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Family Agapanthaceae
African lily
Agapanthus africanus Linn.
LOVE FLOWER

Scientific names Common names
Abumon africanum (L.) Britton African lily (Engl.)
Agapanthus africanus (L.) Hoffmans Lily of the Nile (Engl.)
Agapanthus minor Lodd. Love flower (Engl.)
Agapanthus umbellatus L'Hér.  
Crinum africanum L.  
Mauhlia africana (L.) Dahl  
Mauhlia linearis Thunb.  
Mauhlia umbellata (L'Hér.) Thunb. ex Schult. & Schult.f.  
Tulbaghia africana (L.) Kuntze  
Tulbaghia heisteri Fabr.  
Tulbaghia minor (Lodd.) Kuntze  
Agapanthus africanus (L.) Hoffmanns. is an accepted name The Plant List

Etymology
The name agapanthus (flower of love) derives from the Greek work agape meaning love, and anthos meaning love. Africanus derives from Latin referring to its African origin.

Botany
Agapanthus africanus is an evergreen shrub with thick rhizomes. Stems are stout, bearing a tuft of long, narrow leaves. Leaves are basal, 2-ranked, linear-lanceolate, up to 50 centimeters long and 2-4 centimeters wide. Flower stalks are stout, erect, up 30 to 50 centimeters high. Flowers are in umbels, 12- to 30-flowered, usually bright blue-violet, crowded at the end of along stalk,

Distribution
- Ornamental pot cultivation in the Philippines.
- Native to Southern Africa but naturalized in scattered places in the world.

Constituents
- Saponins and sapogenins of the furostane and spirostane type, including agapanthegenin and steroid spirostan sapogenins.
- Anthycyanin gives the colors to the flowers.
- Study has yielded a chacone compound, Isoliquiritigenin. (8
)

Properties
- Considered cardiac, stomachic, uterotonic. oxytoxic, pectoral, expectorant, aperient, purgative, nephritic.

Toxicology
- Leaf may cause mouth pain and ulcerations. May be irritating to the eyes and skin. Suspected but unproven hemolytic effects.

Parts utilized
Rhizomes, leaves and roots.

Uses
Folkloric
• No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
• A plant of fertility and pregnancy – used by South African traditional healers as phytomedicine to treat ailments related to pregnancy and to facilitate labor. Orally or rectally, as a decoction, to ensure an easy delivery and a healthy child. It may facilitate expulsion of the placenta and augment uterine contractions. Roots worn as necklace for easy childbirth and fertility. Decoction used in washing newborn babies; also, an infant tonic.
• Considered an aphrodisiac, used for impotency and barrenness.
• Leaves used around wrists to bring down fever.

Studies
Oxytocic / Leaves:
Studies have shown that the aequeous extract of Agapanthus africanus leaves causes smooth muscle contractions in the uterine and ileal studies. On isolated rat uterus, the leaf extract exhibited agonist effects on the uterine muscarinic receptors and promoted synthesis of prostaglandins in the estrogenized rat uterus. The study provided a pharmacologic explanation for the ethnic use of A. africanus as herbal oxytocic in prolonged labor. (2)
Antifungal: Ethanolic extract of A. Africanus rhizomes showed significant antifungal activity against human pathogens–Trycchophyton mentagrophytes and Sporothrix schenekii. (3
) Crude extracts of aerial parts of A. africanus were screened against eight economically important plant pathogenic fungi. Results showed sufficient in vivo antifungal activity to warrant further investigation. (7)
Pesticide Alternative:
Invention reported on extracts and isolated substances that showed antimicrobial, especially antifungal, and bio-stimulatory efficacy and the suitability of these products as potential alternative for chemical pesticides. Extracts from aerial parts show higher efficacy compared to the soil parts of the plant. (6
)
Phytoremediation: Study suggests phytoremediation potential for petroleum. ( Analysis of Phytoscapes Species for BP Retail Sites. Kim Tsao. David Tsao, Ph.D. BP Group Environmental Management Company. 28 March 2003) (9
)

Availability
Ornamental cultivation.

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Updated February 2016

Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph / An agapanthus in pre-bloom stage / close up / Agapanthus africanus Family: Liliaceae Image No. 2 / Victorrocha / CC BY-SA 3.0 / File:Agapanthus Prebloom.jpg / 31 May 2008 / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph / Flower close up / Agapanthus africanus Family: Liliaceae Image No. 2 / Kurt Stüber [1] - caliban.mpiz-koeln.mpg.de/mavica/index.html part of www.biolib.de / CC BY-SA 3.0 / GFDL / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Pharmacological effects of Agapanthus africanus on the isolated rat uterus / D J H Veale et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology Vol 66, Issue 3, September 1999, Pages 257-262 / doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(98)00224-4
(2)
Toxicology and constituents
/ A Herb Monograph on Agapanthus africanus

(3)
Antifungal activity of Agapanthus africanus extractives / doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2007.12.004 / Fitoterapia Vol 79, Issue 4, June 2008, Pages 298-300
(4)
Steroidal saponins from the rhizomes of Agapanthus africanus (Linn) / Indian journal of chem / 2007, vol. 46, no7, pp. 1154-1158

(5)
Agapanthus africanus (L.) Hoffmanns / Synonyms / The Plant List
(6)
Extracts and compounds from agapanthus africanus and their use as biological plant protecting agents
EP 1903876 A2 (text from WO2007003286A2)
/ Patents
(7)
Antifungal properties of Agapanthus africanus L. extracts against plant pathogens / G. Tegegne, J.C. Pretorius, W.J. Swart / Crop Protection 27 (2008) 1052–1060
(8)
Anticancer plants: A Review / Rajandeep Kaur*, Jagpreet Singh, Gagandeep Singh, Harpreet kaur. Rajandeep Kaur / J. Nat. Prod. Plant Resour., 2011, 1 (4):131-136
(9)
Agapanthus africanus / Phytoremediation

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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