African sausage tree is a wide spreading, deciduous, about 10 meters in height. Leaves are alternate and odd pinnate. Leaflets are opposite, ovate to elliptic-ovate, 8 to 16 centimeters long, and pointed or blunt at the tip. Flowers are red, nocturnal, and borne in panicles on very long, pendulous pedicels. Calyx is 2.5 to 3 centimeters long, unequally 5-toothed, or lobed. Corolla is 10 to 12 centimeters long, the tube is rather slender and the limb, broadly bells-shaped, somewhat curved, and 5- lobed. Fruit is hard, grayish-brown, scurfy, large, sausage-shaped, oblong or oblong-cylindric, 20 to 30 centimeters in length, indehiscent, and hanging on very long and fibrous peduncles.
- Native of West Tropical Africa.
- Introduced after the Second World War.
- Cultivated in Manila, Los Baños, Laguna.
- Grown in gardens as an oddity.
- Bark contains only a bitter principle and tannic acid.
- Studies have yielded naphthaquinones, iridoids, fatty acids, norviburtinal, sterols, lignans, terpenoid, flavonoids, and volatile constituents.
- Study isolated pinnatal in a root bark extract.
- Fruit extract yielded alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, and reducing sugars.
- A flavanol glycoside has been isolated from the fruits.
- Study isolated kigelin as a major constituent of the plant from the root heartwood.
- Stigmasterol and lapachol have been isolated from the roots.
- Kigelin, ß-sitosterol, 3-dimethyl kigelin and ferulic acid have been isolated from the bark.
- Leaves yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, proteins, steroids, and carbohydrates.
- Phytochemical screening of various extracts viz., petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts yielded
glycosides, phenolic compounds (hydrolysable tannins), alkaloids, flavonoid and reducing sugar in all extracts; cardiac glycoside was present only in the chloroform extract. (see study below). (31)
- In a study for secondary metabolites, stem bark yielded lapachol (6), dehydro-α-lapachone (7). 2-acetylfuro-1,4-naphthoquinone (8), p-coumaric acid (9), caffeic acid (10), nonacosanoic acid, 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl ester (11), ß-sitosterol (12), kiigelinol (13), oleanolic acid (14), ß-friedelinol (15), pomolic acid (16), and kojic acid (17). (see study below)
- Study of methanol/dichlormethane (1:1 v/v) extract of leaves and fruits of Kigelia africana lupeol (1), ß-sitosterol (2), ß-sitosteryl ß-D-glucoside (3), canophyllol (4), fibraresicin (5), pomolic acid (6), hydroxy-pomolic acid (7), ß-friedelinol (8), sesamin (9), paulownin (10).
- Study of volatile constituents of oil from leaves and flowers by GC and GC-MS yielded 25 components from the leaf oil and nine from the flower oil. Both were rich in non-terpenoids, hexadecanoic acid (21.9% leaf, 57% flower) was the most abundant in both oils. Other major components were ethyl linoleate (21.73%) and α-pinene (12.28%) in leaf oil and terpenolene (8.26%). myristic acid (7.95%) and linalool (6.71%) in the flower oil.
- Bitter with astringent taste and smell.
- Studies have shown antioxidant, antibacterial, antineoplastic, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal, CNS stimulant, analgesic, antiprotozoal, antimalarial, antiurolithic, wound healing, anticonvulsant, spasmolytic, antifungal, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, renoprotectve, antitrypanosomal properties.
Fruit, root bark stem bark..
In Nigeria, fruit is sold as medicine.
In Nyasaland, in times of scarcity, natives roast and eat the seeds.
- No reported medicinal use in the Philippines.
- In Africa, fruit used as laxative and for dysentery. Fruit also used for acne; fruit powder for wounds and ulcers. Powdered solution used as disinfectant. Fruit powder or slices used for breast firming; also used to reduce swelling and mastitis of the breasts. Plant has been used for its anti-implantation activities.
- In the Gold Coast the fruit, cut up and boiled with peppers, is given for constipation and piles while the bark and fruit are used to heal sores and to restore taste.
- Traditional use as an antileprotic.
- Root-bark has been used for cancer of the uterus.
- In Northern Nigeria, the bitter bark is use for both syphilis and gonorrhea.
- In Southern Nigeria, it is similarly used, and the fruit is used as a wash and drink for young children.
- In the Gold Coast, the bark is used for rheumatism and dysentery.
- The Tongas use the powdered fruit as a dressing for ulcers.
- In Central Africa, the unripe fruit is used as a dressing for rheumatism and syphilis.
- Shona people use the bark or roots powder or infusion for application to ulcers or drunk for the treatment of pneumonia, as gargle for toothache. Leaf compound applied to backaches.
- In West Africa, unripe fruit used as vermifuge and as treatment for piles and rheumatism.
- Other traditional African healers use it for a wide range of ailments: fungal infections, abscesses, psoriasis and eczema; internally, used for dysentery, ringworm, tape-worm, post-partum hemorrhage, malaria, diabetes, pneumonia and toothaches. The fruit is used to increase flow of milk in lactating women. Bark is traditionally used for treatment of syphilis and gonorrhea. Fruits and ground bark are boiled in water and taken orally or as an enema for treating children's ailments - usually worms. Venereal diseases treated with tree extracts in palm oil or as oral medication.
- In Kenya, water decoction of plant used to treat breast and prostate cancer. (38)
- In southeastern Nigeria, used by traditional healers for treatment of fertility abnormalities. (40)
- Fermenting agent: In Africa, baked fruits are used to hasten beer fermentation..
- Cosmetics: Tonga women of the Zambezi valley use a cosmetic preparation of fruits to improved complexion and remove facial blemishes.
- Dye: Boiled fruits a red dye. Roots reported to yield a bright yellow dye.
- Fertility Ritual: In West Africa, the fruit presents as a symbol of phallus and fertility. Nursing women hang strips of fabric on the large fruits, asking for protection and numerous offspring.
- Feed: Leaves are an important livestock fodder. Fruits are sought after by monkeys and elephants.
• Antioxidant / Male Fertility Effect: Study on the antioxidant effect of KA fruit extract on normal rats showed a non-dose dependent elevation in testicular catalase, a significant decline in malondialdehyde and an up-regulation of glutathione. Results offer scientific basis for the use of Kigelia africana fruit extract in the treatment of male infertility.
• Antibacterial: Study confirmed the antibacterial activity of K. africana fruits and stem bark.
• Antineoplastic: (1) Study of crude dichlormethane extracts of stem bark and fruit showed cytotoxic activity in vitro against cultured melanoma and other cancer cell lines. Major components were norviburtinal and ß-sitosterol. (2) Kigelia also contains lapachol which has been found effect in the treatment of solar keratosis, skin cancer and kaposis sarcoma.
• Analgesic/ Anti-Inflammatory: Study of stem bark showed significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect most likely via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis.
• Antimalarial: Study isolated four naphthoquinoids from the root bark of the plant. Results showed good anti-plasmodial activity against chloroquine-resistant and chloroquine-sensitive strains of Plasmodium falciparum.
• CNS Stimulant: Study of ethanolic stem bark extract in mice showed a CNS stimulant effect as shown by a dose-dependent reduction of the duration of barbiturate-induced sleeping time. It suggests a potential for possible use in conditions associated with dizziness, drowsiness and sedation.
• Antiprotozoal: Study of stem bark and root bark extracts showed pronounced activity against both Trypanosoma brucei and T. b. rhodesiense bloodstream forms. A butanol stem extract showed in vitro antiamoebic activity.
• Antidiarrheal / Leaves: Study of an aqueous leaf extract of K. africana showed antidiarrheal activity with reduced fecal output and protection from castor oil-induced diarrhea in extract-treated animals.
• Cosmetic: (1) Study yields steroidal saponins and two flavonoids (luteolin and quercitin). Reports claim the fruit extract is useful in developing the bust and reinforcing the strength and stability of breast collagen fibers. (2) Dermal preparations claim to remove sunspots ("solar keratosis") especially in the face and hands. Claims are also made for reduction of wrinkle depth and promotion of tone elasticity, reduction of skin blemishes.
• Verminoside / Anti-Inflammatory: Study of fruit extract yielded verminoside. In vitro assays showed it to have significant anti-inflammatory effects, inhibiting both iNOS expression and NO release. (4)
• Anticonvulsant: Study of Kigelia pinnata showed an anti-seizure effect which may be due in part to linoleic acid, cinnamic acid, and/or flavonoid compounds in the extracts. (6)
• Antidiarrheal / Spasmolytic: Study of E senegalensis and Kigelia africana showed significant reduction in the frequency of diarrhea stools and spontaneous propulsive movement of isolated rabbit jejunum. The spasmolytic effect may explain its use folkloric use in chronic abdominal pain and pains associated with diarrhea. (7)
• Antiproliferative / Spasmolytic: Study of seed oils of K. africana, Mimusops zeyheri and Ximenia caffra on cell proliferation in culture showed suppression of of human colon adenoCA (Caco-2) and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293). Results suggest a potential antiproliferative effect of the seed oils on the cell lines. (11)
• Chemotherapeutic / Cisplatin: Study of a fruit extract of K. africana (KAFE) in cisplatin treated male rats. While KAFE may protect against cisplatin-induced testicular damage, the study shows pretreatment may offer a better option in reducing cisplatin-induced damage to the testis in a mechanisms believed to be free-radical mediated. (12)
• Antioxidant Screening / Antibacterial: Antioxidant screening of an aqueous extract yielded enzymatic antioxidants such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate oxidase and non-enzymatic antioxidant ascorbic acid. The extract exhibited antibacterial activity against S. aureus, E. coli and P. vulgaris. (13)
• Antifungal / Antibacterial: A crude ethanolic extract exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. (14)
• Antineoplastic / Stem Bark: Study evaluated the antineoplastic activity of a total methanolic extract of stem bark of K. pinnata. TME evoked DNA laddering in SKW-3 cells indicating apoptosis induction. In vitro and in vivo studies displayed prominent cytotoxicity against human tumor cell lines. (15)
• Antiurolithic Activity: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of fruit of Kigelia pinnata on calcium oxalate urolithiasis in male Wistar albino rats induced by ethylene glycol feeding. Results showed antiurolithic activity with significantly reduction of elevated urinary oxalate, uric acid and phosphate, with decrease deposition of stone forming constituents in the kidneys of calculogenic rats. (16)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of a leaf extract of Kigelia pinnata on wistar rats by carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma methods. Results showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effects.(17)
• Wound Healing / Bark / Roots: Study evaluated the wound healing potential of an aqueous extract of shade-dried bark in rats, using incision, excision, and dead space wound models. Results showed wound healing efficacy which was attributed to epithelization. (18) Root extracts were screened for antibacterial and wound healing properties, using hole plate bioassay, and excision wound model on rats. Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, saponins tanniins, glycosides, steroids, cardiac glycosides, triterpenoids and saponin glycosides. LD50 of the root extract was greater than 5000 mg/kg. Higher (3000 mg/kg) dose was toxic at subchronc administration and lower doses can be used for treatment of wound and bacterial diseases. (67)
• Analgesic: Study on wistar rats evaluated a leaf extract of K. pinnata for analgesic activity. Results showed significant analgesic activity by hot plate and tail flick methods. (19)
• Antidiabetic / Hypolipidemic / Flowers: Study evaluated the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of methanolic flower extracts in streptozotocin-induced diabetic wistar rats. Results showed significant reduction of blood glucose, serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels. (20)
• Analgesic / Cytotoxic Activity/ Flowers: Study evaluated various extracts of four medicinal plants for analgesic and cytotoxic activities by acetic acid-induced writhing and brine shrimp lethality assay. The bark of K. pinnata showed significant analgesic and cytotoxic activity and may have a potential in the treatment of pain and tumor. (21)
• Antimicrobial / Cytotoxic Activity/ Flowers: Study of leaf, stem bark and root extracts of K. africana and S. hispidus showed antimicrobial, antioxidant, and enhanced wound healing properties and may justify its medicinal use for the treatment of microbial infections and wounds. (22)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Fruit: A methanolic extract of fruit was studied in various in vivo models of inflammation in rats and mice. Result showed dose-dependent and significant inhibition in all experimental models comparable to standard drugs. Acute toxicity study showed no mortality in dose up to 2000 mg/kg p.o. (23)
• Antiamoebic Activity / Iridoids: Study evaluated the antiamoebic activity of iridoids isolated from K. pinnata stem bark butanol extract. Three known iridoids were isolated, viz., specioside, verminoside, and minecoside and tested against HK-9 strain of Entamoeba histolytica. Verminoside showed two fold antiamoebic activity compared to standard drug. Specioside showed comparable activity with metronidazole. (24)
• Anti-Melanoma / Cytotoxicity / Fruits: Study evaluated components of fruits of K. pinnata with potential growth inhibitory activity against human melanoma cells. Crude fractions showed cytotoxicity in vitro against human melanoma cells. Compounds isolated included isocoumarins, (demethylkigelin and kigelin), fatty acids (oleic and heneicosanoic acids), the furonaphthoquinone, 2-(1-hydroxyethyl)-naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione, and ferulic acid. The furonaphthoquinones showed cytotoxic effect in two human breast cancer cell lines tested. (25)
• Anti-Quorum Sensing / Fruits: Study evaluated the anti-quorum sensing inhibitory activity of K. africana fruits extracts qualitative and quantitatively using Chromobacterium violaceum and Agrobacterium tumefaciens biosensor systems. Both LuxI and LuxR activity were affected by the crude extracts suggesting phytochemicals target both QA signal and receptor. KA extracts with their anti-QS activity have the potential as novel agents to reduce virulence and pathogenicity of drug resistant bacteria in vivo. (26)
• Androgenic / Fruits: Study evaluated the androgenic properties of Kigelia africana fruit extract in male Sprague-Dawley rats. At doses of 100 and 500 mg, results showed significant increase in body weight (p<0.01 and 0.001), sperm count (p<0.001), testosterone levels (p<0.001), follicle stimulating hormone (p<0.001) and luteinising hormone (p<0.001). There were no qualitative histopathological deleterious alterations but showed an enhancement of spermatogenesis. Results suggest some androgenic effects in rats. Flavonoids/saponin content may be responsible for the increased androgen biosynthesis. (28)
• Renoprotective / Cisplatin-Induced Renal Oxidant Injury: Study of a methanol fruit extract of Kigella africana showed a protective effect in cisplatin-induced renal toxicity in male rats. Results suggest a potentially used candidate in a combination chemotherapy with cisplatin. (29)
• Analgesic / Toxicity Study: Study of ethanol extract showed analgesic activity with significant elongation in hot plate reaction time (p<0.0001) when compared to standard drug paracetamol. Toxicity testing showed the extract was safe at the dose of 1000 mg/kg. (30)
• Antimicrobial / Toxicity Study: Study evaluated various extracts of K. africana for antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, E. coli, K. pneumonia, P. aeruginosa, Streptococcus faecalis and S. aureus. PE extract showed concentration-dependent antibacterial activity against C. albicans and P. aeruginosa; chloroform extract showed similar activity against S. faecalis and S. aureus; methanol and aqueous extracts were active only against S. aureus. Antimicrobial effect was statistically significant at all concentrations in comparison to ciprofloxacin group (p<0.05). (see constituents above) (31)
• Reversal of Testicular Damage Induced by Carica papaya: Study in male Sprague-Dawley rats evaluated various extract of K. africana for beneficial effect of male fertility following exposure to Carica papaya, a known testicular toxin. Results showed K. africana is able to reverse papaya induced testicular damage if administered within a certain window period, i.e., in this study, within 4 weeks of treatment with Carica papaya. (32)
• Hypolipidemic / Decreased Free Radical Effects and Lipid Peroxidation / Fruit: A methanol and fruit extract showed significant reduction in free radical related complications, lipid peroxidation (MDA), and lipids (TC and LDL). Results suggest the extracts have potential to provide benefit in the maintenance and stabilization of metabolic states in normal organisms.(33)
• Antibacterial / Fatty Acids / Stem Bark and Fruit: Study of crude extract of stem bark and fruit showed antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. A mixture of three fatty acids isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of fruit exhibited antibacterial activity. Of the fatty acid mixture, palmitic acid was the major compound. (34)
• Secondary Metabolites / Cytotoxicity / Leaves: Study evaluated a leaf extract of Kigela africana by modern chromatographic methods coupled with mass spectrometry technique for trace elements, chemical composition and cytotoxicity. qTOF-GC/MS analysis identified 232 metabolites consisting of terpenes, fatty acids, furans, amines, amides, and alkanes. Trace elements ranged from 0.08 Zn, 0.28 mg/kg Fe, with low concentrations of Cd. The leaf showed higher inhibition of growth against A375 human melanoma cells line in a dose-dependent manner. (35)
• Novel Cellulosic Fiber / Fruit: There is increasing use of green composites using cellulosic natural fibers. Study extracted a novel cellulose fiber from K. africana fruit and evaluated its physical, thermal characteristics, and surface morphology. Chemical and FTIR analysis affirmed cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of protrusions in fiber, which aid in increasing adhesion with the matrix in composite manufacturing. (36)
• Alleviation of Benzene-Induced Leukemia / Stem Bark, Fruit and Leaf: Study evaluated the potential leukemia chemotherapeutiic effects of various extracts of K. africana stem bark, fruit and leaf using a benzene-induced model of leukemia in rats. Results showed significant alleviation of anemia indices and reduction of marked leucocytosis usually associated with leukemia. Antileukemic activity appeared to be highest in the stem bark, and least in the leaf. (37)
• Anticancer / Stem Bark: Study reports on the invitro toxic activities of dichlormethane and methanol extracts of K. africana against human breast cancer cell line (HCC 1937). Phytochemical screening yielded terpenoids, phenols, steroids, and flavonoids. Results showed invitro cytotoxic activity withe the methanol extract showing higher activity (IC50=26.02 µg/ml) compared to the dichlormethane:methanol 1:1 extra t (IC50 55.01 µg/ml). (38)
• Anti-Quorum Sensing / Fruit: The increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant pathogens has stimulated the search for novel anti-virulence compounds. Study evaluated the quorum sensing (QS) inhibitory activity of four crude K. africana fruit extracts using the Chromobacterium violaceum and Agrobacterium tumefaciens biosensor systems. All four extracts showed varying levels of anti-QS activity with zones of inhibition ranging from 9-10 mm. The effect on violacein inhibition was significant in the order of: hexane > dichlormethane > ethyl acetate> methanol. Inhibition was concentration dependent. Results suggest potential as therapeutic agents for reducing virulence and pathogenicity of drug-resistant bacteria in vivo. (39)
• Effect on Sperm Motility and Fertility / Fruit: Study evaluated the fertility activities of methanol extract of K. africana fruit in rats. Methanol extract treatment of male rats showed greater sperm motility 95.12 ± 1.35 compared to rats treated with testosterone 89.34 and untreated control rats 82.81, Results showed 77.8% of mated pro-estrus female were pregnant after a four days cycle. There was a 66.7% pregnancy rate in female rats mated with testosterone induced male rats. (40)
• Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) / Fruit: Study evaluated the effect of twice daily fruit powder in the management of PCOS in two patients. The use of the herbal preparation restored the menstrual flow along with a significant decrease in acne with no noticeable effect on hirsutism. Results suggest potential for PCOS especially in developing countries where new generation of oral contraceptives may not be readily available. (41)
• Antioxidant / Anti-Inflammatory / Fruits: Study evaluated methanolic extract of K. africana fruits and Spathodea campanulata leaves for anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Antioxidant activity was assessed by ABTS radical scavenging assay and cytotocicity by MTT cell viability assay. All extracts were safe on Vero cells at highest concentration )200 µg/ml). SP showed best COX2 inhibition while KA fruit extract showed strongest suppressive effect for IL-ß and IL-6. Study presents for the first time the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of K. afriicana and S. campanulata polyherbal extract. It also reports on the inhibitory effect of K. africana on cytokines IL-1ß, TNF-α. IL-6 and IL-10. (42)
• Immunomodulatory / Flavonoid / Fruits: Study evaluated the immuomodulatory activity of flavanoid of Kigelia africana. Immunological activity on cell mediated and humoral mediated immunity were assessed by carbon clearance test, cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia, indirect hemagglutination reaction, neutrophil adhesion test and serum immunoglobulin level. The flavonoid was administered at 100 and 200 mg/kg/day with Levimasole as standard. Results showed significant increase in phagocytic index in carbon clearance assay, significant protection against cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia, increased circulating antibody titer in indirect hemagglutination test and increased adhesion of neutrophils. Results suggest increase in both humoral and cell mediated immunity. (43)
• Anticandidal Activity / Fruits: Study evaluated stem barks of Jacaranda mimosifolia and Kigelia africana. In a test for anticandidal activity using agar diffusion method and microbroth dilution technique on four Candida albicans strains, compounds 9, 10, and 17 from K. africana exhibited highest antimicrobial activity, while compound 17 (kojic acid) showed most activity against the four Candida albicans strains with MIC 0.01 mg/mL. (see constituents above) (44)
• Antidiabetic / Spasmolytic: Study evaluated the invivo antidiabetic activity of aqueous and ethyl acetate leaf extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Oral and intraperitoneal administration of leaf extract caused a statistically significant dose-dependent reduction in plasma glucose level. (45)
• Antiulcer / Leaves: Study evaluated the antiulcerogenic effects of ethanol leaf extracts of Kigelia africana, Nauclea latifolia, and Staudtia stipitata using aspirin induced ulcer model in albino rats. All the extracts yielded saponins, tannins, phlobatannins, anthraquinones and cardiac glycosides. Kigelia africana showed best results with a significant decrease in ulcer index (0.67) compared to cimetidine (3.0) and control (1.67). (46)
• Antiplasmodial / Cytotoxicity / Stem Bark: Study assessed the potential of stem bark of Kigelia africana as a source of new antimalarial leads n-Hexane and ethyl acetate extracts and four compounds were screened in vitro against chloroquine-resistant W-2 and two field isolates of Plasmodium falcifarum. The EtOAc extract exhibited significant antiplasmodial activity (IC50=11.15 µg/mL on W-2. Three of four compounds showed good activity against all three different parasite strains (IC50<5µMM)/ Specicoside showed highest activity on W-2. The EtOAc and isolated compounds (specicoside and p-hydroxycinnamic acid) were non-cytotoxic. Results suggest K. africana stem bark has potential for the development of new leads or natural drugs for malaria. (47)
• Antimalarial / Fruit: Study evaluated the antiplasmodial activity of the morphological parts of K. africana and isolated the pure compounds from the semi-purified fractions of the fruit extract. Antiplasmodial activity was evaluated in Plasmodium berghei infected rats using a 4-day suppressive test model . LD50 of the extracts were greater than 5000 mg/kg p.o. The chemosuppression activity of the extracts at 125 mg/kg were in the order of stem bark (26.59%), leaf (41.75%), root (43.95%), and fruit (54.54%). The semi-purified methanol fraction of fruit showed the most antiplasmodial activity with % chemosuppression of 69.94% and yielded 4-(2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)-3.5-dihydroxy-5-methylfuran-2-one and sucrose. (50)
• Lethality on Culex Mosquito Larva / Stem Bark: Study evaluated the cytotoxic activity by lethal effects of aqueous extracts of fruits of Acacia nilotica, stem bark of Kigelia africana, roots of Securidaca longepedunculata, and flowers of Guiera senegalensis on Culex mosquito larva. All four exhibited larvicidal effects. K. africana showed percentage mortality of 70%, 40%, and 10% at 400, 200, and 40/ml, respectively. All four could impart a dose dependent lethality effect. Results add to the baseline of data for the development of ethnopharmacological active substances for use as insecticides. (51)
• Quinones / Anxiolytic / Antidepressant: Study evaluated the neurological activities of lapachol and other chemical constituents isolated from K. africana in male albino mice using elevated plus-maze (EPM) test. open field test ()FT), and forced swimming test (FST). Among the compounds tested, quinones displayed significant anxiolytic and/or antidepressant effects at all doses tested. (52)
• Fertility Enhancing / Sperm Booster: Study highlights reports on the fertility enhancing properties of K. africana with its potential as a male sperm booster to alleviate the oligo/azoospermia associated with male infertility and also its diverse application in improving yield in aquaculture. (53)
• Acute and Chronic Toxicity Study / Fruit: Study evaluated the acute ad chronic toxicity of the aqueous extract of K. africana fruit in Wistar albino rats. Doses of 50 and 500 were used for chronic toxicity testing. No mortality was recorded, with no effect on hematological and biochemical parameters. In acute toxicity testing at 2000 mg/kg, WBC was significantly (p<0.05) while RBCs, Hb and PCV were decreased. Total protein and albumin were significantly (p<0.5) were decreased' cholesterol, creatinine, and urea were significantly increased., In all groups ALT, AST, GTP, ALT were significantly increased. Results suggest the highest dose of aqueous extract of fruit may have some hepatorenal toxic effects. (54)
• Antidiabetic / Antioxidant / Whole Plant: Study evaluated the the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of crude extracts of Kigelia africana and Sterculia foetida. Antidiabetic was analyzed by in vitro α-amylase inhibition while antioxidant activity was analyzed by DPPH assay. Results showed the aqueous extract of K. africana and methanol extract of S. foetida exhibited antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. (55)
• Antiulcer / Antioxidant / Ethanol-Induced Ulcer / Leaves: Study evaluated an aqueous leaf extract for antiulcer potential against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats. HPLC analysis showed the presence of gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid, along with flavonoids rutin, quercetin and kaempferol. Results showed dose-dependent reduction of ulcer index. Ethanol significantly increased stomachal TBARS levels and decreased vitamin C content. K. africana blunted the ethanol-induced oxidative stress and restored vitamin C content to control levels. The presence of flavonoids suggests the antiulcer potential may be associated with antioxidant activity. (56)
• Toxicity Study / Fruits: Study evaluated the effects of aqueous and methanolic extracts of fruits of .K. africana as hepatoprotective agent for liver damage on male Wistar rats. Silymarin was used as control. Results showed administration of extracts resulted in toxic effects with alterations i Hb, WBC, MCH MCHC and granulocytes, along with alterations in ALT, AST, ALP and other serological parameters. There were alterations in the liver and kidney, with no significant lesions in the heart and spleen. Study showed fruits given in experimental doses of 100, 200 mg/kg/day orally were toxic but not fatal. (57)
• Effect on Maturation and Development of the Reproductive System / Fruits: Study evaluated the effect of ethanolic extract on the reproductive system and iprepubertal development of male rats using pubertal male assay. Results showed that Kigelia extract in all test doses (200, 400, 800 mg/kg) significantly anticipated puberty and increased body growth and sexual organs development. Effects may be due to the stimulation of secretion of androgenic hormones by extract compounds. (58)
• Antitrypanosomal Activity / Fruits: Study evaluated methanol, dichlormethane, and aqueous extracts of four plants viz. Kigelia africana, Artemesia annua, Bidens pilosa and Azadirachta indica for activity against African human trypanosomiasis. Swiss white mice were inoculated with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense KETRI 3798. Among the extracts, the DCM extract from K. africana fruits at dose of 2000 mg/kg showed 60% curing of animals treated. The other extracts failed to show significant antitrypanosomal activity (59)
• N-Hexadecanoic Acid / Cytotoxic / HCT-116 Cells / Leaves: GC-MS study of Kigelia pinnata leaves yielded more than 15 phytochemical compounds, The active fraction of the crude extract yielded N-hexadecanoic acid. By MTT assay, it demonstrated significant IC50 value of 0.8 µg/mL against human colorectal carcinoma HCT-116 cells. The cytotoxic activity may be due to interaction of N-hexadecanoic acid with DNA topoisomerase-1. (60)
• Modulatory and Ameliorative in Oxidative Stress in Diabetes / Fruit: Study evaluated the modulatory effect of Kigelia africana fruit on oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia biomarkers in STZ-induced diabetic rats and its antidiabetic effects on 3T3 L1 adipocytes in male Wistar rats. Results showed markedly decreased expression of oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia biomarkers in KA-treated diabetic rats. There was significant increase in endocrine cell distribution, area covered with increased ß-cell mass, composition and morphology of KA-treated animals. There was constant up-regulation in 3T3 L1 adipocytes attributed to phytoconstituents. (61)
• Antimalarial / Synergism with Artemether / Stem Bark: Drug resistance has been a major obstacle in the fight against malaria. Study evaluated the in vitro antimalarial activity of found compounds isolated from K. africana stem bark, namely: atranorin (1), specioside (2), 2ß,3ß,19a-trihydroxy-urs-12-20-en-28-oic acid (3), and p-hydroxy-cinnamic acid (4), and their drug interactions among themselves and in combination with quinine and artemether. Antiplasmodial activity was evaluated against multi-drug resistant W2mef strain of Plasmodium falcifarum. Three of the four compounds (1 2, and 3) showed significant activity against W2mef All the three compounds showed synergistic effects with artemether. Results suggest K. africana compounds can serve as leads in the development of new drugs for artemether-based combination therapy. (62)
• Immunosuppressive Endophyte: Endophytes are the most important fungi that produce many novel metabolites for potential use in pharmacology and agriculture. BAL-1 was an endophyte isolated from the bark of Kigelia africana. BAK-1 was evaluated for anticancer, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory activities A rDNA sequence showed homology with the Botryosphaeria dothidea strain. The BAKK-1 extract did not have significant cytotoxic activity against tested cancer cell lines. It showed bactericidal activity for Gram-positive pathogens MRSA and VRE. Its immunosuppressive potential was evidenced by 50% suppression of T cell proliferation. The extract inhibited TNF-α production in a concentration dependent manner suggest immunosuppressive potential. (63)
• Epicuticular Wax / Leaves: Study extracted epicuticular wax from leaves of K. africana. The extracted constituents yielded twelve compounds. The major component, hentriacontane, is responsible for the plant susceptibility to diseases, protection against UC radiation, antitumor and antioxidative potential. The ability of the plant to act as anti-sun burn may be due to the presence of the wax. (64)
• Nanoparticles / Antimicrobial / Fruit: Study reports on the green synthesis of silver monometallic and copper-silver bimetallic nanoparticles using K. africana fruit extract. The NPs inhibited the growth of both Gram=negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The NPs inhibited Klebsiella pneumonia more than any of the antbiotics tested in the study. It compared well with augmentin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and meropenem against Candida albicans. (65)
• Reversal of Early Testicular Damage Induced by Carica papaya / Bark: Study evaluated the effect of K. africana bark extract on male fertility of male Sprague-Dawley rats following exposure to Carica papaya, a known testicular toxin. Results suggest that K. africana extract if given within 4 weeks of treatment with C. papaya reversed the deleterious effects on semen parameters. After 10 weeks, the damage remains unreversed. Results suggest K. africana can reverse papaya induced testicular damage if administered within a certain window period. (66)
• Renoprotective / Gentamicin-Induced Toxicity / Flavonoid-Rich Extract / Fruits: Study evaluated a flavonoid-rich extract (FRE) of K. africana fruits for protective effect against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats.. Gentamicin caused significant increase (p<0.05) increase in level of kidney thiobartiburic acid reactive substances which were ameliorated by treated with FRE along with amelioration of histopathological findings of damaged renal cells and tubules. (68)
- Seeds and extracts in the cybermarket.
- Ingredients of various cosmetic and rejuvenating supplements.