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Family Cycadaceae / Zamiaceae
Zamia
Zamia pumila
L.
FALSE SAGO PALM
Da su tie

Scientific names  Common names
Zamia pumila L. Zamia (Tag.)
Zamia concinna L. Cardboard palm (Engl.)
Zamia debilis L.f. ex Aiton Comfort root (Engl.)
Zamia dentata Voigt Coontie (Engl.)
Zamia integrifolia (L.f. ex Aiton) Kuntz False sago palm (Engl.)
Zamia latifolia Prenleloup Florida Arrowroot (Engl.)
Encephalantos pumilus (L.) Sweet Sago zamia (Engl.)
Palmifolium debile (Aiton) Kuntze  
Palmifolium integrifolium (L.f. ex Aiton) Kuntze  
Palmifolium pumilum (L.) Kuntze  

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Zamyah.
CHINESE: Da su tie.
FRENCH: Zamie, Zamier.
GERMAN: Zapfenpalmfarn.
ITALIAN: Zamia.
RUSSIAN: Zamiia.
TURKISH: Zamia.

Botany
Zamia is a perennial palm-like dioecious plant with simple, sometimes branched, short trunk. Leaves are pinnately compound, crowded on the terminal part of the trunk, up to 1.5 meters long, with a prickly stalk. Leaflets are 10-15 on each side of the rachis, opposite or alternate, oblanceolate, overlapping. Male cones are cylindrical, up to 10 centimeters long, often clustered; female ones are shorter and elongate-ovoid.

Distribution
Recently introduced.

Parts utilized
Rhizomes, roots, fruit.

Constituents and Properties
Yields the toxic glucoside cycasin, found in ten genera of living cycads.
Toxin is present in the roots, seeds and foliage.


Uses
Edibility

- See Toxicity / Caution below.
- The starchy stems, after treatment to remove the poisonous principle, were a significant part of aboriginal diets.
- Washed roots contain 38% starch and 6% protein, used to make "sofkee," a staple of the traditional Seminole Indian diet and a component in the diet of many indigenous peoples. (1)
Folkloric
- Purely ornamental, without any known folkloric use in the Philippines.
- In folk medicine elsewhere, fruit used in therapeutic shampoos.
- Gum from the stem used for skin ulcers.
- Roots chewed for cough and believed to improve the singing voice.
- Dried powder placed inside socks and shoes to prevent athlete's foot by decrease moisture.
Others
• Extracted starch from root is marketed as "arrowroot" as ingredients to biscuits baby food, chocolate, spaghetti. Also used in cooking as a thickener.
(1)
• Fruit used as therapeutic shampoo.

Toxicity / Caution !
• Cycad palms produce three toxins: cycasin, beta-methylamino-L-alanine and an unidentified toxin.
• Cycasin content is a known toxic glucoside, present in 10 living cycad genera.
• Cycasin has shown to be a strong mutagen.
• Toxic to cattle and sheep. In cattle, causes "wobbles" characterized by a weird stance and stumbling gait.

• In humans and livestock, consumption of inadequately detoxified roots or seeds results in two syndromes: a short-onset digestive upset with severe continuous vomiting followed by diarrhea, and a more severe syndrome associated with depression and gradually developing irreversible neurological paralysis. In humans, the symptoms may resemble those of ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). (1)

Studies
Toxic Properties / Cycasin:
The toxic glucoside cycasin is found ubiquitously and exclusively in the 10 general of living cycads and is present in root, seeds and foliage. In the GIT, cycasin loses a glucose molecule to become the physiologically active methylazoxymethanol. The toxin must be removed from the roots and seeds by grating and washing before it becomes safe for human consumption. Acute consumption of cycasin in humans and animals can produce liver damage. Chronic exposure of experimental animals produces tumors in various body sites. Studies have shown it to be a very strong mutagen. Chronic long-term low-level exposure can cause permanent CNS damage. Beta-N-methyl-alpha-B-diaminoprorionic acid, the neurotoxic compound believed to cause neurological symptoms in man, has been isolated from seeds. (1)

Availability
Ornamental cultivation.

Last Update May 2015

Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Zamia pumila / Poisonous Plants and Animals of Florida and the Caribbean / David W. Nellis
/ Google Books
(2)
Toxicology Brief: Cycad toxicosis in dogs / Hany Youssef, BVSc, DVM, MS / Veterinary Medicine
(3)
Zamia pumila / Common names / ZipCodeZoo
(4)
Zamia pumila / Synonyms / The Plant List


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