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Family Asteraceae (Compositae)
Wild sunflower
Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray

Wang ye kui

Scientific names Common names
Helianthus quinquelobus Seesé & Moc. Shrub sunflower (Engl.)
Mirasolia diversifolia Hemsl. Mexican sunflower (Engl.)
Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A.Gray Tithonia (Engl.)
Tithonia diversifolia subsp. diversifolia Tree marigold (Engl.)
Urbanisol tagetiflora var. diversifolius (Hemsl.) Kuntze Wild sunflower (Engl.)
Urbanisol tagetiflora f. grandiflorus Kuntze  
Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A.Gray is an accepted name. The Plant List
Sunflower is a shared common name of (1) Tithonia diversifolia, and (2) Helianthus annuus, mirasol.

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Wang ye kui.
KISII: Amaua maroro.
KIKUYU: Maruru.
LUO: Maua makech, Akech, Maua madungo.
LUHYA: Maua amalulu.

Gen info
Genus name derives from the Greek god Tithonus, a favorite of Aurora, goddess of dawn.

Wild sunflower is a robust herbaceous and bushy perennial that grows up to 3 meters tall. Branches are stout, almost glabrous. Stems are hollow, slightly ridged. Leaves are grayish green, alternate, petioled, membranaceous, ovate to orbicular, 2 to 10 centimeters long, entire or 3- to 5-lobed, finely hairy, with toothed margins. Flower heads are yellow, large, daisy-like, on peduncles 7 to 30 centimeters long. Petals are 7 to 15, bright yellow, 4 to 7 centimeters long and 9 to 16 millimeters wide, with three small teeth at the tips. Center of the flower heads have about 80 to 120 tiny tubular florets surrounded by several rows of green bracts. Seeds are 4 to 8 millimeters long and topped with a ring of scales and two awns, blackish in color, and somewhat four-angled.

Introduced to the Philippines as an ornamental.
Has escaped cultivation to become a weed in waste places.

- Leaf oil showed an abundance of a-pinene (32.9%), b-caryophyllene (20.8%), germacrene D (12.6%), b-pinene (10.9%), and 1,8-cineole (9.1%).
- Flower oil yielded germacrene D (20.3%), b-caryophyllene (20.1%) and bicyclogermacrene (8%).

- Study of essential oil of flowers yielded forty-five components. The major constituents were α- pinene, β-caryophyllene, β-pinene, germacrene D and 1,8-cineole, 34.42%, 22.34%, 11.14%, 11.13% and 8.76% respectively. (18)
- Phytochemical screening of flowers yielded phenolic compounds (tannins, flavonoids, and total phenols), with no alkaloids and saponins. (see study below) (23)
- Study isolated two new monterpenes 1S,2R,3R,5S)-2-hydroxymethyl-6,6-dimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]heptane-2,3- diol (1) and (3R)-6,6-dimethyl-4-methylenebicyclo [3.1.1]heptane-1,3-diol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2) together with three known compounds, namely, sobrerol (3), (1R,2S,5S)-2,8-p-menth-diol (4) and (lR,5S)-10- hydroxyverbenon (5). (see study below) (26)
- Hydrodistillation study and GC-MS characterization of flowers for essential oil yielded 45 compounds with major constituents of α-pinene (34.42%), β-caryophyllene (22.34%), β-pinene (11.14%), germacrene D (11.13%), and 1-8-cineole (8.76%). (see study below) (30)
- Phytochemical screening of leaf extracts yielded phenolics +++, flavonoids +++, tannins +++, alkaloids +, and saponins ++. UPLC/MS analysis of active fractions yielded tagitinin A (molecular weight at 369.19 M+H+) as a major compound. (35)
- Phytochemical screening of stems yielded saponins ++. tannins ++, flavnoids +, cardiac glycosides ++. with absence of alkaloids and anthraquinones. (36)
- Proximate analysis of stems yielded moisture 20.6%, total ash 6.55%, acid insoluble ash 0.33%, and sulphated ash 14.0%. Nutrition analysis yielded protein 9.62%, fat 4.21%, fiber 15.82%, and carbohydrate 70.35%. (36)
- Study of aerial parts isolated three new sesquiterpenoids – 2a-hydroxytirotundin (1), tithofolinolide (2), and 3a-acetoxydiversifolol (3), along with 8 known sesquiterpene lactones, along with eight known sesquiterpene lactones, 3β-acetoxy-8β-isobutyryloxyreynosin (4), tagitinin C (5), 1β,2α-epoxytagitinin C (6), 4α,10α-dihydroxy-3-oxo-8β-isobutyryloxyguaia-11(13)-en-12,6α-olide (7), 3α-acetoxy-4α-hydroxy-11(13)-eudesmen-12-oic acid methyl ester (8), 17,20-dihydroxygeranylnerol (9), tagitinin A (10), and tirotundin (11). (see study below) (7)

- Considered pesticidal, antimalarial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrheal, anti-spasmodic, vasorelaxant, chemopreventive.
- Studies have suggested antimicrobial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, chemopreventive, hepatoprotective, repellent, antimalarial, anti-diarrheal, antiemetic, radical scavenging, phytoremediative, biolarvicidal properties.

Parts used


- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- In Central America, leaf extracts are used externally for the treatment of wounds and hematomas.
- Used for treatment of abscesses, infections, snake bites, malaria, and diabetes.
- In Africa, infusion used for constipation, indigestion, sore throat.
- In Venezuela, used for treatment of abscess. In Mexico, used for treatment of malaria, hematomas, and muscular pain. In Taiwan, used for diabetes. In Kenya, used for malaria and as antidote for snake bite and to treat ectoparasites in cattle. (35)
- Pesticide: In Uganda, used by farmers for field and storage pest management. (13)
- Fodder: Leaves, soft branches, and flowers considered to have high nutritive-quality index. (13) Study evaluated the potential of T. diversifolia as feed supplement in dairy cows. (see study below) (41)
- Fuel: Used as firewood.
- Pulp and papermaking potential:
See study below. (41)

Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory:
Study of methanol extract of dried leaves of TD produced dose-related inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma in rats. The analgesic effect was observed with hot plate latency assays. Results confirm the traditional use of TD for the treatment of painful inflammatory conditions. (1)
Toxicity Studies:. Study results on the aqueous extracts of TD leaves suggest it may have adverse effects on the functions of the liver, heart and kidney. (3) Study of a 70% methanol extract showed a dose- and time-dependent toxic effect. Used in mice to reduce parasitemia with Plasmodium, the observed kidney and liver toxicity at the lowest dose tested, although reversible, raises concern over the safety of the use of the plant extract against malaria
Sesquiterpene Lactones / Anti-Inflammatory / Antibacterial: The main sesquiterpene lactones of species growing in Costa Rica – diversifolin, diversifolin methyl ester and tirotundin – were studied for their anti-inflammatory activity. Results showed inhibitory activity of the 3 compounds, attributed to aklation of cysteine residues. Diversifolin was also found to have antibacterial activity, moderately active against B subtilis.
Antimicrobial / Leaves: Chemical analysis of the leaf of Tithonia yielded sesquiterpene lactones, e.g. Tagitinin which possess insecticidal properties. Study showed it possessed antimicrobial activity, active against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, with activity against S aureus, E coli and P aeruginosa, suggesting they can be used in treating gastrointestinal infections, skin diseases and urinary tract infections in man. (5)
Anti-Diabetic: Study on an 80% ethanol extract of TD showed reduction of blood glucose in KK-ay mice 3 weeks after a single oral dose, also significantly lowering plasma insulin, decreasing blood glucose in an insulin tolerance test. Results suggest it may be useful for the treatment of type2 diabetes. (6) Study yielded two new monoterpenes along with three known compounds. Compounds 1 and 3 significantly increased glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes without significant toxic effects in vitro. (see constituents above) (26) Antihyperglycemic studies showed significant activity in reducing levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL and increasing HDL cholesterol in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Phytochemical studies identified three sesquiterpenes and two monoterpenes that significantly increased glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes without toxic effects in vitro. (33)
Sesquiterpenoids / Potential Cancer Chemopreventive / Aerial Parts: Study of aerial parts isolated three new sesquiterpenoids – 2a-hydroxytirotundin, tithofolinolide, and 3a-acetoxydiversifolol, along with 8 known sesquiterpene lactones. Among the isolates, 2 compounds showed significant antiproliferative activity, 3 compounds induced HL-60 cellular differentiation, one significantly inhibited lesion formation in the mouse mammary organ culture assay. (see constituents above) (7)
Antimicrobial / Germacranolide-type Sesquiterpene Lactone / Leaves: Results indicate the non-polar leaf extract of T diversifolia could be useful in the treatment of some disease conditions and the sesquiterpene lactone is a potential candidate as a phytotherapeutic agent against some bacterial infections. (8)
Anti-Inflammatory / Hepatoprotective: Results indicate the treatment with a water extract of the aerial part of T diversifolia decreased paw edema induced by carrageenan, with reduction of the elevated liver enzymes, with improvement in the pathologic hepatic changes caused by carbon tetrachloride. (9)
Anti-Malarial / Repellant: The aqueous and methanolic extracts had 50% and 74% clearing of parasites respectively, compared to 100% for chloroquine, more effective when administered at the onset of infection, suggesting a time-dependency of the anti-malarial effects. On mosquitocidal repellency, although the volatile oil extract showed higher repellent effect on Anapholes gambiae, its repellant and protective effects on all the other species of mosquito can not be underestimated. (11)
Repeated-Dose Toxicological Studies: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of leaves for repeated-dose toxicity. The AE is composed of both STLs (sesquiterpene lactones) and CAs (chlorogenic acid derivatives). Results showed alterations in hematological parameters and few alterations in biochemical parameters. Although relatively safe in lower doses (100 mg/kg), the polar extract and extract rich in STL exhibited several adverse effects in the liver and kidneys. (14)
Anti-Diarrheal / Acute Toxicity Study / Leaves: Study of an aqueous extract of T. diversifolia leaves in rats showed remarkable anti-diarrheal effect in castor oil-induced diarrhea model, castor oil-induced enteropooling and gastrointestinal transit time models in rats. On acute toxicity study, the aqueous extract of leaves may be regarded as safe with a remote risk of acute intoxication and sedation at high doses between 5,000 mg/kg and 10,000 mg/kbw. (Toxicity study results are in contrast with study on aerial parts that showed kidney and liver toxicity at lowest dose. Elufioye et al., 2009) (15)
Radical Scavenging / Adipogenesis of Mesenchymal Cells: Study provided evidence that T. diversifolia had health promoting properties, resulting both from free radical scavenging activity and induction of protective cellular systems involved in cellular stress defenses and in adipogenesis of mesenchymal cells. (16)
Potential as Organic Foliar Fertilizer: Study evaluated the potential of T. diversifolia as organic foliar fertilizer using pechay as experimental plant. Results showed a mixture ration of 1.5 kg leaves: 1L H2O yielded the highest pechay plant weight. Findings suggest a potential to test it as foliar fertilizer in other plants. (17)
Antibacterial / Isolates from Wound Infections: Study of various extracts of T. diversifolia leaf on bacterial isolates from wound infections, including S. aureus, non-coagulase Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Proteus and Mirabilis sp, showed promising broad spectrum antibacterial effect on human pathogens. (19)
Biosorption of Nickel: Study investigated T. diversifolia as a novel biosorbent for nickel from solutions. Results showed an unmodified biomass removed over 70% of the nickel content of a solution, whereas NaOH modification increased the adsorption to over 77%. (20)
Phytotoxins: Reports suggest tat T. diversifolia produces allelochemicals that interfere with the development of surrounding plants. Study was conducted to identify compounds that have phytotoxic activity in TD extracts. Various extracts of leaves, stems, and roots showed significant inhibition of wheat coleoptile growth and a leaf extract showed inhibitory effects to a commercial herbicide. Study isolated fourteen compounds, 12 of which were sesquiterpene lactones. 1ß-methoxydiversifolin (compound 6), tagitinin A (7), and tagitinin C (8) were major products. (21)
Antibacterial Soap: Study evaluated Tithonia diversifolia, Aloe secundiflora, and Azadirachta indica in the making of herbal soaps, and tested for growth inhibition of E. coli and Candida albicans. Tithonia diversifolia exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on the test bacterial strain, but least inhibition against C. albicans. (22)
Antioxidant / Flowers: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity of extracts of dried flowers of T. diversifolia. Phytochemical screening yielded phenolic compounds: tannins, flavonoids and total phenols. Results showed strong antioxidant activity. (23)
Antifibrotic Effect on Keloid Fibroblasts: Keloid formation is abnormal wound healing characterized by massive fibroblast proliferation and excessive collagen accumulation. Study evaluated the potential of TD as an antifibrotic agent. Results showed concentration and time dependent inhibition of keloid fibroblast culture proliferation and inhibition of collagen deposition. (24)
Antiemetic / Leaves: Study evaluated the antiemetic effect of methanolic extract of leaves using chick emesis model. Results showed significant antiemetic effect, compared with reference drug chlorpromazine. (25)
Larvicidal / Culex sp Larvae / Leaves: Culex sp. is a mosquito vector that can cause filariasis. Study evaluated the larvicidal effects of Tithonia diversifolia water extract against Culex larvae. Results showed a larvicidal effect on Culex sp larvae, although not as effective as Abate™. The leaf presents as a potential alternative larvicide. (27)
Biolarvicidal / Myiasis / Leaves: Myiasis or "belatungan" is the infestation of live human and vertebrate animal tissue with dipterous larvae, Chrysomya bezziana. Study evaluated a methanol extract of leaves against various stages of C. bezziana larvae. Results showed a 1% extract was the most effective concentration able to kill the larvae and decrease the pupae weight. Authors suggest an in vivo evaluation in infested livestock. (28)
Biosorption / Lead Binding: Study evaluated the adsorption capacity, pH-profile and time-dependency studies using biomass of T. diversifolia. Results showed good adsorption capacity, with 96% of lead content of water adsorbed in the first five minutes of interaction. (29)
Antimicrobial / Essential Oil / Flowers: Study extracted essential oil from flowers by hydrodistillation and evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Results showed antibacterial activity in the order of E. coli > P. mirabilis > B. megaterium > K. pneumonia > B. cereus > S. pyogenes. The EO inhibited growth of all three tested fungal species i.e., Cochliolobus lunatus, Fusarium solani, and F. lateritum. (see constituents above) (30)
Antioxidant / Antiadipogenic Activity / Leaves : Study evaluated the total phenolic, flavonoid contents, and free radical scavenging activity by in vitro plasma lipid peroxidation of aqueous, methanol, and dichlormethane extracts of leaves. The aqueous extract showed highest total phenolic content and total flavonoid content (52 mM gallic acid and 59 mM catechin, respectively). Results showed health promoting properties attributed to its free radical scavenging activity and induction of protective cellular enzyme systems involved in cellular stress defenses and in adipogenesis of mesenchymal cells. The ability to inhibit adipocyte differentiation may be due to activation of AMPK. Study suggests intake of natural preparations of T. diversifolia might lower risk of atherosclerosis, inflammation, ageing, ischemic reperfusion injury and neurodegenerative diseases. (31)
No Anthelmintic Activity / No Cytotoxicity: Study evaluated the anthelmintic effects of T. diversifolia against adult Haemonchus contortus worms. Results showed T. diversifolia was not effective against adult Haemonchus contortus worms based on egg count and postmortem worm counts reduction tests. On brine shrimp toxicity study, the plants did not show acute toxicity with a high LC50 of 585 ug/ml. (Acute toxicity to biological systems would be C50 values of not more than 20 ug/ml.) (32)
Antiflea Activity / Toxicity Study / Flower: Study evaluated the antiflea activity and safety of Tithonia diversifolia and Senna didymobotrya. Activity was compared with those of pyrethrum flowers. Antiflea activity was evaluated using fleas from dogs. Tithonia diversifolia flower extract showed antiflea activity (93.3%) which was similar to that of pyrethrum flowers. Acute toxicity study using OECD guidelines showed it was only slightly toxic with LD50 above 10,000 mg/kbw. Results suggest further studies and potential for the control of Tunga penetrans infestation in humans. (34)
In Vitro Cytotoxicity: Cytotoxicity testing of solvent extracts was done against Vero monkey kidney cells using MTT colorimetric assay. In the study, extracts with selectivity index (LC50/MIC) above 10 were regarded as non-toxic, between 1 and 9 as less toxic and more active, and below 1 as toxic. Results showed all extracts of T. diversifolia were toxic with IC50 values far lower than 0.1 mg/ml, except for the hot water extract with LC50 of 0.275 mg/ml. (35)
Genotoxicity Test: In the Ames test, a sample is considered mutagenic or genotoxic if revertant colonies of the test sample double the colonies of negative control, or if there is dose dependent increase in the number of colonies with the sample. Genotoxicity testing on T. diversifolia samples using the Ames test did not show genotoxic effect. Although it showed toxic effects on cytotoxicity study, it was not mutagenic in the Ames test. (35)
Hypoglycemic / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the antioxidant and anti-hyperglycemic properties of Tithonia diversifolia aqueous extract of leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Results showed a total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity of 55.92 GAE mg/g dw and 93.00 uM TEAC/mg dw, respectively. At 500 mg/kbw, the extract significantly reduced blood glucose level on OGTT in normal mice and significantly decreased glucose levels, TC, triglycerides, LDL and increased HDL cholesterol in alloxan induced diabetic mice. (37)
Antiscabies / Leaves: Study evaluated the fresh leaf extract from Tithonia diversifolia for antiscabies effect in rabbits. A water extract of fresh leaves at highest concentration (300 g fresh leaves in 100 ml water) gave the best results in treating scabies. The results were similar to that achieved with Ivermectin. (39)
Anti-Trypanosomal / Leaves: Study evaluated an ethanol leaf extract of Tithonia diversifolia for in-vitro and in-vivo activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei in albino rats. The LD50 of the plant extract was equal to or greater than 5000 mg/kbw. The ethanol extracts showed high invitro and invivo antitrypanosomal activity compared to the reference drug. (40)
Pulping and Paper Making Potentials / Stems: Study evaluated the pulping and paper making potential of matured stems from T. diversifolia. Fibers measured on parameters of Runkel ration, flexibility coefficient, and slenderness ratio/felting powers yielded 0.85, 54.75, and 46.86, respectively. Results suggested mature stems can be harnessed as an alternative sourc3e of raw material for pulp and paper production. Study suggested controlled and large scale cultivation of the plant to meet the demand of pulp and paper making industry. (41)
Supplementary Feed for Dairy Cows: Study evaluated the effects of Tithonia diversifolia as supplementary forage on dairy cow performance and methane production. The replacement of up to 20.8% of sugarcane and up to 11.4% of concentrates (DM basis) with T. diversifolia had no effect on DMI, milk production or composition, N balance, or CH4 production. Study suggests T. diversifolia can be sued as a suitable feed ingredient by replacing forage and concentrates without negative effects on performance and methane production in dairy cows under these experimental conditions. (42)
Anti-Ulcer / Tagitinin C: Study evaluated the gastroprotective activity of T. diversifolia in an ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in male Wistar rats. Results showed gastroprotective activity, with the dichlormethane extract exhibiting highest activity (90% at doses between 10 to 100 mg/kg). The compound tagitinin C, isolated from the extract, was the main gastroprotective agent. Study suggests the gastroprotective mechanism does the involve NO, sulfhydryl groups, or prostaglandin. (43)


Updated Feb 2019 / Aug 2015

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Studies on the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of Tithonia diversifolia leaf extract / Victor B Owoyele, Caleb O. Wuraola et al /
Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 90, Issues 2-3, February 2004, Pages 317-321 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2003.10.010 |
Study of three sesquiterpene lactones from Tithonia diversifolia on their anti-inflammatory activity using the transcription factor NF-kappa B and enzymes of the arachidonic acid pathway as targets / Rungeler P, Lyss G et al / Planta Med. 1998 Oct;64(7):588-93.
Toxicity study of the aqueous extract of Tithonia diversifolia leaves using selected biochemical parameters in rats / J O Adebayo, E A Balogun, S A Oyeleke / Pharmacognosy Research, 2009 / Volume : 1, Issue : 3, Page : 143-147
Toxicity studies of Tithonia diversifolia A. Gray (Asteraceae) in rats
/ T O Elufloye, O I Alatise et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 122, Issue 2, 18 March 2009, Pages 410-415 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2008.12.007
Antimicrobial activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from Tithonia diversifolia and Bryum coronatum collected from Ogbomoso, Oyo State. Nigeria / Liasu M O and Ayandele A A / Adv. in Nat. Appl. Sci., 2(1): 31-34, 2008
Antidiabetic Effect of Nitobegiku, the Herb Tithonia diversifolia, in KK-Ay Diabetic Mice / Toshihiro Mura, Kosuke Nosaka et al / Biol. Pharm. Bull. 28(11) 2152—2154 (2005)
Sesquiterpenoids from Tithonia diversifolia with Potential Cancer Chemopreventive Activity / Jian-Qiao Gu, Joell J Gills et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2002; 65 (4): pp 532–536 / DOI: 10.1021/np010545m
Antimicrobial activity of extracts and a germacranolidetype sesquiterpene lactone from Tithonia diversifolia
leaf extract
/ C A Obafemi, T O Sulaimon et al / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 5 (12), pp. 1254-1258, 16 June 2006
The antiinflammatory and liver protective effect of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) gray and Dicliptera chinensis Juss. Extracts in rats / Chun-Ching Lin, Min-Lin Lin, Jer-Min Lin / Phytotherapy Research
Volume 7 Issue 4, Pages 305 - 309 / Published Online: 31 Jan 200
Identification of the main volatile compounds in the leaf and flower of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl) Gray / Dorcas O Moronkola, Isiaka A Ogunwande et al / Journal of Natural Medicines, Volume 61, Number 1 / January, 2007 / DOI 10.1007/s11418-006-0019-5
Anti-malarial and repellent activities of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) leaf extracts / Oyewole I O, Ibidapo C A et al / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 2(8), pp. 171-175, August, 2008
Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A.Gray / Synonyms / The Plant List
Tithonia diversifolia / Fact Sheet / Pesticidal Plant Leaflet
Repeated-dose toxicological studies of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. gray and identification of the toxic compounds / Flávia Donaire Passoni, Rejane Barbosa Oliveira, Daniela Aparecida Chagas-Paula, Leonardo Gobbo-Neto, Fernando Batista Da Costa / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 147, Issue 2, 20 May 2013, Pages 389–394 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2013.03.024
Studies of Phytochemical Screening, Acute Toxicity and Anti-Diarrhoeal Effect of Aqueous Extract of Kenyan Tithonia diversifolia Leaves in Rats / J.O.C. Ezeonwumelu, R.G. Omolo, A.M. Ajayi, E. Agwu, J.K. Tanayen, C.P. Adiukwu, A.A. Oyewale, B. Adzu, A.G. Okoruwa and S.O. Ogbonnia / British Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 2023; 3(3): pp 127-134
Effects of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray Extract on Adipocyte Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells / Di Giacomo C, Vanella L, Sorrenti V, Santangelo R, Barbagallo I, Calabrese G, et al. / PLoS ONE, 2015; 10(4): / e0122320 / doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0122320
Dela Pena, Cenny I. Bartolome, Leah. D., Banwa, Tules.P., PhD / European Scientific Journal, Dec 2013; Special Edition, Vol .4
Extraction and Characterization of Essential Oils from Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray / Chukwuka K.S, Ojo O. M / American Journal of Essential Oils and Natural Products 2014; 1 (4): 1-5
In vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Tithonia diversifolia Leaf Extracts on Bacterial Isolates from Wound Infections from a Nigerian Hospital / O. Ogunfolakan, O.S. Kolawole and A.O. Olowe / Research Journal of Medical Sciences, 2010, Vol 4, Issue 5, Pp 305-308 / DOI: 10.3923/rjmsci.2010.305.308
Biosorption of nickel from aqueous solution by Tithonia diversifolia / Afamefuna Elvis Okoronkwo*, Ademola Festus Aiyesanmi, Emmanuel Folorunso Olasehinde / doi: 10.5004/dwt.2009.833
Phytotoxins from Tithonia diversifolia / Maria A. F. M. Miranda, Rosa M. Varela, Ascension Torres, José M. G. Molinillo, Sonia C. J. Gualtieri, and Francisco A. Macías* / J. Nat. Prod., 2015; 78 (5): pp 1083–1092 /
DOI: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.5b00040
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF SKINCARE PREPARATIONS FROM PLANT EXTRACTS / *Kareru, P.G, Keriko, J.M, Kenji, G.M, Thiong'o, G.T, Gachanja, A.N, Mukiira, H.N / African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, Vol. 7, No. 3, 2010, pp. 214-218
Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of ethanol extract of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl) A. Gray dry flowers / Robson Miranda da Gama, Marcelo Guimarães, Luiz Carlos de Abreu, José Armando-Junior* / Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2014; 4(9): 740-742
Antifibrotic Effect of Standardized Ethanol Extract of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsley) A. Gray on Keloid Fibroblasts / Mae Sri Hartati Wahyuningsih*, Y Widodo Wirohadidjojo, Rian Hidayat3, Ahmad Sadid / International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research, Vol 7, Issue 4, Article 2
Antiemetic Activity of Tithonia diversifolia (HEMSL.) A. Gray Leaves in Copper Sulfate Induced Chick Emesis Model / Salman Ahmed*, Patrricia Akpomedaye Onocha / American Journal of Phytomedicine and Clinical Therapeutics, 1(9), 2013: pp 734-739
Two New Monoterpenes from Tithonia diversifolia and Their Anti-Hyperglycemic Activity / Xia Li, Guanghui Huang, Guijun Zhao, Wansheng Chen, Junli Li and Lianna Sun∗ / Rec. Nat. Prod. 7:4 (2013) 351-354
Larvicidal Effects of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsley) A. Gray Leaf Water Extract against Culex sp. Larvae /
Hasan Ali Abdurrachman, Diah Dhianawaty, Neneng Syarifah / Althea Medical Journal, Vol 2, No 1, 2015.
Biolarvacidal activity of methanol extract of Kipahit leaves (Tithonia diversifolia) against larvae of Chrysomya bezziana fly / Wardhana AH, Diana N / JITV, Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Vol 19, No 1, 2014
Investigation of Lead Binding by Tithonia diversifolia / A.E. Okoronkwo,E.F. Olasehinde / Journal of Applied Sciences 2007
Chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of essential oil extracted from Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae) flower / Oludare Oladipo Agboola, Stephen Oyedeji, Abdulwakeel Ajao, Oladip Aregbesola / Jourmal of Bioresrouces and Bioproducts, 2016; 1(4)
Effects of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray Extract on Adipocyte Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cellsv / Claudia Di Giacomo, Luca Vanela, Valeria Sorrenti et al / PLoS One, 2015; 10(4): e0122320 / doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0122320 / PMID: 25848759
Comparative Antidiabetic Potential and Survival Function of Harungana madagascariensis, Physalis peruviana, Solanum americanum and Tithonia diversifolia Extracts on Alloxan-Induced Diabetes in Guinea-Pigs / J N Kadima, F M Kasali, B Bavhure, A O Mahano, F M Bwironde / International Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Research, Feb 2016; 5(3)
Herbal medicine use in murang’a county and antiflea activity and safety of tithonia diversifolia and senna didymobotrya extracts / Githinji, James M / University of Nairobi Research Archive, 2015 / http://hdl.handle.net/11295/104614
A comprehensive study of the potential phytomedicinal use and toxicity of invasive Tiithonia species in South Africa / Aitebiremen Gift Omokhua, Muna Ali Abdella, Johannes van Staden, and Lyndy Joy McGaw / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2018; 18:272 / https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-018-2336-0
Proximate Composition and Phytochemical Constituents Of Aspilia africana (Pers) C. D. Adams and Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl) A. Gray Stems (Asteraceae) / ESSIETT, U. A. and AKPAN, E. M. / Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology, and Life Sciences, March 2013; 2(4): pp 33-37
Antioxidant and Hypoglycemic Effects of Tithonia diversifolia Aqueous Leaves Extract in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Mice / Montakarn Thongsom, Warangkana Chunglok, Rapeeporn Kuanchuea, Jitbanjong Tangpong / Advances in Environmental Biology, 2013; 7(9): pp 2116-2125
In vivo study of antilithiatic effect of Tithonia diversifolia (Wild Sunflower) leaf extracts in ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride induced nephrolithiasis in male albino wistar rats / Ron Pacure / Our Lady of Fatima University, College of Medical Laboratory Science, Valenzuela City, Philippines
Leaf extract from Tithonia diversifolia cures Scabies in rabbits / Vu Thi Thu Hang, Chu Duc Tuy, Nguyen Ngoc Anh and T R Preston / Livestock Research for Rural Development, 2012; 24(12)
In-vivo and In-vitro Anti-Trypanosomal Activity of Tithonia diversifolia Ethanol Leaf Extract on Typanosoma brucei brucei Infected Rats / Damilola A. Omoboyowa, Olajoju T. Soniran, Agha O. Aja and Florence O. Chukwu-Oko /Acta Parasitologica Globalis, 2016; 7(2): pp 87-93 / DOI: 10.5829/idosi.apg.2016.7.2.105108
PULPING AND PAPER MAKING POTENTIALS OF STEM OF TITHONIA DIVERSIFOLIA / Otoide J. E., Jayeola A. A. and Akanni B. A. / European Journal of Botany, Plant Sciences and Phytology, June 2018; Vol 4, No 1: pp.1-5

Tithonia diversifolia as a Supplementary Feed for Dairy Cows / Rafael Sandin Ribeiro, Stephanie Amelia Terry, Joao Paulo Sacramento et al / PLOS ONE, 11(12): e0165751 / doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0165751
Bioassay-Guided Isolation of an Anti-Ulcer Compound, Tagitinin C, from Tithonia diversifolia: Role of Nitric Oxide, Prostaglandins and Sulfhydryls / Maria Elena Sanchez-Mendoza, Adelfo Reyes-Ramirez, Leticia Cruz Antonion, Luis Jimenez, Juan Rodriguez-Silverio, Jesus Arieta / Molecules 2011

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