Adelfa is an erect, smooth
shrub, 1.5 to 3 meters high with a cream-colored, sticky, resinous
juice. Leaves are in whorls of 3 or 4, linear-lanceolate, 10 to15
centimeters long, with numerous horizontal nerves. Flowers are showy,
sweet-scented, single or double, 4 to 5 centimeters in diameter, white, pink,
or red, borne on terminal inflorescences (cymes). Fruit is cylindric,
paired, with deep linear striations, 15 to 20 centimeters long. Seeds are
numerous and compressed, with a tuft of fine, shining, white and grayish,
- Throughout the Philippines in cultivation.
- Nowhere established.
- Introduced by the Spaniards.
- Native of subtropical or tropical Asia.
- Now pantropic.
- Phytochemical screening of plant materials yielded alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, amino acids, phenols, terpenoids, carbohydrates, loco anthocyanidine, steroids, and glycosides. (33)
- Study yielded
glycoside, oleandrin; tannin;
volatile oil, 0.25%.
- Yielded two principles: neriin and oleandrin,
glucosides with properties similar to digitalin.
- The seeds yield fat 17.4%, phytosterin and l-strophanthin.
toxic glycosides: rosaginin and nerlin, volatile oil, fixed oil.
- Nerium odorum's bark yielded two toxic bitter principles–neriodorin
and neriodorein. Another toxic principle is karabin. Both karabin and
neriodorin are probably resins, rather than glucosides.
- Roots yield a yellow, poisonous resin, tannic acid, wax, and sugar, but no alkaloid or volatile poison.
- Study isolated 14 compounds: a new pregnane, 14α,16-dihydroxy-3-oxo-γ-lactone-pregn-4-en-21-oic acid (16β,17α), and thirteen known cardiac glycosides:oleandrin, oleandrigenin, neriosid, nerigoside,16,17-didehydrosomalin, oleaside A, adynerin, odoroside-A , 3β-hydroxy-5β-carda-8β,14β,20,(22)-trienolid, odoroside H, deacetyloandrin, adynerigenin,3β-hydroxy-5α-8β,14β-epoxy-card-20(22)-enolid.
- Study of roots yielded carbohydrates, proteins, steroids, flavanoids, tannins, and phenolic compounds.
- Leaves and flowers are considered
cardiotonic, diaphoretic, diuretic, emetic and expectorant.
believed to have anticancer, antiinflammatory, antibacterial, sedating, and anthelmintic effects.
- The pharmacologic actions of
of neriin and oleandrin resemble those of digitalis glucosides. In human
beings, toxicity manifests as nausea, vomiting, colic, decreased appetite,
dizziness, drowsiness, bradycardia and irregular heart beats, pupillary
dilation, and sometimes unconsciousness attributed to digitalis poisoning.
- Reported biologic activities to include anti-inflammatory, sedative, anti-bacterial, cardiac, anti-neoplastic and anthelmintic.
Bark and leaves.
- Herpes zoster (skin):
Crush leaves, mix with oil and apply on lesions. Do not apply on raw
surface. Milky juice of the plant is irritating. Caution: Not to be
- Herpes simplex: Mix 1 cup of chopped leaves and bark with 2 tablespoons
of oil. Apply to lesions 3 times daily.
- Ringworm: Chop a foot long branch and mix with 1 cup chopped fresh
young leaves. Mix the juice with 5 drops of fresh coconut oil. Apply
3 times daily.
- Snake bites: Pound 10 leaves and a piece of branch. Apply poultice
to the wound.
- Root used, locally and internally, by women in western and southern India and in the central Malay Peninsula for suicide and for procuring criminal abortion.
- Past of bark of the roots is applied externally for ringworm.
- Used in leprosy, skin eruptions, and boils.
- In the Punjab and Cashmere areas, roots are used for asthma.
- Leaves used in the treatment of malaria and dysmenorrhea; also used as abortifacient.
- Roots, made into paste with water, used for hemorrhoids.
- Leaves and bark used externally for eczema, snake bites and as insecticide; internally, used for epilepsy.
- Dried leaves used as sternutatory.
- Infusion of leaves and fruit used a cardiac regulator.
- In Morocco, fresh leaves applied to tumors to hasten suppuration.
- In traditional Chinese medicine, the flowers and leaves have been
used to stimulate the cardiac muscles, relieve pain and eliminate blood
• Molluscicidal activity / Bark:
Study evaluated the molluscicidal activity of N. indicum bark against Lymnaea acuminata. Toxicity of different bark preparations was both time and dose dependent. (31) Study showed the bark of Nerium indicum as an important source of
botanical molluscicide and is an effective insecticide against Blatta
orientalis. Glycosides, steroids and terpenoids were also isolated from
• Primary Metabolites: Study on the quantification of primary metabolites in N.
indicum yielded carbohydrates, proteins, phenols, lipids, etc. N. indicum's
stem contains higher levels of phenol which has immuno-modulating, anti-tumour
and antibacterial activities. (1)
• Cardiovascular Effect / Tincture : Tincture Karveer is a potent cardiotonic
drug which is also purported to relieve symptoms of Cor pulmonale as
a bronchodilator and cough sedative. The tincture is considered safe
and helpful, and promising for the treatment of CHF in humans. (2)
• Neuroprotective: Study
of isolated polysaccharides from the flowers of N. indicum (J6) showed
potential as a neuroprotective agent against neuronal death in Alzheimer's
disease through a mechanism that may primarily rely on inactivation
of the JNK signaling pathway. (3)
/ Nerve Growth Factor-like Effect: Study
of polysaccharides J1 (a rhamnogalacturonan) and J2 (a xyloglucan) from
the whole flowers of N. indicum were tested on the proliferation and
differentiation of PC12 pheochromocytoma cells and found to have nerve
growth factor-life effect. (4)
• Analgesic: Study of extract
of flowers and roots of N. indicum showed promising antinociceptive
activity mediated through the prostaglandin pathways with analgesic
principles interfering with the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. (5)
• Larvicidal: Study of
larvicidal lethality of extracts of lattices of N indicum and E royleana
on Culex quinquefasciatus showed significant delay in embryonic development
of Culex larvae. (6)
• Antimicrobial / Antifungal:
In a study of the ethanolic extracts of dried leaves of N. indicum
and Martynia annua, N indicum showed significant antibacterial and antifungal
activity compared to M. annua. (7)
• Anti-Angiogenesis: Study yielded three oligosaccharides. Bioactivity angiogenesis testing showed two of the oligosaccharides significantly inhibited the HMEC-1 cell tube formation. (8)
• Cytotoxicity / Anticancer: Most of the compounds isolated from the leaves of N. indicum exhibited strong cytotoxicity against HeLa cell. Odoroside-A exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity. (9)
• Molluscicidal / Bark: Study of different bark preparations showed varying degrees of time- and dose-dependent molluscicidal activity. (10)
• Anti-Ulcer: Study of a methanol extract against pylorus-induced gastric ulcer and indomethacin-induced ulcer in rats showed significant antiulcer activity in all models with significant reduction of gastric volume, free acidity, and ulcer index. Results suggest an antisecretory effect. (11)
• Anti-Diabetic / Leaves: Study investigated the antidiabetic activity of a leaf extract in alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. Results showed significant antidiabetic activity which may be due to improvement of the glycemic control mechanisms. (32)
• CNS Effects / Sedative / Hypnotic : Study on behavior pattern in mice showed fractions of leaves extract induced sedation at low dose and hypnosis at high doses. Fractions also showed significant decrease in locomotion counts, decrease in motor performances and enhancement of hexobarbital sleeping time. Effects are possibly through GABA-ergic modifications. (12)
• Anti-HIV / Anticancer: In a small clinical trial (20 patients in a DB, placebo controlled study) in a Johannesburg AIDS clinic evaluating the effectiveness of supplements ingredients (Nerium oleander and Sutherlandia frutescens) against HIV results showed significant improvement with an increase in CD4 count while the placebo group declined. (14)
• Hepatoprotective / CCl4-Induced Liver Injury: A methanolic plant extract showed remarkable hepatoprotective activity against carbon-tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. (15) Study showed antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of methanol flower extract on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. (40)
• Toxicity Studies: Study evaluated the toxic effects of a crude watery extract in male adult guinea pigs. The lowest nonlethal dose was 300 mg/kbw and doses of 450 to 900 caused varying frequency of mortality. The LD50 is 540 mg/kbw. (16)
• Toxicity Studies / Experimental Poisoning in Sheep: Study reported clinical, ECG, and pathologic findings in goats consistent with those reported in sheep and cattle. Main signs were related to the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. Study concludes goat is susceptible to oleander toxicosis just like other domestic ruminants. However, the unpalatable nature of the plant and the selective feeding habit of the goat, make poisoning in this species infrequent. (17)
• Anvirzel / Antitumor / Anticancer: Study evaluated the cell killing effects of Anvirzel, an extract of oleander, and Oleandrin, a derivative compound, on human, canine, and murine tumor cells. Both Anvirzel and Oleandrine were able to induce cell killing in human cancer cells, but not in murine cancer cells. The cell-killing potential of Oleandrin was greater than that of Anvirzel. Results conclude both act in a species-specific manner. (20)
• CNS Activities / Anticonvulsant / Flower Extract: Study evaluated the CNS activity of a 50% hydroalcoholic flower extract in mice. Results showed significant reduction of spontaneous motor activity, potentiation of pentobarbital-induced sleep, and protection against electroshock-induced convulsions. (21)
• Antidiabetic / Leaf Extract: Study investigated the antidiabetic effect of a leaf extract in alloxan induced diabetic albino rats. The extract showed significant antidiabetic activity and prevented weight loss in diabetic rats. The antihyperglycemic action may be due to improvement of glycemic control mechanisms. Standard used was glibenclamide. (22)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Leaf Extract: Study of various leaf extracts of Nerium oleander showed significant anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity. The antipyretic effect was almost equivalent to paracetamol. (23)
• Antioxidant / Phenolic Content: Study evaluated various extracts of N. oleander for antioxidant using various assays and total phenolic content. Methanolic and aqueous methanolic extracts showed the highest amount of total phenolic content. Results showed flowers can be a potential source of natural antioxidants. (24)
• Toxicity / Seed Extract / Rodenticide: Study evaluated to basic toxicity of seed extract of Indian oleander on the bandicoot rat, Bandicota bengalensis in the laboratory. Results showed the seed extract can be used as an effective bio-rodenticide with suitable bait bases. (25)
• Biomonitoring of Lead Pollution: Study examined the concentration of Pb, Cd, and Cu in leaves of N. oleander and Robinia pseudoacacia plants in biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution. Results showed Nerium oleander can be used for biomonitoring of Pb. (26)
• Antibacterial / Antioxidant / Cytotoxicity / Leaves and Flowers: Study showed methanol extracts to have high antioxidant activity on DPPH assay. Dichlomethane and methanol extracts showed strong antibacterial activity. The dichlormethane extract showed high cytotoxic effects against T47D, HepG-2 and K562 cell lines. (27)
• Antihyperlipidemic / Flowers: Study evaluated the toxicity profile of 50% hydroethanolic extracts of flowers using brine shrimp lethality assay and MTT cytotoxicity assay. Results showed no toxicity with a wide safety margin and a significant ameliorative action on elevated lipids and lipoproteins in a dose-dependent manner. (28)
• Antibacterial / Leaves: Study evaluated the antibacterial potential of Nerium indicum leaves. Results showed a benzene extract to be more effective than an ethanolic extract in inhibition of Bacillus subtilis. Standard used was Ofloxacin. Both extracts showed negligible activity against E. coli. Phytochemical screening yielded cardiac glycosides, tannins and phenolic compounds, alkaloids, and flavonoids. (29)
• Anthelmintic / Roots: Study evaluated various extracts for anthelmintic activity against adult Indian earthworm, Pheritima posthuma. The ethanolic extract was more active, demonstrating paralysis and death of worms in less time compared to the other extracts and albendazole at higher concentrations. (30)
• Toxicity / Cardiac Glycosides / Oleandrin & Oleandrigenin: Considered a poisonous plant because of compounds that exhibit toxicity, especially in animals, when consumed in excessive amounts, for example, the cardiac glycosides oleandrin and oleandrigenin. However, despite "poisonous" designation, there are very few reports of toxicity in humans. In 2002 there were 842 human exposures reported in the U.S., with only 3 reported deaths from 1985 through 2005. Fatalities were associated with ingestion; no toxicity or deaths have been reported from contact or topical administration. (33)
• Antibacterial / Anticancer: Extracts of N. oleander showed antibacterial activity with inhibition of pathogenic bacteria E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus. It anti-cancer activity compared with anticancer drug cisplatin on the growth of (L20B) cell line. (33)
• Larvicidal / Flowers / Culex quinquefasciatus: Study of crude hexane and aqueous extract of Nerium oleander flowers showed larvicidal activity against filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. Studies are needed to identify the active ingredients responsible for the larvicidal activity. (34)
• CNS Depressant Activity: Study investigated various extract of leaves of N. oleander on CNS activity in rat and mouse. Extracts showed CNS depressant activity with a significant reduction in spontaneous activity, exploration, muscle relaxant activity and significantly potentiated phenobarbitone sodium-induced sleeping time. (35)
• Cardiotonic / Leaf: Study investigated the cardiotonic activity of hydroalcoholic leaf extract of Nerium indicum. Results showed dose dependent positive ionotropic effect on perfused hypodynamic frog heart and isolated rabbit heart. (36)
• Toxicity / Repellent / Larvicidal: Diet based on Nerium oleander leaves halted the development of fourth instar larvae of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria larvae. Weight loss was due to low food intake related to the repellent and anti-palatable effect of the plant. The toxic effect of N. oleander could be due to toxic secondary compounds contained in the leaves. (37)
• Polysaccharide J6 / Neuroprotective / Flowers: Polysaccharide J6 isolated from the flowers of N. indicum can serve as neuroprotective agent against neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease. The neuroprotective mechanism may rely on the inactivation of JNK signaling pathway. (38)
• Antiulcer / Flowers: Study of flowers extract in gastric ulcer model in rats induced by indomethacin and pylorus ligation showed significant antiulcer activity. Cimetidine was used as reference drug. (39)
Extracts, supplements in the cybermarket.