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Family Leguminosae
Shikakai
Acacia concinna (WIlld.) DC.
SOAP POD

Rou guo jin he huan

Scientific names Common names
Acacia concinna (WIlld.) DC. Acacia (Tag.)
Acacia hooperiana Miq. Fruit for the hair (Engl.)
Acacia philippinarum Benth. Shikakai plant (Engl.)
Acacia poilanei Gagnep. Soap acacia (Engl.)
Acacia polycephala DC. Soap nut (Engl.)
Acacia quisumbingii Merr. Soap nut acacia (Engl.)
Acacia rugata (Lam.) Merr. Soap pod (Engl.)
Guilandina microphylla DC. Soap pod wattle (Engl.)
Mimosa concinna Willd. Velvet bean (Engl.)
Mimosa rugata Ham.  
Nygae sylvarum-minimae Rumph.  
Acacia is a name shared by many species of Philippine plants, both scientific and common names: (1) Acacia concinna, acacia, a prickly shrub found in La Union, Benguet, and Ilocos Sur provinces of northern Luzon (2) Albizzia lebbect, acaci, langil, mimosa (3) Samanea saman, rain tree, acacia, for Acacia concinna (4) Acacia farnesiana, aroma (5) Acacia glauca, ipil-ipil (6) Acacia niopo, kupang, and (7) Acacia crassicarpa.
Acacia concinna (Willd.) DC. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ASSAMESE: Amsikira, Kachuai, Pasoi tenga, Suse lewa.
BENGALI: Ban ritha, Ritha, Riitha.
BURMESE: Hpak-ha Sum-hkawn, Kin-mun, Kinmun-gyin.
CHINESE: Xiao he huan, Teng jin he huan, rou guo jin he huan.
FRENCH: Chikakai, Piquant sappan, Sappan.
GERMAN: Shikekai-Baum.
GUJARATI: Shikakai.
HINDI: Cikakai, Hikakai, Kochi, Righa, Ritha, Saatalaa, Shika, Shikakai.
JAPANESE: Akashia konshina.
MALAYALAM: Carmalanta, Carmalantala, Chikaka, Chinikka.
MARATHI: Shikakai, Reetah.
NIGERIAN: Yerepe (Yoruba).
ORIYA: Vimala.
RUSSIAN: Akatsiia konsinna, Saptala, Shikakay.
SANSKRIT: Bahuphenarasa, Bhuriphena, Carmasava, Charmakansa, Charmakasa, Phenila, Saptala.
SRI LANKAN: Siyakkai.
TAMIL: Cikkay, Ciyakkay, Shika, Shikakai, Shikai, Shikaikkay.
TELUGU: Chikaya, Gogu, Shiikaya, Siikaya.
THAI: Sohm bpaawy, Som poy, Som kon.

Botany
Acacia concinna is a scandent, prickly shrub reaching a height of 4 to 5 meters. Branches are gray and armed with short, sharp prickles. Leaves are pinnately compound, 15 to 25 centimeters long, and with 8 to 10 pairs of pinnae. Rachis has one gland near the base, and one of two near the apex. Leaflets number 20 to 32 pairs on each pinnae, are linear-oblong, 8 to 10 millimeters in length, with a pointed tip and subtruncate base. Midrib is oblique. Panicles are terminal, in the upper axils, and ample. Heads are yellow, about 1 centimeter in diameter. Pods are straight, somewhat fleshy, flat, 7 to 10 centimeters long, and about 2 centimeters wide.

Distribution
- In Benguet, La Union, and Ilocos Sur Provinces in Luzon, in thickets at low and medium altitudes.
- Also occurs in India to southern China and Malaya.

Constituents
- Soft parts of the dried berries contain 5% saponin.
- Pods have yielded several saponins including kinmoonosides A-C, triterpenoidal prosapogenols names concinnosides A, B, C, D and E with four glycosides, acaciaside, julibroside A1, albiziasaponin C and their aglycone, acacic acid lactone.

- Phytochemical screening of the plant yielded flavanoids, saponins, terpenoids and tannins.
- Phytochemical screening of pods yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, phytosterols, saponin, tannins, phenolic compounds, gums and mucilage. (see study below) (6)

Properties
- Pod is acid, bitter, and singularly pungent; considered deobstruent, astringent and detergent.
- Studies have suggested antibacterial, antioxidant, antiviral, antifungal, antithrombotic, antioxidant, antidermatophytic, contraceptive, hepatoprotective, anthelmintic properties.

Parts used
Fruit, leaves, bark.

Uses

Folkloric
- Pods used as deobstruent in cases of jaundice and other biliary derangements.
- Decoction of pods used for biliousness and as purgative.
- Decoction of pods used for washing wounds and facilitating wound healing.
- Fruit pods, leaves and bark are dried, powdered and made into paste to make a hair cleanser.
- In India and Sri Lanka, decoction of pods used for washing the hair to promote hair growth and remove dandruff.
- Leaf extract used for treatment of malaria.
- In Nigeria, stem bark used for skin diseases and as anti-dandruff. (25)
- In
Thailand, dried pods use as laxative, antidandruff, antitussive and for skin diseases.
-
In
Myanmar, India, and Thailand, leaves used to prevent diabetes and skin diseases.
Others
- Cosmetic: Ingredient in many cosmetic products.

Studies
Antidermatophytic:
Study pod extracts (ethanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane extracts) showed significant antidermatophytic activity against Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, T. violaceum, Microsporum nanum and Epidermophyton floccosum. (1)
Immunological Adjuvant Activity / Vaccine Adjuvant: Study of methanolic fractions showed Th1 and Th2 helper cell activity. At dose of 40 ug it can be used as a vaccine adjuvant to increase immune responses. (5)
Hepatoprotective: An ethanolic extract of pods of Acacia concinna showed significant protective activity in a CCl4-induced liver damage model. (3)
Antifungal : Study of extracts was done against 35 isolates of dermatophytes and isolates of C. albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans and Penicillium marneffei. Results showed antifungal effectiveness.
Antibacterial / Fresh Pods: The benzene, methanol and aqueous extracts of fresh pods of A. concinna showed maximum activity against K. pneumonia, B. subtilis, E. coli. (see constituents above)   (6)
Contraceptive: Study in female rats fed with fraction of AE of Acacia concinna showed arrest in the diestrus stage, reduction in pregnancy and implantation, depletion in FSH, LH and estrogen levels. Results showed the acerone fraction of aqueous extract of Acacia concinna can be used as herbal contraceptive without any undesirable side effect. (7)
New Cytotoxic Saponins / Kimoonosides / Fruits: Study yielded three saponins, kinmoonosides A-C together with a monoterpenoids from a methanolic extract of fruits. The three kinmoonosides showed significant cytotoxicity against human HT-11080 fibrosarcoma cells. (8)
Volatile Compounds: Study for volatile compounds yielded fatty acids as main constituents, such as palmitic and linoleic acid with rather high amount of furfural and 5-methyl-2-furfural. Esters identified were methyl salicylate, methyl palmitate, isopropyl palmitate, and linalool oxide. The compounds may contribute to the aroma of Som Poy. (11)
Insecticidal / Ovicidal: Study evaluated the larvicidal and ovicidal activity of extracts of seeds and leaves of Acacia concinna and seeds and flowers of Butea monosperma against Hyblaea puera. Results showed the methanol extract of seeds and EA extract of seeds and leaves were most effective of all extracts with a 100% egg hatch inhibition. (12)
Siyakkai Hair Wash for Pityriasis capitis: Sri Lankan use Siyakkai (Acacia concinna) hair wash as home remedy for Pityriasis capitis. Placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy of the hair wash prepared from 10g of powdered pods of A. concinna to 240ml of boiled water. Patients treated with SHW showed symptomatic relief in scaling, itching, dryness, and greasiness of scalp after treatment. (14)
Antioxidant / Anti-Thrombotic: Eight plants including Acacia concinna were evaluated for antioxidant and anti-thrombotic activities. Five out of eight plants, including A. concinna, exhibited more than 85% inhibition against collagen induced platelet aggregation. Results suggest A. concinna have potential for development as an anti-thrombosis agent. A. concinna yielded polyphenol contents of 78.4±2.4 mg/g GAE and 7.8 % GAE, with DPPH IC50 of 0.35±0.018 mg/ml and IC50 Superoxide 0.30±0.013 mg/ml.  (15)
Surfactant Type Catalyst / Pods: Study reports on a simple, efficient, and environmentally benign protocol for the synthesis of 3-carboxycoumarins and cinnamic acids via Knoevenagel condensation using aqueous extract of Acacia concinna pods as a naturally occurring surfactant type catalyst. (16)
Antioxidant: Study evaluated six Thai plant species for antioxidant activities. Tamarindus indica, Acacia concinna, and Bauhinia malabarica exhibited the most potent inhibition effect on the formation of Heinz body by acetyl phenylhydrazine. A. concinna could inhibit up to 1:40 dilution. (17)
Novel Anti-Hepatitis C Virus Inhibitors: Study investigated the development of HCV replication inhibitors by the volatile compounds extracted from Acacia concinna which is follow by molecular docking against NS5B polymerase. The interaction of the extracted compounds showed their antiviral properties against SC5BP which could be used in further analysis for inhibition of HCV replication. (18)
• Antibacterial / Leaves / Bark: Study evaluated the antimicrobial potential of acetone extract of A. concinna leaf against five different bacterial strains. Results showed concentration dependent zones of inhibition against Mycobacterium smegmatis and Bacillus subtilis, with MICs of 2.5 mg/ml and 1.25 mg/ml, respectively. Activity could be attributable to phytoconstituents like alkaloids, tannins, and glycosides. (19) Study evaluated the antibacterial properties of a bark extract of A. concinna against bacterial isolates. Results showed good inhibitory activity against all tested pathogens. The chloroform extract showed better activity against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. (22)
• Monoterpenoidal Carboxamide / Concinnamide / Seeds: Study isolated a new monoterpenoidal carboxamide, concinnamide, from the seeds of A. concinna. Study describes its inhibitory effects on the arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase of RBL-1 cells. (20)
• Study on Topical Microemulsion / Pod: Study evaluated the solubility and stability of A. concinna extract by loading in a microemulsion for topical application. Results showed A. concinna loaded microemulsion may be a promising carrier for development into a topical formulation and clinical trials for pharmaceutical and cosmetical applications. (21)
• Antibacterial / Anthelmintic / Leaves: Study of aqueous extract of leaves showed significant antibacterial activity against gram negative and gram positive bacterial test strains, with maximum antibacterial activity against E. coli and maximum inhibitory activity with Micrococcus luteus. The aqueous extract showed significant anthelmintic activity against earthworm Pheretima posthuma when compared to piperazine citrate at 5 mg/ml. (23)
• Antioxidant / Inhibition of Heinz Body Induction / Leaves: Study evaluated six common Thai plant species for an antioxidant activities. Three plants, T. indica, B. malabarica, and A. concinna (leaves) presented the most potent inhibition effect on hemoglobin precipitation caused by oxidants. (24)

Availability
- Wild-crafted.
- Tablets, Shikakai powder and shampoo in the cybermarket.

© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Updated December 2017 / December 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: Public Domain / File:Acacia concinna Blanco2.374.png / Flora de Filipinas / 1880 - 1883 / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A) / Wikilpedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: PHOTO / Flowers of Acacia concinna / Shikakai / Acacia concinna.jpg / Jayesh Patil / 2011 / Wikilpedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: PHOTO / Sikakai Pods / Shikakai / click on image to go to source page / click on image to go to shource page / © Dreamstime

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Antidermatophytic Activity of Acacia concinna / V. Natarajan and S. Natarajan/ Global Journal of Pharmacology 3 (1): 06-07, 2009
(2)
Acacia concinna herb Shikakai pods use in medicine /
(3)
Hepatoprotective Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Pods of Acacia concinna / Kumar Tataji Setti et al /
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENt / June 2011 IssueJune - 2011 / Volume - 3/Issue - 04
(4)
In vitro Effectiveness of Acacia concinna Extract against Dermatomycotic Pathogens / Mansuang Wuthi-udomiert and Omboon Vallisuta / Pharmacognosy Journal / DOI: 10.5530/pj.2011.19.13
(5)
Immunological adjuvant activities of saponin extracts from the pods of Acacia concinna / Ratiya Kukhetpitakwong, Chariya Hahnvajanawong et al / International Immunopharmacology, Volume 6, Issue 11, November 2006, Pages 1729-1735 / doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2006.08.004
(6)
Screening of Secondary Metabolites and Antibacterial Activity of Acacia concinna / S S Todar, V V Chavan and A S Kulkami / Research Journal of Microbiology, 2010, Vol 5, No10, Pp 974 - 979 / DOI:10.3923/jm.2010.974.979 
(7)
CONTRACEPTIVE EFFECTS OF SAPONINS FROM ACACIA CONCINNA DC . / DR. DURAGKAR NANDAKISHORE JEEVANRAO, DR. GORE SHUBHANG et al /
(8)
Kinmoonosides A-C, Three New Cytotoxic Saponins from the Fruits of Acacia concinna, a Medicinal Plant Collected in Myanmar / Yasuhiro Tezuka, Kazuyuki Honda, Arjun H. Banskota, Maung Maung Thet, and Shigetoshi Kadota /
(9)
Acacia sinuata (Lour.) Merr. / Catalogue of Life, China
(10)
Sorting Acacia names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher, / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / The University of Melbourne, Australia / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
(11)
Volatile Compounds from "Som Poy" (Acacia concinna DC.) / Punchavee Sombatsiri and Griangsak Chairote / Acta Hort. 679, ISHS 2005

(12)
Insecticidal Activity of the Phyto-extracts Derived from Different parts of the trees of Fabaceae family against Hyblaea puera Cramer (Lepidoptera: Hyblaeidae) / B. Deepa and O.K. Remadevi / Biological Forum ó An International Journal, 3(2): 1-8(2011)
(13)
Acacia concinna (Willd.) DC. / Synonyms / The Plant List
(14)
A Clinical study on efficacy of Siyakkai (Acacia concinna) Hair Wash on Darunaka (Pitiriasis capitis) / Sujatha Ediriweera, A.M.H.Y Perera, K.K.V.S. Peshala, K. M. S.P. Perera / Journal of Ayurveda and Holistic Medicine (JAHM), Vol 2, No 7 (2014)
(15)
Antioxidant and Anti-Thrombotic Properties of Selected Plant Extracts of Asia / Rao TP*, Htay HH, Yasuda NK, Sugino H, Ohkubo, Hayashi T, Okamoto T and Suzuki K / Austin J Nutr Metab, Volume 1, Issue 1 (2014)
(16)
Aqueous Extract of Acacia concinna Pods: An Efficient Surfactant Type Catalyst for Synthesis of 3-Carboxycoumarins and Cinnamic Acids via Knoevenagel Condensation / Hemant V. Chavan and Babasaheb P. Bandgar* / ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng., 2013, 1 (8), pp 929–936 / DOI: 10.1021/sc4000237
(17)
Inhibition of Heinz Body Induction of Six Common Thai Medicinal Leaves and Creeping Stems in In Vitro Antioxidant Study Model / Supham Soogarun, Viroj Wiwanitkit, Jamsai Suwansuksri / Acta Hort. 680, ISHS 2005
(18)
Molecular docking study ON NS5B polymerase of hepatitis c virus by screening of volatile compounds from Acacia concinna and ADMET prediction / V. Balavignesh*, E. Srinivasan, N. G. Ramesh Babu and N. Saravanan / Int. J. of Pharm. & Life Sci. (IJPLS), Vol. 4, Issue 4: April: 2013, 2548-2558
(19)
PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL POTENTIAL OF ACETONE LEAF EXTRACT OF ACACIA CONCINNA (WILLD.) DC / Rina Antil, Priyanka, Pushpa Dahiya* and Nikhil Singh / International Journal of Pharmacognosy
(20)
Structure and Synthesis of a New Monoterpenoidal Carboxamide from the Seeds of the Thai Medicinal Plant Acacia concinna / Toshikazu Sekine, Nobuaki Fukasaw, Fumio Ikegami, Kazuki Saito, Yuichi Fujii, Isamu Murakoshi / Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, Vol 45, Issue 1 (1997)
(21)
Stability and solubility improvement of Sompoi (Acacia concinnaLinn.) pod extract by topical microemulsion / Worrapan Poomanee, Wantida Chaiyana, R Randall Wickett, Pimporn Leelapornpisid / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 1, Issue 4, July 2014
(22)
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF BARK EXTRACT OF ACACIA CONCINNA (L) / Xavier Vergeese raja and Rajeshwari Sivaraj / International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research (IJPSR)
(23)
Antibacterial and Anthelmintic Activities of Aqueous Extract of Acacia concinna Linn.
/ Vinaykumar Medisetti, Ganga Rao Battu, Ravindra S, Sandhya RS, RV Subbarao / Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3(6); 2016
(24)
Inhibition of Heinz Body Induction of Six Common Thai Medicinal Leaves and Creeping Stems in In Vitro Antioxidant Study Model / Suphan Soogarun, Jamsai Suwansuksri, Viroj Wiwanitkit / Acta Hort. 680, ISHS 2005
(25)
Nigerian Folklore Medicinal Plants with Potential Antifertility Activity in Males: A Scientific Appraisal / Linus Chia Saalu / Research Jour of Medicinal Plant, 10 (3): 201-227, 2016 / DOI: 10.3923/rjmp.2016.201.227


 


 

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