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Family Myrtaceae
Golden penda
Xanthostemon chrysanthus (F.Muell.) Benth.

Jin pu tau

Scientific names Common names
Metrosideros chrysantha F.Muell. Expo gold (Engl.)
Nania chrysantha (F.Muell.) Kuntze Golden myrtle (Engl.)
Xanthostemon chrysanthus (F.Muell.) Benth. Golden penda (Engl.)
  Yellow penda (Engl.)
  Xanthostemon (Engl.)
Xanthostemon chrysanthus (F.Muell.) Benth. is an accepted The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Jin pu tau.
MALAYSIAN: Jambu kuning.

Gen info
- A genus of 45 species found in tropical northern Australia, New Guinea, Caledonia, Indonesia and the Philippines. Names derives from "xanthos" (yellow) and stemon (thread or stamen).
- Etymology: Xanthostemon derives from the Greek word xanthos meaning yellow, and stemon meaning thread of stamen; chrysanthus derives from chrysos meaning gold, and anthos, referring to the flower color.

Xanthostemon chrysanthus is a perennial small tree or shrub growing to a height of 9 to 12 meters, with glossy green, alternate lanceolate leaves, 5 centimeters wide to 15 centimeters long, arranged in whorls along the stem. Flowers are bright yellow, occurring in terminal rounded clusters, five-parted with numerous conspicuous bright yellow stamens. Fruits are inedible; a single fruit measuring 10-12 millimeters, rounded and woody, green when young, dark brown when mature. Fully ripened fruits dehisce to disperse tiny seeds.

- Planted as ornamental for its unique yellow florals.
- Indigenous to tropical norther Australia, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Indonesia, and the Philippines. (3)

• GC and GC/MS analysis yielded a leaf oil in which the principal component was the ß-triketone leptospermone (65-84 percent). (1)

• Plant attracts nectar feeding birds and insects.
• Propagated through seeds and stem cuttings. Tolerant of hard urban environments. (3)

- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- Used for purifying the blood; for liver and pulmonary complaints.
- Hardened wood used by the Ngadjonji of Queensland for making spear points, swords, and digging sticks.

Leaf Oils: Xanthostemon chrysanthus produced a leaf oil in which the principal component was the ß-triketone leptospermone, 65-84%. (see constituents above) (1)
• Antibacterial: In a study of 60 medicinal plant extracts, X. chrysanthum ethanol extract was one of 16 bark and leaf extracts that showed inhibition activity against test bacterium Chromobacterium violaceum DMST 21761. Leaf extract showed an MIC of 2.5 mg/ml. Anti-quorum sensing activity was not detected. (4)
• Cinnamoyl-Phloroglucinols / Cytotoxicity / Leaves:
Study isolated four new cinnamoyl-phloroglucinols (1-4) from the leaves of X. chrysanthus. Compound 3 showed moderate cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231 and SGC-7901 cells with IC50 values of 25.26 ± 0.35 µM and 31.2 ± 0.94 µM, respectively. (6)


Updated February 2019
September 2017

Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / File: Golden Penda (Xanthostemon chrysanthus) 2.jpg / Mokkie / 22 April 2014 / Creatove Commons Attribution / click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
A Preliminary Examination of the Leaf Oils of the Genus Xanthostemon (Myrtaceae) in Australia / Joseph J. Brophy, Robert J. Goldsack and Paul I. Forster
/ Journal of Essential Oil Research, March 2006; 18(2): pp 222-230 / DOI: 10.1080/10412905.2006.9699071
Xanthostemon chrysanthus / Synonyms / The Plant List
XANTHOSTEMON CHRYSANTHUS (F. MUELL.) BENTH.: A NEW FLOWERING TREE FOR URBAN LANDSCAPES / Ahmad Nazarudin, M.R. / International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Plantation, Vol. 3; June 2016
Anti-bacterial and Anti-quorum Sensing Properties of Selected Medicinal Plants from Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand / Monton Visutthi / Science and Technology RMUTT Journal, Vol 6, No 1 (2016)
/ Ridzwan MN / Flowers Around Us
Four new cinnamoyl-phloroglucinols from the leaves of Xanthostemon chrysanthus.
/ :iu F, Lu W J, Li N P, Liu J W, He J, Ye W C, Wang L / Fitoterapia, July 2018; 128: pp 93-96 / doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2018.05.017.

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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