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Family Asteraceae
African daisy
Gerbera jamesonii H. Bolus ex Hook. f.

GERBERA DAISY

Scientific names  Common names
Gerbera jamesonii Bolus ex Hook. f. African daisy (Engl.)
Gerbera jamesonii Bolus ex Adlam Barbeton daisy (Engl.)
  Gerbera daisy (Engl.)
  Gerber daisy (Engl.)
  Transvaal daisy (Engl.)
Gerbera jamesonii Bolus ex Hook.f. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
AFRIKAANS: Barbertonse madeliefie.
SRI LANKA: Barbendesiya, Babandesiya.
VIETNAMESE: Cúc đồng tiền; Cúc nhật bản.

Gen info
- Gerbera is a genus of plants in the Asteraceae (daisy family).
- Genus Gerbera was named in honor of the German naturalist Traugott Gerber and the species named after Robert Jameson who collected the species. (6)
- Gerbera daisy is one of the 15 plants that NASA as beneficial in purifying indoor air by removing indoor air toxins: TCE (trichlorethylene) and benzene. (3)
- Gerbera is widely used as a decorative plant or as cut flowers. Domesticated cultivars are mostly a result of a cross between Gerbera jamesonii and another South African species Gerbera viridifolia - the cross known as Gerbera hybrida.
- Gerbera is of commercial importance: It is the fifth most used cut flower in the world, after rose, carnation, chrysanthemum, and tulip. (16)

Botany
African daisy is a tufted perennial herb growing to 40 centimeters. Leaves form a rosette, pinnately lobed, pale green above, light green beneath. Striking inflorescence is borne on a long stalk of up to 30 centimeters long. Flowers are pink, red, yellow, or white with cream disc florets.

Distribution
- Widely cultivated in the Philippines.

Constituents
- Study yielded 6-hydroxy-4-methoxy-5-methyl coumarin from Gerbera jamesonii Bolus.
- Study on 18 cultivars showed the major pigments to be pelargonidin and cyanidin 3-O-malonylglucosides. Co-pigments identified were apigenin and luteolin 7-O- and 4'-O-glucosides, apigenin 7-O-maonylglucoside, kaempferol and quercetin 3-O- and 4'-O-glucosides and malonylated derivatives. (10)

Properties
- Studies have suggest air-cleaning, anticancer, anti-proliferative, antimetastatic properties.

Uses
Folkloric
- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- In Chinese medicinal medicine used in the preparation of tu-er-feng for curing colds and treating rheumatism. (7)
Others
- Plant extract used in cosmetic and bath preparations showing skin moisturizing and conditioning effects.

Studies
Indoor Toxins: Gerbera jamesonii has been designated one of NASA's indoor toxin removing plants: TCE (trichlorethylene) found in adhesives, dyes, ink, etc. and benzene found in inks, oils, paints, plastics, rubber, etc. (3) NASA's Clean Air Study found Gerbera jamesonii is effective in cleaning the air of formaldehyde, benzene, and trichloroethylene. (10)
Anticancer / Human Alveolar Basal Epithelial Cell Line: An in vitro study evaluates the anticancer activity of Gerbera jamesonii on A549-Adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cell line. Study showed ME of Gj possesses anti-proliferative and anti-metastatic activity on A549 and was nontoxic to lymphocytes. (4)
Coumarin Biosynthesis: Study reports the biosynthesis of 4-hydroxy-5-methylcoumarin by feeding 14C-labelled compounds to Gerbera jamesonii. The results reveal that this coumarin is formed via a pentaketide, derived from the acetate-malonate pathway, as in the biosynthesis of 5-methylcoumarin in a fungus. (8)
Acid-Base Indicator of Dye: Study showed the benefits of using Gerbera Jamesonii and Tagetes erecta flower extract as an indicator in all types of acid base titrations because of its economy, simplicity, and wild availability. (9)
Pigments: Quantitative study of 18 cultivars, with colors ranging from orange through lavender, showed the major pigments to be pelargonidin and cyanidin 3-O-malonylglucosides. Study also identified co-pigments viz., apigenin and luteolin 7-O- and 4'-O-glucosides, apigenin 7-O-maonylglucoside, kaempferol and quercetin 3-O- and 4'-O-glucosides and malonylated derivatives. (10)
Natural Paints from Anthocyanin Extracts: Gerbera jamesonii is among the top 10 cut flowers in the world. It contains a high percentage of anthocyanin. The petals can be a good colourant source, as well as a good source of antioxidants. Study extracted anthocyanin pigments from fresh petals and studied the optimum condition for natural paint production. Polyurethane was used as binder in the paint formulation. Higher concentrations of colourants showed more stability with addition of polyurethane. The addition of 1% benzoic acid as co-pigment enhanced the stability of the anthocyanin color and quality of the natural paint. (12)
Effect of Oxalic Acid on Vase Life of Cut Flower: Study showed that adding oxalic acid concentration of 50 mg/L improved flower diameter, maintained water balance, delayed decrease of soluble carbohydrate content and soluble protein concentration, inhibited the increase of MDA, thus increasing the vase life and postharvest quality of cut flowers. (13)
(also see: link 14)
Effect of Preservatives Containing Antibiotics on Cut Flowers Senescence: Study evaluated the fresh-keeping effect of four antibiotics viz. griseofulvin, lincomycin, oxytetracycline, and erythromycin on G. jamesonii cut flowers. Observing external forms and physiological effects, results indicate that preservatives containing lincomycin and erythromycin were optimum. (15)

Availability
- Cultivated.

Updated March 2020 / June 2017 / November 2016
February 2011


 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Top 15 NASA's Plants That Can Save Your Life! / Softpedia
(2)
6-hydroxy-4-methoxy-5-methyl coumarin from Gerbera jamesonii Bolus / Journal J. Phytochemistry; 1980; 19(11); P.2496
(3)
The best way of getting rid of indoor air toxins / NASA's Top 15 Plants

(4)
Anticancer Activity of Gerbera Jamesonii on A549-Adeno-Carcinomic Human Alveolar Basal Epithelial Cell Line-An In Vitro Study / Agarwal, Pooja; Chettiar, Shiva / Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine; May2014; Vol 20 Issue 5: p A36 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2014.5090.abstract
(5)
Gerbera jamesonii Bolus ex Hook.f. / The Plant List
(6)
Gerbera jamesonii Adlam / plantzafrica
(7)
Effect of different explants on in vitro propagation of gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii) / Shagufta Naz, Fozia Naz, Amina Tariq, Farah Aslam, Aamir Ali and Mohammad Athar* / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 11(37), pp. 9048-9053, 8 May, 2012 / DOI: 10.5897/AJB10.2276
(8)
Biosynthesis of 4-hydroxy-5-methylcoumarin in a Gerbera jamesonii hybrid / Takao Inoue, Tatsunori Toyonaga, Seiji Nagumo, Masahiro Nagaia / Phytochemistry, Volume 28, Issue 9, 1989, Pages 2329–2330
(9)
Acid-Base indicator property of Dye obtained from Gerbera jamesonii and Tagertes erecta
/ Prajakta T Shivaji*, Priyanka S Rajaram, Singh S, and Shyale S. S / PhTechMed, Vol 3/Issue 2/March-April 2014
(10)
Gerbera jamesonii: 10 Houseplants That Improve Your Indoor Air Quality / Jeff Flowers / Allergy & Air
(11)
New Glucosides of a 4-Hydroxy=5=methylcoumarin and a Dihydro-a-pyrone from Gerbera jamesonii hybrida / Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 1989; 37(10): pp 2621-2623 /
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.37.2621
(12)
Natural paint production from anthocyanin extracts of Gerbera jamesonii Bolus ex. Hook f / R M Taha, N A Hasbullah, N Rawi and K Ramesh / Materials Research Innovations, 2011; 12(Suppl2): pp 21-25 /
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1179/143307511X13031890747417
(13)
Effect of Oxalic Acid on the Vase Life of Gerbera jamesonii Bolus Cut Flower / Zhang Lin-qing / CNKI
(14)
Effect of biocides and sucrose on vase life and quality of cut Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii) cv Maron Dementine / Prathamesh Vaidya, Collis J P / HortFlora Research Spectrum, 2013; 2(3): pp 239-243
(15)
Effect if Four Preservatives Containing Antibiotic Substances on Gerbera jamesonii Bolus Cut Flowers Senesence / Huang Mu-hua / CNKI
(16)
Gerbera / Wikipedia

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

α(5)
                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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