee and Joelle Quetin-Leclercq / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 71, Issues 1-2, July 2000, Pages 307-313 / doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(99)00186-5 |
Antidermatophytic triterpenoids from Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston (Myrtaceae) / Jules-Roger Kulate et al / Phytotherapy Research, Volume 21 Issue 2, Pages 149 - 152 / Online 2006
Dihydrochalcones with radical scavenging properties from the leaves of Syzygium jambos / U. L. B. Jayasinghe, RMS Ratnayake et al / Natural Product Research, May 2007; Volume 21, Issue 6: pp 551 - 554 / DOI: 10.1080/14786410601132238
ACCION CARDIOVASCULAR DE EXTRACTOS ACUOSOS DE HOJAS DE SYZYGIUM JAMBOS (L.) ALSTON / Minor Romero Jimenez / Departamento de Fisiología. Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica
Syzygium jambos / Ayurvedic Medicinl Plants
/ S
S. MURUGAN, P. UMA DEVI, N. KANNIKA PARAMESWARI, K.R.MANI / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 3, Issue 2, 2011
Syzygium Jambos / Rose Apple Tree / Top Tropicals
Sorting Syzygium names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE
Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of an ethanol extract of Syzygium jambos (L.) leaves. / Islam MR, Parvin MS, Islam ME / Drug Discov Ther. 2012 Aug;6(4):205-11.
Study of the aroma compounds of rose apple (Syzygium jambos Alston) fruit from Brazi
l / Clarissa M. Guedes, Alice B. Pinto, Ricardo F. A. Moreira, Carlos A.B. De Maria / European Food Research and Technology, October 2004; Volume 219, Issue 5: pp 460-464
Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of Syzygium jambos L. (Alston) and isolated compounds on acne vulgaris / Richa Sharma, Navneet Kishore, Ahmed Hussein, and Namrita Lall / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2013; Vol 13, Art 292: pp 1-10 / https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-13-292
Chemical variability in the essential oils from leaves of Syzygium jambos / Wilma P. RezendeI; Leonardo L. BorgesI; Nilda M. AlvesII; Pedro H. FerriIII; José R. PaulaI / Rev. bras. farmacogn. vol.23 no.3 Curitiba May/June 2013 Epub May 14, 2013 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-695X2013005000035
Antioxidant activity of pulp rose apple (Syzygium malaccensis) in unripe and ripe state / I.M. AUGUSTA, K.O. NASCIMENTO, M.A.P.G. COUTO and S.V. BORGES / VII Congreso Iberico de Agroingenieria y Cincias Horticolas, Madrid, Agosto 2013
Syzygium jambos / Synonyms / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Syzygium jambos / WorldAgroforestry
Rose-apple: Nutrient Analysis / USDA
Evaluation of antifungal potential of selected medicinal plants against human pathogenic fungi
/ Hayat Sakander, Bhat Akhilesh, A. Raveesha Koteshwara / International Journal of Green Pharmacy, April‐June 2015

Total polyphenol and flavonoid content of Syzygium jambos (L) Alston leaf extracts and its in vitro DPPH radical scavenging activity / Rangasamy Dhanabalan, Muthusamy Palaniswamy, Joseph Devakumar / Journal of Pharmacy Resear, 2014; 8(4): pp 593-596
Hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Syzygium jambos (Linn.) leaf against paracetamol intoxicated Wistar albino rats / N. Thamizh Selvam, V. Venkatakrishnan, R. Dhamodharan, S. Murugesan, S. Damodar Kumar / AYU: Pharmacological study, 2013; 34(3): pp 305-308 / DOI: 10.4103/0974-8520.123133
Tissue level antioxidant activity of leaf extract of Syzygium jambos linn. In paracetamol intoxicated Wistar rats / Nataraja Thamizh Selvam, Venkatakrishnan V and Damodar Kumar S / African Journal of Internal Medicine , 2014; 2(8): pp. 107-111 / ISSN: 2326-7283
New Phloroglucinol Derivatives from the Fruit Tree Syzygium jambos and Their Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Activities / Guo-Qiang Li, Yu-Bo Zhang, Peng Wu, Neng-Hua Chen, Zhong-Nan Wu, Li Yang, Rui-Xia Qiu, Guo-Cai Wang, and Yao-Lan Li / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2015; 63(47): pp 10257–10262 / DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.5b04293
A STUDY ON QUANTIFICATION OF PHYTOCONSTITUENTS AND IN VITRO ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF S.CUMINI AND S.JAMBOS LEAF EXTRACTS / Devakumar J., Sudha S. S.*, Keerthana, Anitha S. and Ezhilarasi R. / World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences , vol 5, Issue 1 (2016)
INVITRO GLUCOSE UPTAKE ASSAY OF HYDRO METHANOLIC LEAVES EXTRACT OF SYZYGIUM JAMBOS (L) ALSTON IN RAT SKELETAL MUSCLE (L6) CELL LINES / Yarasu Nagamuni Reddy*, P.Smana Reddy, R.Pavan kumar, R.N.B.S Nareshchandra, V.Vinil Kumar / IAJPR. 2013; 3(9): 7336-7341
Chemical profile and in vivo hypoglycemic effects of Syzygium jambos, Costus speciosus and Tapeinochilos ananassae plant extracts used as diabetes adjuvants in Puerto Rico. / Gavillán-Suárez J, Aguilar-Perez A, Rivera-Ortiz N4, Rodríguez-Tirado K, Figueroa-Cuilan W, Morales-Santiago L, Maldonado-Martínez G, Cubano LA, Martínez-Montemayor MM / BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015 Jul 22;15:244. / doi: 10.1186/s12906-015-0772-7.
Syzygium jambos Displayed Antibacterial and Antibiotic-Modulating Activities against Resistant Phenotypes / Brice E N Wamba, Paul Nayim, Armelle T Mbayeng, Igor K Voukeng et al / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2018 / https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/5124735
Chemical variability in the essential oils from leaves of Syzygium jambos / Wilma P. Rezende; Leonardo L. Borges; Nilda M. Alves; Pedro H. Ferri; José R. Paula / / Rev. bras. farmacogn., May-June 2013; 23(3) / DOI:  10.1590/S0102-695X2013005000035 
Chemical constituents from stems of Syzygium jambos var. jambos and their in vitro cytotoxicity / LIN Da-du; LIU Jia-wei; LI Wu-guo; LUO Wei; CHENG Jin-le; CHEN Wei-wen / Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs, 2014-14
Abstract 345: Syzygium Jambos: A Potential Therapeutic Approach to Treat the Vascular and Hematological Complications of Sickle Cell Disease / Analaura Santiago-Perez, Yaritza Inostroza-Nieves, Daniel Gil de la Madrid et al / Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, May 2016; 36(1S)
Delta-ALA-D inhibitory potential and protective action of Syzygium jambos and Solanum guaraniticum leaf extracts on oxidatively stressed erythrocytes / Gabriela Bonfanti, Karine Santos de Bona, Leidiane de Lucca et al / Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research, 2014; 19(5) / https://doi.org/10.1179/1351000214Y.0000000092
Syzygium jambos / Wikipedia
Investigation of the Medicinal Potentials of Syzygium jambos (L.) Extract and Characterization of the Isolated Compounds / Majidul Haque, Mst. Marium Begum, Moynul Hasan, Choudhury Mahmood Hasan et al / American Journal of Bio Science, 2015; 3(2-1): pp 12-18 / DOI: 10.11648/j.ajbio.s.2015030201.13 / pISSN: 2330-0159 / eISSN: 2330-0167
Syzygium jambos L. Alston: An Insight Into its Phytochemistry, Traditional Uses, and Pharmacological Properties / Melvin Adhiambo Ochieng, Widad Ben Bakrim, Gabin Thierry M Bitchagno, Mona F Mahmoud, Mansour Sobeh /  Front. Pharmacol., 2022; Sec Ethnopharmacology, Vol 13 /
DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2022.786712
Analysis of the volatile oils from three species of the gender Syzygium / Amanda Silva Reis, Liliane de Sousa Silva, Christiane Franca Martins, Jose Realino de Paula / Research, Society, and Development, 2021; 10(7) / ISSN:2525-3409 / DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i7.16375
Quantitative Estimation and Comparative Analysis of Mineral Content of Syzygium jambos Fruit and Its Seed / Suchandra Dutta. Kazi Layla Khaled / Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2021; 11(2): pp 147-153 / ISSN: 2249-1023 / DOI: 10.35652/IGJPS.2021.112010
/ Sirivan Athikomkulchai, Vimolmas Lipipun, Thawatchai Leelawittayanont, Ariya Khanboon, Nijsiri Ruangrungsi / J Health Res, 2008; 22(1): pp 49-51
Inhibitory effects of Syzygium jambos extract on biomarkers of endothelial cell activation
/ Yaritza Inostroza-Nieves, Shirley Valentin-Berrios, Christopher Vega, Alicia Rivera et al / BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies, 2022; 22: Article no 101 / DOI: 10.1186/s12906-022-03572-7
Antibacterial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from the stem bark of jambu mawar (Syzygium jambos).
/ Kurratul Aini, Elfita, Hary Widjajannti, Arum Setiawan, Alfia R Kurniawati / Journal of Biological Diversity, 2022; 23(1): pp 521-532
ANTIUROLITHIATIC ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF SYZYGIUM JAMBOS (L.) ALSTON AND ITS ZINC NANOPARTICLES: AN IN-VITRO AND IN-VIVO APPROACH / Kangkan Deka, Bibhuti Bhusan Kakoti, Moonjit Das / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 2021; 12(1): pp 336-346 / eISSN: 0975-8232 / pISSN: 2320-5148
Study of Antibacterial Potentiality of Leaf and Fruit Extracts of Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston against five MDR Human Pathogens / Rejoana Afrin Neera, Saikat Ranjan Paul / SEU Journal of Science and Engineering, 2016; 10(2) / ISSN: 1999-1630
Study on Inhibitory Effects of Ethanol Extract of Different Medicinal Parts from Syzygium jambos on the Activities of α- Glycosidase and α-Amylase / Zhenghui Wen, Meidi Ling, Siping Yu, Yuanbei Zhuang, Xiaodong Luo, Zengfeng Pan, Dadu Lin, Shenguan Zhang / China Pharmacy, 2019; 12: pp 3246-3251 /
ID: wpr-817425
Anti-quorum sensing activity of Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and identification of its bioactive components / J Rajkumari, S Borkotoky, A Murali, S Busi / South African Journal of Botany, 2018, Volume 2018: pp 151-157 / DOI: 10.1016/j.sajb.2018.07.004
Volatile Constituents of the Jamrosa Aroma Syzygium jambos L. Aston from Reunion Island
/ Gaston Vernin, Genevieve Vernin, Jacques Metzger, Claude Roque, Jean-Claude Pieribattesti / Journal of Essential Oil Research, 1991; 3(2): pp 83-97 / DOI: 10.1080/10412905.1991.9697916
In Vitro and In Silico Anti-Acetylcholinesterase Activity from Macaranga tanarius and Syzygium jambos / Mira Syahfriena Amir Rawa, Nurul Amira Nurul Azman, Habibah A Wahab et al /  Molecules, 2022; 27(9), 2648 / DOI: 10.3390/molecules27092648
Antidiabetic activity of aqueous bark extract of Syzygium jambos / HD Hettiarachchi, JR Jayakody, WD Ratnasooriya / Australian Journal of Medical Herbalism, 2004; 16(2): pp 56-62 / pISSN: 1033-8330
Effect of methanolic extract of (Linn.) Alston leaves at intra Syzygium jambos cellular level in selective Liver Cancer Cell Line: Molecular approach for its Cytotoxic Activity / Thamizh Selvam N, MV Acharya, V Venkatakrishnan, S Murugesan / Advance Pharmaceutical Journal, 2016; 1(5): pp 139-143




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