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Family Apocynaceae
Adelfa
Nerium indicum Mill.
SOUTH SEA ROSE
Ou zhou jia zhu tao

Scientific names  Common names 
Nerium indicum Mill. Adelfa (Span., Tag.)  
Nerium oleander Blanco   Baladre (Tag.) 
Nerium odorum Soland. Ceylon Tree (Engl.) 
Jia zhu tao (Chin.) Dog bane (Engl.) 
  Oleander (Engl.) 
  Rose bay (Engl.) 
  South sea rose (Engl.) 
  Ou zhou jia zhu tao (Chin.)

Other vernacular names
AFRIKAANS: Selonsroos
ARABIC: Defla, Difla
FRENCH: Laurier rose, Oleandre
GERMAN: Oleander
ITALIAN: Oleandrio
JAPANESE: Kyochiku-to
PORTUGUESE: Loendro
SPANISH: Adelfa, Balandre, Laurel rosa, Pasua.

Botany
Adelfa is an erect, smooth shrub, 1.5 to 3 meters high with a cream-colored, sticky, resinous juice. Leaves are in whorls of 3 or 4, linear-lanceolate, 10 to15 centimeters long, with numerous horizontal nerves. Flowers are showy, sweet-scented, single or double, 4 to 5 centimeters in diameter, white, pink, or red, borne on terminal inflorescences (cymes). Fruit is cylindric, paired, with deep linear striations, 15 to 20 centimeters long. Seeds are numerous and compressed, with a tuft of fine, shining, white and grayish, silky hairs.

Distribution
- Throughout the Philippines in cultivation.
- Nowhere established.
- Introduced by the Spaniards.
- Native of subtropical or tropical Asia.
- Now pantropic.

Constituents
- Phytochemical screening has yielded cardiac glycosides, pregnanes, terpenes flavonoids, etc.
- Study yielded glycoside, oleandrin; tannin; volatile oil, 0.25%.
- Yielded two principles: neriin and oleandrin, glucosides with properties similar to digitalin.
- The seeds yield fat 17.4%, phytosterin and l-strophanthin.
- Bark contains toxic glycosides: rosaginin and nerlin, volatile oil, fixed oil.
- Nerium odorum's bark yielded two toxic bitter principles–neriodorin and neriodorein. Another toxic principle is karabin. Both karabin and neriodorin are probably resins, rather than glucosides.

- Roots yield a yellow, poisonous resin, tannic acid, wax, and sugar, but no alkaloid or volatile poison.
- Study isolated 14 compounds: a new pregnane, 14α,16-dihydroxy-3-oxo-γ-lactone-pregn-4-en-21-oic acid (16β,17α), and thirteen known cardiac glycosides:oleandrin, oleandrigenin, neriosid, nerigoside,16,17-didehydrosomalin, oleaside A, adynerin, odoroside-A , 3β-hydroxy-5β-carda-8β,14β,20,(22)-trienolid, odoroside H, deacetyloandrin, adynerigenin,3β-hydroxy-5α-8β,14β-epoxy-card-20(22)-enolid.
- Study of roots yielded carbohydrates, proteins, steroids, flavanoids, tannins, and phenolic compounds.

Properties
- Leaves and flowers are considered cardiotonic, diaphoretic, diuretic, emetic and expectorant.
- Whole plant believed to have anticancer, antiinflammatory, antibacterial, sedating, and anthelmintic effects.
- The pharmacologic actions of of neriin and oleandrin resemble those of digitalis glucosides. In human beings, toxicity manifests as nausea, vomiting, colic, decreased appetite, dizziness, drowsiness, bradycardia and irregular heart beats, pupillary dilation, and sometimes unconsciousness attributed to digitalis poisoning.
- Reported biologic activities to include anti-inflammatory, sedative, anti-bacterial, cardiac, anti-neoplastic and anthelmintic.

Parts used and preparation
Bark and leaves.

Uses
Folkloric
- Herpes zoster (skin): Crush leaves, mix with oil and apply on lesions. Do not apply on raw surface. Milky juice of the plant is irritating. Caution: Not to be taken internally.
- Herpes simplex: Mix 1 cup of chopped leaves and bark with 2 tablespoons of oil. Apply to lesions 3 times daily.
- Ringworm: Chop a foot long branch and mix with 1 cup chopped fresh young leaves. Mix the juice with 5 drops of fresh coconut oil. Apply 3 times daily.
- Snake bites: Pound 10 leaves and a piece of branch. Apply poultice to the wound.
- Root used, locally and internally, by women in western and southern India and in the central Malay Peninsula for suicide and for procuring criminal abortion.
- Past of bark of the roots is applied externally for ringworm.
- Used in leprosy, skin eruptions, and boils.
- In the Punjab and Cashmere areas, roots are used for asthma.
- Leaves used in the treatment of malaria and dysmenorrhea; also used as abortifacient.
- Roots, made into paste with water, used for hemorrhoids.
- Leaves and bark used externally for eczema, snake bites and as insecticide; internally, used for epilepsy.
- Dried leaves used as sternutatory.
- Infusion of leaves and fruit used a cardiac regulator.
- In Morocco, fresh leaves applied to tumors to hasten suppuration.
- In traditional Chinese medicine, the flowers and leaves have been used to stimulate the cardiac muscles, relieve pain and eliminate blood stasis.


Studies
Molluscicidal activity of Nerium indicum bark:
The study showed the bark of Nerium indicum as an important source of botanical molluscicide and is an effective insecticide against Blatta orientalis. Glycosides, steroids and terpenoids were also isolated from Nerium indicum.
Primary Metabolites:
Study on the quantification of primary metabolites in N. indicum yielded carbohydrates, proteins, phenols, lipids, etc. N. indicum's stem contains higher levels of phenol which has immuno-modulating, anti-tumour and antibacterial activities. (1)
Tincture Cardiovascular Effect:
Tincture Karveer is a potent cardiotonic drug which is also purported to relieve symptoms of Cor pulmonale as a bronchodilator and cough sedative. The tincture is considered safe and helpful, and promising for the treatment of CHF in humans. (
2)
Neuroprotective:
Study of isolated polysaccharides from the flowers of N. indicum (J6) showed potential as a neuroprotective agent against neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease through a mechanism that may primarily rely on inactivation of the JNK signaling pathway. (
3)
Polysaccharides / Nerve Growth Factor-like Effect: Study of polysaccharides J1 (a rhamnogalacturonan) and J2 (a xyloglucan) from the whole flowers of N. indicum were tested on the proliferation and differentiation of PC12 pheochromocytoma cells and found to have nerve growth factor-life effect. (
4)
Analgesic:
Study of extract of flowers and roots of N. indicum showed promising antinociceptive activity mediated through the prostaglandin pathways with analgesic principles interfering with the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. (
5)
Larvicidal:
Study of larvicidal lethality of extracts of lattices of N indicum and E royleana on Culex quinquefasciatus showed significant delay in embryonic development of Culex larvae. (
6)
Antimicrobial / Antifungal: In a study of the ethanolic extracts of dried leaves of N. indicum and Martynia annua, N indicum showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to M. annua. (
7)
Anti-Angiogenesis:
Study yielded three oligosaccharides. Bioactivity angiogenesis testing showed two of the oligosaccharides significantly inhibited the HMEC-1 cell tube formation. (
8)
Cytotoxicity / Anticancer:
Most of the compounds isolated from the leaves of N. indicum exhibited strong cytotoxicity against HeLa cell. Odoroside-A exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity. (
9)
Molluscicidal / Bark:
Study of different bark preparations showed varying degrees of time- and dose-dependent molluscicidal activity. (
10)
Anti-Ulcer: Study of a methanol extract against pylorus-induced gastric ulcer and indomethacin-induced ulcer in rats showed significant antiulcer activity in all models with significant reduction of gastric volume, free acidity, and ulcer index. Results suggest an antisecretory effect. (11)
Anti-Diabetic:
Study investigated the antidiabetic activity of a leaf extract in alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. Results showed significant antidiabetic activity. The antihyperglycemic action of the extracts may be due to improvement of the glycemic control mechanisms.
CNS Effects / Sedative / Hypnotic : Study on behavior pattern in mice showed fractions of leaves extract induced sedation at low dose and hypnosis at high doses. Fractions also showed significant decrease in locomotion counts, decrease in motor performances and enhancement of hexobarbital sleeping time. Effects are possibly through GABA-ergic modifications. (12)
Anti-HIV / Anticancer:
In a small clinical trial (20 patients in a DB, placebo controlled study) in a Johannesburg AIDS clinic evaluating the effectiveness of supplements ingredients (Nerium oleander and Sutherlandia frutescens) against HIV results showed significant improvement with an increase in CD4 count while the placebo group declined. (14)
Hepatoprotective:
A
methanolic plant extract showed remarkable hepatoprotective activity against carbon-tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. (15)
Toxicity Studies:
Study evaluated the toxic effects of a crude watery extract in male adult guinea pigs. The lowest nonlethal dose was 300 mg/kbw and doses of 450 to 900 caused varying frequency of mortality. The LD50 is 540 mg/kbw. (16)
Toxicity Studies: Study reported clinical, ECG, and pathologic findings in goats consistent with those reported in sheep and cattle. Main signs were related to the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. Study concludes goat is susceptible to oleander toxicosis just like other domestic ruminants. However, the unpalatable nature of the plant and the selective feeding habit of the goat, make poisoning in this species infrequent. (17)
Anvirzel / Antitumor / Anticancer:
Study evaluated the cell killing effects of Anvirzel, an extract of oleander, and Oleandrin, a derivative compound, on human, canine, and murine tumor cells. Both Anvirzel and Oleandrine were able to induce cell killing in human cancer cells, but not in murine cancer cells. The cell-killing potential of Oleandrin was greater than that of Anvirzel. Results conclude both act in a species-specific manner. (20)
CNS Activities / Anticonvulsant / Flower Extract:
Study evaluated the CNS activity of a 50% hydroalcoholic flower extract in mice. Results showed significant reduction of spontaneous motor activity, potentiation of pentobarbital-induced sleep, and protection against electroshock-induced convulsions. (21)
Antidiabetic / Leaf Extract:
Study investigated the antidiabetic effect of a leaf extract in alloxan induced diabetic albino rats. The extract showed significant antidiabetic activity and prevented weight loss in diabetic rats. The antihyperglycemic action may be due to improvement of glycemic control mechanisms. Standard used was glibenclamide. (22)
Anti-Inflammatory / Leaf Extract:
Study of various leaf extracts of Nerium oleander showed significant anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity. The antipyretic effect was almost equivalent to paracetamol. (23)
Antioxidant / Phenolic Content:
Study evaluated various extracts of N. oleander for antioxidant using various assays and total phenolic content. Methanolic and aqueous methanolic extracts showed the highest amount of total phenolic content. Results showed flowers can be a potential source of natural antioxidants.
(24)
Toxicity / Seed Extract / Rodenticide:
Study evaluated to basic toxicity of seed extract of Indian oleander on the bandicoot rat, Bandicota bengalensis in the laboratory. Results showed the seed extract can be used as an effective bio-rodenticide with suitable bait bases.
(25)
Biomonitoring of Lead Pollution:
Study examined the concentration of Pb, Cd, and Cu in leaves of N. oleander and Robinia pseudoacacia plants in biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution. Results showed Nerium oleander can be used for biomonitoring of Pb. (26)
Antibacterial / Antioxidant / Cytotoxicity / Leaves and Flowers:
Study showed methanol extracts to have high antioxidant activity on DPPH assay. Dichlomethane and methanol extracts showed strong antibacterial activity. The dichlormethane extract showed high cytotoxic effects against T47D, HepG-2 and K562 cell lines. (27)
Antihyperlipidemic / Flowers:
Study evaluated the toxicity profile of 50% hydroethanolic extracts of flowers using brine shrimp lethality assay and MTT cytotoxicity assay. Results showed no toxicity with a wide safety margin and a significant ameliorative action on elevated lipids and lipoproteins in a dose-dependent manner. (28)
Antibacterial / Leaves:
Study evaluated the antibacterial potential of Nerium indicum leaves. Results showed a benzene extract to be more effective than an ethanolic extract in inhibition of Bacillus subtilis. Standard used was Ofloxacin. Both extracts showed negligible activity against E. coli. Phytochemical screening yielded cardiac glycosides, tannins and phenolic compounds, alkaloids, and flavonoids. (29)
Anthelmintic / Roots:
Study evaluated various extracts for anthelmintic activity against adult Indian earthworm, Pheritima posthuma. The ethanolic extract was more active, demonstrating paralysis and death of worms in less time compared to the other extracts and albendazole at higher concentrations. (30)


Availability
Wild-crafted.
Extracts, supplements in the cybermarket.

Last Updated December 2013

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Plate from book / File:Nerium oleander Blanco1.37.jpg / Flora de Filipinas / 1880 - 1883 / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A) Public Domain / Modifications by Carol Spears / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Quantification of Primary Metabolites of Nerium indicum / Rekha Vijayvergia and Jitendra Kumar / Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 21, No. 1, 2007, 123-128
(2)
A Study of Cardiovascular Effects of Tincture Karveer (Nerium indicum) / V P Trivedi et al / References
Pharmaceutical Biology • 1978, Vol. 16, No. 4, Pages 167-175 , DOI 10.3109/13880207809083268
(3)
New polysaccharide from Nerium indicum protects neurons via stress kinase signaling pathway
/ YU Man-Shan et al / Brain research / 2007, vol. 1153, pp. 221-230
(4)
Characterization of a Rhamnogalacturonan and a Xyloglucan from Nerium indicum and Their Activities on PC12 Pheochromocytoma Cells / J. Nat. Prod., 2003, 66 (1), pp 7–10 / DOI: 10.1021/np020118o
(5)
Analgesic Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Nerium indicum Mill.
/ Shafi Uddin Ahmed / Dhaka Univ. J. Pharm. Sci. 5(1-2): 85-87, 2006
(6)
TOXICITY OF NERIUM INDICUM AND EUPHORBIA ROYLEANA LATTICES AGAINST CULEX QUINQUEFASCIATUS MOSQUITO LARVAE / Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine Vol 7 (2003)/
(7)
Comparative AntiMicrobial studies of Ethanolic extract of leaves of Nerium indicum & Martynia annua / N.P.S. Sengar et al / Department of Pharmacy, Barkatullah University, Bhopal (India), Sagar Institute of Research & Technology, Ayodhya by Pass Road, Bhopal, (India)
(8)
New oligosaccharides prepared by acid hydrolysis of the polysaccharides from Nerium indicum Mill and their anti-angiogenesis activities
/ Ke Hu et al / doi:10.1016/j.carres.2008.10.019 / Carbohydrate Research
Volume 344, Issue 2, 26 January 2009, Pages 198-203
(9)
Studies on Steroids and Cytotoxicity of the Leaves of Nerium Indicum. Mill / Dissertation / Medical Research
(10)
Molluscicidal activity of Nerium indicum bark / Sushma Singh and D.K. Singh / Braz J Med Biol Res, July 1998, Volume 31(7) 951-954 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X1998000700011
(11)
ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC LEAVES EXTRACT OF NERIUM INDICUM MILL
. / Patel Govind, Nayak Satish, Shrivastava Shobhit / IJBR 1(2), 2010, 55-61.
(12)
STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF THE EXTRACT AND CONSTITUENTS OF NERIUM OLEANDER LEAVES ON THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM OF MICE / Atiya Ziaul Haque / Thesis / Pakistan Research Repository
(13)
Clinical Study of Oleander for HIV Is Successful (Oleander Series Part 6) / Tony Isaacs / Natural News
(14)
Determining the effectiveness of an herbal mixture consisting of extracts of Sutherlandia Frutescens and Nerium Oleander on increasing the CD4 cell count of HIV/AIDS patients / Marcus A. Swanepoel / Dissertation 2007
(15)
PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF NERIUM INDICUM ON CCl4 INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS / Govind Patel / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH, Vol 1 No4, 2010 / doi: 10.7439/ijbr.v1i4.68.
(16)
Toxic Effect and Ortal Acute LD50 Study of Nerium oleander in Male Guinea Pigs / M G A Chowdhury et al / Bangl. J. Vet Med, 2004, 2 (2): 159-161.
(17)
Experimental oleander poisoning in goats: a clinical and pathological study / Aslani M R, Movassaghi A R et al / Iranian Journ of Veterinary Research, Vol 8, No 1, Ser. No 18, 2007
(18)
Nerium oleander L. / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(19)
Nerium oleander / Common names / ZipcodeZoo
(20)
Anvirzel, an extract of Nerium oleander, induces cell death in human but not murine cancer cells. / Pathak S, Multani AS, Narayan S, Kumar V, Newman RA. / / Anticancer Drugs. 2000 Jul;11(6):455-63.
(21)
Some Central Nervous System Activities of Nerium Oleander Linn (Kaner) Flower Extract / KG Singhal and GD Gupta* / Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research August 2011; 10 (4): 455-461 / http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v10i4.11
(22)
Antidiabetic activity of Nerium indicum leaf extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats / MS Sikarwar, MB Patil, CK Kokate, S Sharma, V Bhat / PHARMACOLOGY, 2009, Volume 1, No 4, Pp : 330-335 / DOI: 10.4103/0975-1483.59323
(23)
Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Nerium oleander
/ Senthil Kumar and Ganeshan R Anand / Pharmacia, Vol 1, Issue 1, July 2010
(24)
Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Nerium oleander L. Grown in North of Iran / Maryam Mohadjerani / Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research (2012), 11 (4): 1121-1126
(25)
Toxicity of Nerium indicum Miller seed extract on bandicoot rat, Bandicota bengalensis Gray / K Saravanan*, S Senthilkumar, M Elayaraja & B Suresh / Indian Journal of Experimental Biology ,Vol. 42, October 2004, pp. 1003-1006
(26)
LEAD, CADMIUM AND COPPER CONCENTRATIONS IN LEAVES OF Nerium oleander L. AND Robinia pseudoacacia L. AS BIOMONITORS OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION / Gokce Kaya, Nuh Okumus and Mehmet Yaman* / PSP Volume 19 – No 4a. 2010 Fresenius Environmental Bulletin
(27)
Screening of Biological Activities (Antioxidant, Antibacterial and Antitumor) of Nerium oleander Leaf and Flower Extracts / Pegah Namian, Taravat Talebi, Karimollah Ghasemi Germi* & Fahmideh Shabani / American Journal of Phytomedicine and Clinical Therapeutics, 1(4), 2013, pp 378-384
(28)
Antihyperlipidemic Potential of Polyphenol and Glycoside Rich Nerium oleander Flower against Triton WR-1339-Induced Hyperlipidemia in Experimental Sprague Dawley Rats / V. Gayathri, S. Ananthi, and Hannah R. Vasanthi / Journal of Chemistry, Volume 2013 (2013) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/825290
(29)
Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activity of Nerium Indicum Leaves / Doijad C. Rajendra, Pathan B Asma, Suryavanshi S. Jayprakash, Jagtap K. Meena* and Sankpal S. Pournima. / International Journal of Pharmacy Teaching & Practices 2013, Vol.4, Issue 3, 743-746.
(30)
Evaluation of In-vitro Anthelmintic activity of Nerium indicum Mill root extracts. / Rajendra M. Kawade*, Nitin B. Ghiware, Prashant A. Daware, Shrinivas K. Sarje, Mahavir H. Ghante, Sudhir M. Vadvalkar. / Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2013


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