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Family Lauraceae
Persea americana Mill.
You li

Scientific names Common names
Laurus persea Linn. Abukado (Tag.)
Persea americana Mill. Abokado (Ceb.) 
Persea drymifolia Schltdl. & Cham. Aguacate (Span.) 
Persea edulis Raf. Alligator pear (Engl.) 
Persea gigantea L. O. Williams Avocado (Engl.) 
Persea gratissima C. F. Gaertn.  
Persea leiogyna S. F. Blake  
Persea nubigena L. O. Williams  
Persea paucitriplinervia Lundell  
Persea steyemarkii C. K. Allen  
Persea americana is the preferred name. Tropicos resource / EOL

Other vernacular names
AMHARIC: Avocado.
BURMESE: Htaw bat, Kyese.
CHINESE:Zhang li, Huang you li, Lao li, Xi yin du lao li, E li, You li.
CREOLE: Zaboka.
CROATIAN : Americhki avokado.
DANISH: Avocado, Avogatpære.
DUTCH: Advocaat.
FRENCH: Avocat, Avocatier, Zabelbok, Zaboka.
GERMAN: Alligatorbirne, Avocado, Avocadobaum, Avocadobirne, Avocato-Birne.
INDONESIA: Adpukat, Avokad.
ITALIAN: Avocato.
JAPANESE: Abokado, Perusea.
KHMER: 'avôkaa.
KOREAN: Ah bo k'a do .
MALAY: Adpukat, Avocad, Aviokad, Bash apukado, Buah mantega, Buah apokat.
PORTUGUESE: Abacate, Abacateiro.
RUSSIAN: Avokado.
SPANISH: Aguacate, Cura, Cupandra, Devora, Okh, Palta, Pagua, Sikia
THAI: Awokhado.

Abukado is a medium-sized tree reaching a height of up to 10 to 15 meters. Leaves are alternate, leathery, oblong to oval or obovate, about 20 centimeters long. Flowers are small, yellow, borne in naked, panicled hairy cymes. Stamens are 12, in groups of 3 in 4 whorls. Fruit is large, fleshy, elongated, of various sizes and shapes, often resembling a pear, 8 to 18 centimeters long, some weighing as much as two kilos, soft and edible, with a nutty flavor, color varying from yellow-green to purple.

- Introduced from tropical America before the end of the sixteenth century.
- Now extensively cultivated in the Philippines for its edible fruit.
Usually grown from seeds, but may be propagated by budding, grafting, and marketing.

- Fruit: fixed oil, 6-10%; protein 1.3-6%.
- Leaves contain a volatile oil,, 0.5%, with methyl-chavicol, d-d-pinene and paraffin.
- Leaves yielded isorhamnetin, luteolin, rutin, quercetin and apigenin.
- Seed is rich in saponins, tannins, flavonoids and alkaloids.
- Study of seed extract yielded alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, cyanogenic glycosides. Proximate analysis yielded moisture, 12.90± 1.57%; crude fat, 18.53 ±0.26%; crude protein, 18.55 ±1.26%; carbohydrate, 47.35±24%; ash, 2.6±0.63%; and crude fiber, 3.17 ±0.17%. Mineral content showed calcium 12.30±0.08 mg; iron 0.307±0.13 mg; magnesium 21.12 ±3.86 mg; phosphorus 46.00 ±1.72 mg; potassium 103.8±0.22 mg; sodium 0.302±0.02 mg; and zinc 0.087±0.01 mg per 100 gm weight. (34)
- Phytochemical constituent analysis of leaf, fruit, and seed (mg/100g) yielded: saponins 1.29±0.08 L, 0.14±0.01 F, 19.21±2.81 S; tannins 0.68±0.06 L, 0.12±0.03 F, 0.24±0.12 S; flavonoids 8.11±0.014 L, 4.25±0.16 F, 1.90±0.07 S; cyanogenic glycosides ND L & F, 0.06±0.02 S; alkaloids 0.51±0.21 L, 0.14 F, 0.72±0.12 S; phenols 3.41±0.64 L, 2.94±0.13 F, 6.14±1.28 S; steroids 1.21±0.14 L, 1.88±0.19 F, 0.09 S. (42)
- Leaf and bark extracts yielded saponins, tannins, flavonoids, and terpenoids. (see study below) (42)
- The fruit yields a caloric density of 1.7 kcal per gram and a half unit (± 70 g) yields 114 kcal, 4.6 g of fiber, 345 mg potassium, 19.5 mg of magnesium, 1.3 mg vitamin E and 57 mg of phytosterols. About 75% of fiber contents are insoluble, 25% are soluble. Lipids are 71% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), 13% polyunsaturated (PUFA), and 16% saturated (SFA). (see study below) (49)

- Digestive, emmenagogue, antibacterial, antioxidant, antifungal, pectoral, stomachic, anthelmintic, antiperiodic, antidiarrheal.
- Pulp considered to have aphrodisiac and emmenagogue properties.
- Seed considered insecticidal, fungicidal, anti-microbial, hypocholesterolemic.

Parts used
Bark, fruit, leaves and seeds.

Edibility / Nutritional
• Fruit eaten with a dressing as a salad.
• Makes an excellent ice cream and dessert.
• A good source of vitamins A, some B, C and E, potassium (higher than bananas) and fiber ; fair source of iron; low in calcium. A fruit with high-energy producing value, each edible pound allegedly provides an average of 1,000 calories.
• Fat content averages about 20 percent and increases with maturity of the fruit. The digestibility of the fat is comparable to that of butter fat.
• The caloric or energy-producing value of avocado is high. One pound of edible portion represents an average of 1,000 calories. The maximum yield is about twice that of lean meat.
• High in fat, about 25-35 gms on average. however, about 65% of it is health-promoting monounsaturated fat, particularly oleic acid.
• Mineral content is considered greater than in any other fresh fruit. Salts of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium compose more than one-half of the ash. It yields an excess of base-forming elements, compared to nuts which furnish an excess of acid-forming elements.
• Protein content, which averages 2%, is higher than any other fresh fruit.
• Leaves used as a substitute for tea.
• The pulp is thought to promote menstruation.
• The pulp is used to hasten the suppuration of wounds.
• The pulp is considered aphrodisiac and emmenagogue.
• Ointment from pulverized seeds sometimes employed as rubefacient.
• Decoction of pulverized seeds used as gargles for toothaches; also, a piece of the seed placed in the cavity of the tooth to relieve toothaches.
• The leaves and bark promote menstruation; the tea has been used to expel worms.
• Used for diarrhea and dysentery.
• Rheumatism and neuralgia: Pulverize seeds or bark, mix with oil and apply on affected area as
• Beverage: Take decoction of leaves as tea.
• Pulp is applied to shallow cuts, prevents infection.
• Flesh of ripe fruit is soothing to sunburned skin.
• In different parts of the world, has been recommended for anemia, exhaustion, high cholesterol, hypertension, gastritis and duodenal ulcers. The leaves have been reported effective as antitussive, antidiabetic, antiarthritic and anti-inflammatory.
• In Mexico, rind of the fruit used as anthelmintic. In the form of a liniment, used in intercostal neuralgia. Seeds, crude or toasted, are used to treat skin rashes, diarrhea, asthma, hypertension, rheumatism, and dysentery caused by helminths and amoebas,
• In many
African countries used in traditional medicine for gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcers, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, anemia.
• In
Nigeria, seed extracts used for hypertension.
Ink: Juice from seeds yields a milky juice which turns red on exposure; used to make permanent ink for fabric lettering.
Colorant: Seed yields a vibrant orange extract, which has been developed as a food colorant. (see study below) (57)
Poison: Unripe fruit is poisonous and ground-up seed mixed with cheese is used as a rat and mouse poison. (58)
• Timber: Wood used for house building, especially for house posts, light comstruction, furniture, cabinet making, carving, musical instruments, and various small articles. Also yields a good quality veneer and plywood. Wood is susceptible to termite attack. (58)
• Fodder: Surplus fruit is used as food source for pigs and other livestock. (58)

• Lactating livestock eating avocado leaves may develop non-infectious mastitis and agalactia.

Anticonvulsant effect of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) (Avocado) leaf aqueous extract in mice: In African traditional medicine, Persea americana has been used in various human ailments including childhood convulsions and epilepsy. A study showed that avocado leaf aqueous extract (PAE) produces anticonvulsant effect by the enhancement of GABAergic neurotransmission and/or action in the brain. (1)
Hypoglycemic / Leaves:
Hypoglycemic activity of aqueous leaf extract of Persea americana: A Nigerian study revealed that the leaf extract contained various pharmacologically active compounds such as saponins, tannins, phlobatannins, flavonoids, alkaloids and polysaccharides. Although the results were incomparable to the reference drug (chlorpropamide), it confirms the ethnomedical use of the plant for diabetes management. More studies are needed to identify the hypoglycemic principles and its mechanism of action. (2)
Hypoglycemic / Hypolipidemic:
Hypoglycemic and Hypocholesterolemic Potential of Persea americana Leaf Extracts: A effect of aqueous and methanol extracts of Persea americana on plasma glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-CHOL), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-CHOL) in rats was investigated. Results suggested lowering effects on glucose and lipid metabolism influences with lowering of Total and LDL cholesterols, an effect of HDL-cholesterol and a potential protective mechanism against atherosclerosis. (3)
Antiobesity / Hypolipidemic:
Effects of Persea Americana leaf extracts on body weight and liver lipids in rats fed hyperlipidemic diet: The study results hypothesize that P. americana leaf extract increases catabolism of lipids accumulated in adipose tissue causing a decrease in mean body weight gain and raises the question if higher concentrations of the leaf extract would reduce liver levels in obesity and fatty liver conditions.
Hypotensive / Leaves: Leaf constituents of Persea americana given intravenously induced a marked fall in mean arterial blood pressure lasting 2-3 mins. The short duration was assumed due to rapid metabolism. (6)
Toxicity / Persin: Study of avocado leaves isolated an active principle, persin. Previously shown to have antifungal properties and to be toxic to silkworms. At high doses, persin can induce mammary gland necrosis and myocardial fiber necrosis, the mechanism for which still remain to be resolved.
Cytotoxic/ Antitumor / Pesticidal: Study of unripe avocado fruit isolated three major bioactive constituents which showed activity against six human tumor cell lines with selectivity for human prostate adenocarcinoma, with one compound being as potent as adriamycin. also, one compound was shown to be more effective than rotenone, a natural botanical insecticide, against yellow fever mosquito larva.
Toxicity / Larvicidal / Antifungal: Study of extracts of avocado seeds showed toxicity towards Artemia salina, activity against Aedes aegypti. Extracts were also active against all yeast strains, Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermis. (8)
Vasorelaxant: Study of aqueous leaves extract on isolated rat aorta produced significant vasorelaxation, an effect attributed to the synthesis or release of endothelium-derived relaxing factors and/or release of prostanoids. Extract also reduced vasoconstriction probably through inhibition of Ca influx through calcium channels. (9)
Antimicrobial / Antimycobacterial: Study demonstrated antimycobacterial activity and suggests a potential source for antituberculosis drugs. (10)

Persealide / Cytotoxicity: Study of ETOH extract isolated 'persealide' which showed moderate cytotoxicity against three solid tumor cell lines: human lung carcinoma, human breast carcinoma and human colon adenocarcinoma. (11)
Anti-Viral : Study showed infusion of P. americana leaves strongly inhibited herpes simplex virus type 1, Adenovirus type 3 and Aujeszky's disease virus. (12)

Acute and Subacute Toxicity Studies: Acute toxicity study showed a relatively low LD50 for the seed extract. Treatment for 14 days decreased food consumption, body weight, blood glucose, Hb and hepatic cholesterol levels. (13)
Hypoglycemic / Pancreatic Protective: Study showed restorative effect of the ethanolic extract on pancreatic islet cells. Results suggest a potential for the management of diabetes.(14)
Immunomodulating / Anti-Adhesion Property: Study showed that P americana has the potential to interfere with the adhesion of all the oral bacteria in host epithelial surfaces. Its significant inhibition property suggests that like cranberry juice, avocado juice can also be consumed to avoid urinary tract infections with E coli. (16)
Hypolipemic Effects: (1) Study showed treatment with various doses of a methanolic extract of Persea americana seeds caused a significant reduction in the levels of TC, TG, LDLC, and VLDLC while the levels of HDLC increased significantly. (17)
Antioxidant / Leaves Phytoconstituents: Study of leaves isolated isorhamnetin, luteolin, rutin, quercetin and apigenin. On free radical scavenging testing using the DPPH and H2O2 assays, quercetin showed the highest scavenging activity.
Wound Healing / Fruit: Study evaluated the wound-healing activity of a fruit extract
in rats. Results showed the rate of wound contraction, epithelialization time together with hydroxyproline content and histological findings support its use in the management of wound healing. (19)
Anti-Ulcer Activity: Study in rats showed both aqueous and methanolic extracts of Persea americana were not potent enough to reduce gastric acid secretion in rats but inhibited histamine-stimulated acid secretion probably by inhibition of H2-receptors. (21)
Chemo-Protective: Studies have shown phytochemicals extracted from avocado fruit selectively induce cell cycle arrest, inhibit growth, and induce apoptosis in precancerous and cancer cell lines. This study suggest phytochemicals from the fruit have a potential as a chemoprotective ingredient for lowering the side effect of chemotherapy like cyclophosphamide in cancer therapy. (22)
Antibacterial / Antimycobacterial: Methanol extracts from both Persea americana and Gymnosperma glutinosum showed to possess antimycobacterial activity. Persea americana showed higher antimicrobial activity against the mycobacteria strains.
Liver-Kidney Effects: Study evaluated the histopathologic effects of P. americana leaf extract on liver and kidneys of rabbits. Histopath of the liver and kidney of recommended and high dosage groups were not different from the control suggesting the plant extract to be beneficial, except for loose stool suggesting increased bowel emptying. (23)
Wound Healing Benefits / Oil: Study showed avocado oil is rich in oleic acid and essential fatty acids. When used in natura or in pharmaceutical formulations for topical use, avocado oil can promote increased collagen synthesis and decrease the numbers of inflammatory cells during the wound healing process.
Anti-Hyperlipidemic Activity / Leaf Extract: Study evaluated the anti-hyperlipidemic activity of a methanol leaf extract in cholesterol-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Results showed a dose-dependent reversal of hyperlipidemic by the methanol extract of leaves. The MEPA also caused a dose-dependent reduction of plasma lipid peroxidation in rats. The anti-hyperlipidemic effect was comparable to standard drug cholestyramine. (27)
Anti-Ulcer / Leaves: Study of an aqueous extract of leaves against ethanol/Hcl and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer showed anti-ulcer effects, with significant reduction of ulcer index, possibly through a decrease in gastric secretion. (28)
Antiprotozoal / Antimycobacteria / Seeds: Study of chloroformic and ethanolic extracts of seeds showed significant activity against E. histolytica, G. lamblia, and T. vaginalis. The chloroformic extract inhibited the growth of M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Results showed amoebicidal, giardicidal and antimycobacterial activities. (29)
Hypotensive / Seeds: Study of aqueous seed extract showed reduction of blood pressure in normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats, possibly through reduction of heart rate. (30)
Cardiotoxicity of Acetogenins: Study evaluated a new acetogenins-enriched extract from the seed of Persea americana to investigate its toxicity on cardiac tissue. Results showed the acetogenins-enriched extract could directly modulate permeability transition, resulting in cardiotoxicity. (31)
Hypolipidemic / Seeds: Study evaluated the effect of avocado seed flour (ASF) on lipid levels of mice on a hyperlipidemic diet. Treatment with ASF significant reduced the levels of total cholesterol, LDL-C, and prediction of the atherogenic index. The effect was attributed to the antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds and dietary fiber in ASF. (33)
Antidiabetic / PTP1B Inhibitory Effect: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of leaves and its fractions for inhibitory activity on protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) as target of type 2 diabetes. Results showed promising antidiabetic property with concentration dependent inhibition of the enzymatic activity of PTP1B. PTP1B (protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B) has been implicated in the negative regulation of insulin signaling by dephosphorylating the insulin receptor and its substrate. In addition to insulin sensitization, inhibition of of PTPB1 also has potential benefit for weight loss. (35)
Antisickling Property: Study evaluated the antisickling properties of crude juice extracts of edible portions of three commonly consumed tropical fruits, viz., Persia americana, Citrus sinensis, and Carica papaya, alongside a new drug preparation Ciklavit which has antisickling activity. Results showed Ciklavit produced the highest level of antisickling effect, followed by the alkaline and alcoholic extracts of P. americana. (36)
• Antihepatotoxic: Study of methanolic extract showed antihepatotoxic activity in rats with acute paracetamol intoxication. The activity was attributed to the antioxidant action of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase, which are primary intracellular defense mechanisms to cope with increased oxidant stress. (Martins Ekor et al) (38)
• Acute Toxicity Study / Non-Genotoxic / Seed:The ethanolic extract of seed showed an acute toxic effect at concentration starting at 500 mg/kg. Study showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test in rodents. Lack of in vivo genotoxic activity suggests potential of seed extract as possible food, cosmetic, or pharmaceutical material. (39)
• Hypocholesterolemic / Seeds and Leaves: Study evaluated the effects of aqueous extracts of leaves and seeds on cholesterol and various enzyme markers. Results showed a hypocholerolemic effect suggesting benefit in the treatment of hypertension and reduction of cardiovascular risks. Prolonged administration of aqueous extracts of leaves and seeds may cause inflammation or damage of liver cells. (40)
• Interactions with Coumadin: Avocado has been reported to decrease the effectiveness of warfarin (Coumadin). Decreasing the effect of warfarin might increase the risk of clotting and might require an change in warfarin dose. (41)
• Antibacterial / Leaf and Bark: Study evaluated the antibacterial activities of methanolic extract of leaf and bark against S. pyogenes, P. mirabilis, S. typhi, K. pneumonia, E. coli, B. subtilis, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa. The bark extract showed higher antibacterial activity compared to the leaf extract. (42)
• Larvicidal Against Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae / Seeds: Study evaluated the potential larvicidal activity of P. americana seed extracts against A. gambiae 3rd and 4th instar larvae. Results showed dose dependent mortalities after 24 hours at 40µg. LC50 value was lowest for the chloroform extract. (43)
• Effect on Aminotransferase, Cholesterol and Bile Acids in Hypertensive Patients: Study evaluated the effect of liquid extract of leaf on plasma levels of aminotransferases, total bile acids, and total and LDL cholesterol in 50 anicteric newly diagnosed hypertensive patients. Results showed a significant increase in plasma ALT and AST which suggest a toxic liver effect with potential for liver damage. Evaluation of these biochemical parameters are suggest in the use of extract for hypertensive patients. (44)
• Hepatotoxic Effect / Seeds: Study evaluated the hepatotoxic effect of aqueous and phenolic extracts of Persia americana seed. Serum levels of AST, ALT, and ALP were significantly higher in extract groups. Liver biopsy of extract treated groups showed severe degeneration of hepatocytes. Study suggests seeds extracts may contribute significantly to liver damage at higher doses. (45)
• Antivirucidal / Virustatic Anti-HIV Effects / Leaves: Study evaluated aqueous and methanolic extracts of leaves for cellular toxicity and anti-HIV-1 activity both in virustatic and virucidal assays. Results showed moderate anti-HIV-1 activity in vitro. (46)
• Avocado Peel as Tea / Antioxidant: Study evaluated the chemical and mineral composition, total phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant activity by DPPH and FRAP assay. Dried avocado peel yielded major phenolic compounds (10,847.27±162.34 mg GAE/kg) and flavonoids (1,360±188.65 mg EQ/kg). Antioxidant activity by DPPH was 1,954 ± 87.92 µmol TE. Results showed good antioxidant activity and good sensory acceptability. (47)
• Antidiabetic / Seed: Study evaluated the effects of aqueous extract of seeds on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Results showed a significant decrease (p<0.001) in blood glucose. The results may be due to certain mineral elements and phytochemicals. (48)
• Avocado and Cardiovascular Health: Review summarizes the potential benefits of avocado consumption in the prevention of cardiovascular risk factors. Studies suggest avocado may improve hypercholesterolemia and be beneficial in the treatment of hypertension and T2DM. (see constituents above) (49)
• Antimalarial / Leaves: Study evaluated the antimalarial activity of extracts and fractions of leaves of Persea americana and Dacryodes edulis against Plasmodium berghei in both curative and suppressive antimalarial mouse models. Persea americana demonstrated significant (p<0.05) maximal plasmodial inhibition at 52.16 ± 2.77% and chemosuppression of parasitemia of 64.01 ± 0.08%. On acute toxicity testing, P. american showed an LD50 greater than 4000 mg/kg, with no visible signs of overt toxicity such as tremors, loss of appetite, lacrimation, diarrhea, or salivation. Results suggest potential lead compounds against malaria. (50)
• Toxicogenetic Study of Fruit Pulp Oil / Genomic Instability: Persia americana
fruit pulp oil showed no genotoxic effect in the invitro and invivo test system. P. americana fruit pulp oil reduced the genotoxicity induced by different mutagens. The highest PAO tested caused an increase in levels of AST indicating hepatic/tissue damage, which may be related to high concentrations of palmitic acid, the main component of PA oil. The PAO was effective in reducing the chromosome damage induced by MMS and doxorubicin. Results contribute to safety assessment of PAO as a medicinal plant for human use. (51)
• Effect on Human Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts / Seeds: Persia evaluated seed extracts and fractions for in vitro influence on proliferation, differentiation, cell viability, and gene expression on HaCaT and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) and normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). Results showed the extracts had a high impact on cellular function like proliferation, enzyme activity, and differentiation of skin cell based on influence on their gene expression. Study suggests activities of HSCCC fractions M2 and M6 can be evaluated for their properties to improve wound healing. (52)
• Changes in Phytochemical and Proximate Composition with Ripening / Seeds: Study evaluated the changes in proximate and phytochemical compositions of avocado seeds associated with ripening. Crude fat content was higher in the ripe. Levels of alkaloids (4.8%) and saponins (1.739%) were higher in the ripe seeds. Ripening significantly increased fat, alkaloids and saponins, but lowered the carbohydrate content. Results suggest ripe seeds may be a better source of antioxidant compounds due to higher phytochemical content. (54)
• Antiproliferative / Apoptosis Induction / MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cell Line / Seeds: Study evaluated the effect of avocado seed extract on viability and apoptosis of breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Chloroform extract showed strong cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 cell line with IC50 of 94.87 µg/mL. Cytotoxic activity of methanol soluble fraction and non soluble fraction against MCF-7 cell line was increased with IC50s of 34.52 and 66.03 µg/mL, respectively. Methanol soluble fraction could induce apoptosis and modulate cell cycle arrest in MCF-7 cell. (55)
• Antimicrobial / Peel: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of Persea americana peel against S, aureus, P. vulgaris, E. faecalis, E. coli and P. aeruginosa. Using disc diffusion method, the ethanol peel extract showed antimicrobial activity against Gram positive and negative bacteria with strongest inhibition zone at 100% and weakest at 0.4%. (56)
• Anti-Inflammatory / CASE / Colored Avocado Seed Extract: Study of seeds yielded a vibrant orange-colored extract, which was developed as a food colorant. Study evaluated the colored avocado seed extract (CASE) for anti-inflammatory potential. Treatment of LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells with CASE for 24h reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1ß. NO production was reduced in a dose dependent manner, which was associated with a decrease in protein expression of iNOS. PGE2 production was significantly reduced. Results suggest CASE may be a source of anti-inflammatory compounds which can be exploited as functional food ingredients as lead compounds for pharmaceutical development. (57)
• Effect on Metabolic Syndrome: Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of risk factors, which include high blood sugar, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity that leads to increased risk for T2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. Study of seeds yielded a vibrant orange-colored extract, which was developed as a food colorant. This review discusses the pharmacologic effects of avocado viz., lipid lowering, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, anti-obesity, antithrombotic, antiatherosclerotic, and cardioprotective and its potential application in the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Review the effects of peel, seed, flesh, and leaves of avocado on metabolic syndrome. (59)
• Gastroprotective / Indomethacin Induced Gastropathy / Seeds: Study evaluated the gastroprotective effect of seeds of Persea americana seeds in reducing production of reactive oxygen species and to decrease gastric lesions induced by indomethacin . Results showed approximately 4-fold reduction reduction of lesion area. Results suggest a potential therapeutic strategy for the prevention of gastric lesions induced by NSAIDS, probably via antioxidant mechanisms. (60)
• Effect on Female Reproductive System / Seeds: Study evaluated the effect of hydro-methanolic seed extract of Persea americana on female hormones and toxicity profile using animal models. The extract altered the hormonal profile: FSH and progesterone. With FSH. There was an initial dose-dependent decrease followed by an increase. Progesterone was dose-dependently increased. These suggest a cumulative effect. There were no deleterious hemato-biochemical changes noted. Presence of biomarkers flavonoids were confirmed. Results suggest effects on female hormone activity and caution in use by women intending to conceive. (61)
• Anti-Diabetic / Activation of PKB/Akt / Leaves: Study evaluated the hypoglycemic properties and molecular mechanism of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves to reduce blood glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats via the enzymatic pathway of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt). There was reduction of blood glucose and improvement in the metabolic state of the animals. PKB activation was observed in the liver and skeletal muscle of the treated animals. Results showed anti-diabetic properties of the leaves probably via regulation of glucose uptake in liver and muscles by way of PKB/Sky activation, restoring the intracellular energy balance. (62)
• Comparative Anti-Diabetic Activity of Leaves Extracts : Study evaluated the beneficial effects of aqueous, ethanolic, and methanolic leaf extracts on glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetes mellitus using Wistar rats induced with nicotinamide and streptozotocin. All extracts at 100 mg/po/kbw significantly (p<0.001) reduced blood glucose levels on the 28th day of treatment. The methanolic extract showed most pronounced effect. Treatment was well tolerated. There was improvement in TC and HDLC levels. The ME reduced the atherogenic index by 45%. There was regeneration of pancreatic islets of Langerhans. ME prevented intestinal glucose uptake by up to 60%. (63)
• Comparative Antioxidant and Mineral Composition of Ripe and Unripe Seeds : Study evaluated the mineral composition and antioxidant activities of ripe and unripe seeds of avocado. Mineral analysis showed the seeds of ripe avocado contain higher amounts of sodium (96.1 mg/kg), calcium (2353.1 mg/kg), magnesium (392.2 mg/kg), iron (420.65 mg/kg,), and manganese (890 mg/kg). The concentrations of potassium (3982. 5 mg/ mg/kg) and zinc (81.3 mg/kg) were higher in unripe seeds/ Antioxidant activity assays showed that seeds from ripe avocado exhibited higher free radical scavenging ability with lower IC50 values compared to unripe seeds. (64)
• Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study of aqueous extract of P. americana leaves produced a dose-dependent inhibition of both phases of formalin pain test in mice, a reduction in mouse writhing induced by acetic acid and elevation of pain threshold in the hot plate test in mice. The extract also exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. Results indicate analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. (65)
• Cardiovascular Effects / Leaves: Study evaluated the cardiovascular effects of a leaf extract of Persea americana on some experimental animal paradigms. Effects on myocardial contractile performance was evaluated on guinea pig isolated atrial muscle strips while vasodilatory effects were tested on isolated portal veins and thoracic aortic rings of healthy normal Wistar rats in vivo. Results showed the PAE caused bradycardia, vasorelaxation, and hypotension in the mammalian experimental models. The vasorelaxant action of PAE was endothelium dependent, and therefore, dependent on the synthesis and release of nitric oxide. Results suggest the leaf can be used as a natural supplementary remedy in essential hypertension and certain cases of cardiac dysfunctions. (66)
• Anti-Helicobacter pylori: Study evaluated the in vitro anti-H. pylori activity of 53 plants in Mexican traditional medicine for gastrointestinal disorders. Persea americana was one of four methanolic extracts that showed highest inhibitory effect with MICs <7.5 to 15.6 µg/ml. (67)
• Antimotility / Anti-Spastic / Leaves: Leaves of Persea americana are used in traditional medicine to treat or prevent gastrointestinal spasm-related disorders, like diarrhea. Study evaluated the basis for the anti-spastic use of leaves of P. americana in folk medicine. Leaves were investigated for qualitative and quantitative constituents along with effects on gastro-intestinal motility (transit) and castor0oil induced intestinal fluid sodium and potassium ion concentrations. Phytochemical studies of chloroform and methanol fractions showed alkaloids 2.67 and 2.57%, flavonoids 3.20 and 2.95, saponins 2.15 and 2.23%, tannins 2.48 and 2.73%, steroids 1.36 and 1.10% respectively, terpenoids, proteins, and carboydrates in both fractions. Results showed significant )p<0.05) and dose related decreases in gastrointestinal motility and concentration of intestinal fluid potassium ions Only the chloroform fraction decreased intestinal fluid concentration of sodium ions. Results were comparable to standard anti-diarrheal drug, hyoscine butylbromide. (68)
• Antiproliferative / Breast Cancer Cell Line / Leaves: Study evaluated five medicinal plants, including root bark of Persea americana, used in Nigerian traditional medicine for the treatment of cancer. Cell proliferative and apoptotic effects were evaluated using four cancer cell lines. Of the five extracts, the root back of P. americana demonstrated significant (p<-0.05) anti-proliferative activity against estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7). (69)
• Anti-Acne / Residues: The avocado epicarp and seed are discarded as waste. Study evaluated the antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effect of ethyl acetate extracts from avocado residues (seed-SA and epicarp-EA) as new therapies to treat acne. (70)


Updated August 2021 / August 2017 / May 2015

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Anticonvulsant effect of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) (Avocado) leaf aqueous extract in mice /
John A O Ojewole and George Amabeoku / Phytotherapy Research • Vol 20 Issue 8, Pages 696 - 700, 2006
Hypoglycemic activity of aqueous leaf extract of Persea americana Mill / B S Antia et al / Indian J Pharmacol | October 2005 | Vol 37 | Issue 5 | 325-326
Hypoglycemic and Hypocholesterolemic Potential of Persea americana leaf extracts / Bartholomew I.C. Brai, A.A. Odetola, P.U. Agomo / Journal of Medicinal Food. June 1, 2007, 10(2): 356-360. / doi:10.1089/jmf.2006.291.
Effects of Persea americana leaf extracts on body weight and liver lipids in rats fed hyperlipidaemic diet
B. I. C. Brai, A. A. Odetola and P. U. Agomo / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 6 (8), pp. 1007-1011, 16 April 2007
Effect of Aqueous Extract of Persea Americana Seeds on the Glycemia of Diabetic Rabbits / N'guessan Koffi et al / European Journal of Scientific Research / Vol.26 No.3 (2009), pp.376-385
A preliminary study on the hypotensive activity of Persea americana leaf extracts in anaesthetized normotensive rats / J O Adeboye et al / Fitoterapia, 1 February 1999; 70(1): pp 15-20 /
DOI :10.1016/S0367-326X(98)00015-X /
Cytotoxic and Insecticidal Constituents of the Unripe Fruit of Persea americana / J. Nat. Prod., 1998, 61 (6), pp 781–785 / DOI: 10.1021/np9800304
Chemical composition, toxicity and larvicidal and antifungal activities of Persea americana (avocado) seed extracts / Joao Jaime Giffoni Leite et al / Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 42(2):110-113, mar-abr, 2009
Vasorelaxant action of aqueous extract of the leaves of Persea americana on isolated thoracic rat aorta / Mbang A Owolabi et al / Fitoterapia Vol 76, Issue 6, September 2005, Pages 567-573 / doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2005.04.020
Antimicrobial Activity of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) (Avocado) and Gymnosperma glutinosum (Spreng.) Less (Asteraceae) Leaf Extracts and Active Fractions Against Mycobacterium tuberculosis / R Gomez-Flores et al / American-Eurasian Journal of Scientific Research 3 (2): 188-194, 2008
Persealide: A Novel, Biologically Active Component from the Bark of Persea americana (Lauraceae) / Summary Pharmaceutical Biology / 1996, Vol. 34, No. 1, Pages 70-72
Flavonol monoglycosides isolated from the antiviral fractions of Persea americana (Lauraceae) leaf infusion / PTR. Phytotherapy research / 1998, vol. 12, no8, pp. 562-567
Acute and subacute toxicity studies of Persea americana Mill (Avocado) seed in rats / Taha Nael Abu et al / International Journal of Medical Toxicology & Legal Medicine • 2008, Volume : 11, Issue : 2
Hypoglycemic Effects of Ethanolic Extracts of Alligator Pear Seed (Persea Americana Mill) in Rats / D O Edem et al / European Journal of Scientific Research • ISSN 1450-216X Vol.33 No.4 (2009), pp.669-678
Interactions of Avocado (Persea americana) Cytochrome P-450 with Monoterpenoid / David Hallahan et al / Plant Physiol > v.98(4); Apr 1992
Hypolipemic effects of methanolic extract of persea americana seeds in hypercholestrolemic rats / Asaolu Modupe Fisayo et al / Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences Vol. 1(4) pp. 126-128 May 2010

Bioactivity of the phytoconstituents of the leaves of Persea americana / M A Owalabi, H A B Coker, S I Jaja / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 4(12), pp. 1130-1135, 18 June, 2010
Wound healing activity of Persea americana (avocado) fruit: a preclinical study on rats / Nayak BS, Raju SS, Chalapathi Rao AV. / J Wound Care. 2008 Mar;17(3): pp 123-126 / DOI: 10.12968
Effects of Aqueous and Methanolic Extracts of Persea Americana Leaf (Avocado Pear) On Gastric Acid Secretion in Male Albino Rats / Francis S. Oluwole et al / European Journal of Scientific Research ISSN 1450-216X Vol.61 No.4 (2011), pp.474-481
Avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill) exhibits chemo-protective potentiality against cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity in human lymphocyte culture. / Paul R, Kulkarni P, Ganesh N. / J Exp Ther Oncol. 2011;9(3):221-30.
Histopathologic Effect of Persea americana Aqueous Leaves Extract on the Liver and Kidney of Weaner Rabbits (California Species) / Adisa, J. O.; Ajayi, Y. & *Egbujo, E. C / .Int. J. Morphol.,2011; 29(4): pp 1384-1387 / ISSN: 0717-9502 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.4067/S0717-9502201100400053
Persea americana Mill. / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
Sorting Persea names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher, / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
Effect of Semisolid Formulation of Persea Americana Mill (Avocado) Oil on Wound Healing in Rats / Ana Paula de Oliveira et al / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2013 (2013) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/472382
Methanol Leaf Extract of Persea americana Protects Rats against Cholesterol-Induced Hyperlipidemia /
O. T. Kolawole*, S. O. Kolawole, A. A. Ayankunle and I. O. Olaniran / British Journal of Medicine & Medical Research, 2012; 2(2): pp 235-242
Anti-Ulcer Effects of Aqueous Extract of Persea Americana Mill (Avocado) Leaves in Rats / BAMIDELE V. OWOYELE*, ISMAILA K. ADEBAYO AND AYODELE O. SOLADOYE / Comp. Bio. Nat. Pro. Vol. 3—Effects, Safety & Clinical Evaluation (Pt-II)
Antiprotozoal and antimycobacterial activities of Persea americana seeds / Adelina Jiménez-Arellanes*, Julieta Luna-Herrera, Ricardo Ruiz-Nicolás, Jorge Cornejo-Garrido, Amparo Tapia and Lilián Yépez-Mulia / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013, 13:109 / DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-13-109
Effect of the aqueous seed extract of Persea americana mill (Lauraceae) on the blood pressure of sprague- dawley rats / Ogochukwu N. Anaka, Raymond I. Ozolua* and Stephen O. Okpo / African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology Vol. 3(10). pp. 485-490, October, 2009
Cardiotoxicity of acetogenins from Persea americana occurs through the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and caspase-dependent apoptosis pathways / Christian Silva-Platas, Noemí García, Evaristo Fernández-Sada, Daniel Dávila, Carmen Hernández-Brenes, Dariana Rodríguez, Gerardo García-Rivas / Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes, August 2012, Volume 44, Issue 4, pp 461-471
Avocado (Persea americana) seed as a source of bioactive phytochemicals.
/ Dabas D, Shegog RM, Ziegler GR, Lambert JD. / Curr Pharm Des. 2013;19(34):6133-40.
Hypolipidemic effect of avocado (Persea americana Mill) seed in a hypercholesterolemic mouse model.
Pahua-Ramos ME, Ortiz-Moreno A, Chamorro-Cevallos G, Hernández-Navarro MD, Garduño-Siciliano L, Necoechea-Mondragón H, Hernández-Ortega M. / Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2012 Mar;67(1):10-6. doi: 10.1007/s11130-012-0280-6.
Studies on the Nutritional and Phytochemical Properties of Persea americana Seed / LA Nwaogu, CS Alisi, OA Ojiako / African Journals on Line; Vol 6, No 1 (2008) /
Inhibitory effect of Persea americana Mill leaf aqueous extract and its fractions on PTP1B as therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes / Evangelina MARRERO-FAZ, Janet SÁNCHEZ-CALERO, Louise YOUNG & Alan HARVEY / Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas 13 (2): 144 - 151
Persea americana / Synonyms / Tropicos resource / EOL
The phytochemical and pharmacological profile of Persea americana Mill / Mohammad Yasir, Sattwik Das, and M. D. Kharya / Pharmacogn Rev. 2010 Jan-Jun; 4(7): 77–84 / doi:  10.4103/0973-7847.65332
Acute Toxicity and Genotoxic Activity of Avocado Seed Extract (Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass) / Eduardo Padilla-Camberos, Moisés Martínez-Velázquez, José Miguel Flores-Fernández, and Socorro Villanueva-Rodríguez / The Scientific World Journal, Volume 2013 (2013) /
Effect of the Aqueous Extract of the Leaves and Seeds of Avocado Pear (Persea Americana) On Some Marker Enzymes and Cholesterol in the Albino Rat Tissues / Oyeyemi A. O* Oyeyemi R.B / IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, Volume 9, Issue 3 Ver. I (Mar. 2015), PP 15-18 / DOI: 10.9790/2402-09311518
Avocado / Interactions / WebMD
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PERSEA AMERICANA LEAF, FRUIT AND SEED / Arukwe, U., Amadi, B.A.,* Duru, M. K.C., Agomuo, E.N., Adindu, E. A., Odika, P.C., Lele, K.C., Egejuru, L., and Anudike, J. / IJRRAS 11(2): May 2012
Persea americana (Mill.) seed extracts: Potential herbal larvicide control measure against Anopheles gambiae Giles, 1902 (Diptera: Culicidae) Malaria vector / Adesina JM, Jose AR, Rajashekar Y, Ileke KD / International Journal of Mosquito Research 2016; 3(2): 14-17
Effect of Liquid Extract of Pear Avocado Leaf (Persea americana) on Plasma Levels of Aminotransferases, Cholesterol and Total Bile Acids in Hypertensive Patients / Mathew Folaranmi Olaniyan / American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, 2014;  4(3): 87-91 / doi:10.5923/j.ajmms.20140403.01
Comparative Hepatotoxic Effects of Aqueous and Phenolic Extracts of Avocado (Persea americana) Seed in Wistar Albino Rats / Umar Abdullahi Zakariya, Umar Aliyu Umar, Sabiu Murtala Dambazau* and Abdullahi Sulaiman / IJBCRR, 10(4): 1-6, 2016
In-vitro virucidal and virustatic anti HIV-1 effects of extracts from Persea americana Mill. (avocado) leaves / M.D. Wigg, A.A. AI-Jabri, S.S. Costa, E. Race, B. Bodo and J.S. Oxford / Antiviral Chemistry &Chemotherapy (1996) 7(4), 179-183
Use of avocado peel (Persea americana) in tea formulation: a functional product containing phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity / Eliza Mariane Rotta, Damila Rodrigues de Morais, Polyana Batoqui França / Acta Scientiarum / DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v38i1.27397
Effects of aqueous avocado pear (Persea americana) seed extract on alloxan induced diabetes rats
/ *A. J. Alhassan, M. S. Sule, M. K. Atiku, A. M. Wudil, H. Abubakar, S. A. Mohammed / Greener Journal of Medical Sciences, Vol. 2 (1), pp. 005-011, January 2012.
Avocado and Cardiovascular Health / Camila Weschenfelder, Júlia Lorenzon dos Santos, Priscilla Azambuja Lopes de Souza, Viviane Paiva de Campos, Aline Marcadenti* / Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, 2015, 5, 77-83 / http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ojemd.2015.57010
Study of the Antimalarial Activity of the Leaf Extracts and Fractions of Persea americana and Dactyodes edulis and ttheir HPLC Analysis / Philip F Uzor, Chukwuebuka K Onyishi, Adaeze P Omaliko, Ngozi J Nwodo et al / Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Vol 2021; Article ID 5218294 /
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/5218294
Toxicogenetic study of Persea americana fruit pulp oil and its effect on genomic instability / Heloiza Diniz Nicolella, Francisco Rinaldi Neto, Denise Crispim Tavares et al / Food and Chemical Toxicology, March 2017; Vol 101: pp 114-120
Persea americana Mill. Seed Fractionation, Characterization and Effects on Human Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts / Maria del R Ramos-Jerz, Socorro Villanueva, Gerold Jerz, Peter Winterhalter, and Alexandra < Deters / Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicinre, Vol 2013; Article ID 391247 /
DOI: https://doi.org/ 10.1155/2013/391247
Aqueous extracts of avocado pear (Persea americana Mill.) leaves and seeds exhibit anti-cholinesterases and antioxidant activities in vitro / Ganiyu Oboh, Veronica O Odubanjo, Fatai Bello, Ayokunle O Ademosun, Adebayo O Ademiluyi et al / Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology, Jan 2016 ; 27(2) /
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jbcpp-2015-0049 (No abstract)
Changes in proximate and phytochemical compositioms of Persea americana Mill. (avocado pear) seeds associated with ripening / Chidube A Alagbaoso, Ome S Osakwe, Iranlowo I Tokunbo / Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research, 2017; 16(1) / eISSN: 1586-6941
Cytotoxic activity and apoptosis induction of avocado Persea americana Mill. seed extract on MCF-7 cancer cell line / Yuli Widiyastuti, Rarastoeti Pratiwi, Sugeng Riyanto, Subagus Wahyuono / Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology, 2018; 23(2) / DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijbiotech.32141
Antimicrobial Activity of Persea americana Peel Extract from North Sumatera, Indonesia, against Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria in Vitro / Yuliani Mardiati Lubis, Abdi Dharma et al /American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences / pISSN: 2313-4410 / eISSN: 2313-4402
Anti-Inflammatory Properties of a Colored Avocado Seed Extract / Deepti Dabas PhD, Gregory R Ziegler PhD, Joshua D Lambert PhD / Advances in Food Technology and Nutritional Sciences, Open. 2019; 5(1): pp 8-12 / ISSN: 2377-8350 / DOI:10.17140/AFTNSOJ-5-151
Persea americana — Madang / WorldAgroForestry
Effects of Avocado (Persea americana) on Metabolic Syndrome: A Comprehensive Systematic Review / Jamshid Tabeshpour, Bibi Marjan Razavi, Hossein Hosseinzadeh / Phytotherapy Research, 31(6): pp 819-837 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.5805
Evaluation of gastroprotective effect of Persea americana Mill. (Avocado) seeds against indomethacin- induced gastropathy in mice / Gisele Alves, Brena Athaydes, Rodrigo Rezende Kitagawa et al /
Evaluation of possible effedts of Persea americana seeds on female reproductive hormonal and toxicity profile / Ifeoma C Orabueze, George Asare et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, June 2021; Vol 273: 113870 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.113870
Anti-diabetic activity of extract from Persea americana Mill. leaf and the activation of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats / C R Lima, A G Wanderley et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, May 2012; 141(1): pp 517-525 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.03.026
Comparative Antidiabetic Activity of Aqueous, Ethanol, and Methanol Leaf Extracts of Persea americana and Their Effectiveness in Type 2 Diabetic Rats / N'Goran M Kouamé, Camille Koffi, Mamadou Kamagaté wt al / Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Vp; 2019: Art ID 5984570 /
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/5984570
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of leaves of Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae) / O O Adeyemi, O O Ogunti et al / Fitoterapia, Aug 2002; 73(5): pp 375-380 /
DOI: httpsL//doi.org/10.1016/S0367-326X(02)00118-1
Cardiovascular effects of Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae) (avocado) aqueouus leaf extract in experimental animals / Jao Ojewole, Dr Kamadyaapa, M M Gondwe, K Moodley, C T Musabayane / Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Mar-Apr 2007; 18(2): pp 69-76
Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for gastrointestinal disorders / Israel Castillo-Juarez, Irma Romero et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, March 2009; 122(2): pp 402-405 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2008.2.021
Anti-motility and reductions in the concentrations of gut electrolytes: Bases for the anti-spastic use of the leaves of Persea americana in folk medicine / Christian E Odo et al / Journal of Pharmacy Research, March 2013; 6(3): pp 336-341 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1015/j.jopr.2013.03.013
Proliferative effects of five traditional Nigerian Medicinal plant extracts on human breast and bone cancer cell lines / N Engel, U Kragl et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Sept 2011; 137(2): pp 1003-1010 /
DOI: httpsL//doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2011.07.023
The potential use of Avocado (Persea americana) residues to control Cutibacterium acnes growth and inflammation / Daneiva Caro / Alternative & Integrative Medicine / ISSN: 2327-5162


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