- The genus name derives from Latin "terminalis", meaning 'ending', referring to the habit of the leaves being crowded at the end of the shoots. (2)
Terminalia catappa is a deciduous or evergreen tree with conspicuous layered branches, growing 10-20 m tall. Bole is erect. Bark is grey, smooth, and rather mottled. Leaves are smooth, bright green when young, in terminal rosettes of unequal leaves on short, thickened stems, up to 7 cm, apex broadly rounded, base very tapered, margin wavy. Flowers are small, greenish, in erect spikes up to 5 cm long. Fruit is small, oval; seeds about 1.5 cm long with no obvious wings. (2)
- Native to Madagascar.
- Introduced to
To China, Comoros, Gambia, Guinea,, Hainan, Mauritius, Taiwan.
- Study of stem bark yielded seven compounds: 3,3'-di-O- methylellagic acid 4'-O-α-rhamnopyranoside (1), 3-O-methylellagic acid (2), arjungenin or 2,3,19,23-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (3), arjunglucoside or 2,3,19,23-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid glucopyranoside (4); 2α,3α, 24-trihydroxyolean-11,13(18)-dien-28-oic acid (5), stigmasterol (6), and stigmasterol 3-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside (7). (see study below) (9)
- Study of roots
isolated Terminaliamide (1), a new ceramide, along with 4 known compounds (2-5). (see study below) (11)
- Phytochemical screening of ethanol extract of leaves yielded the presence of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, and glycosides. (see study below)
- Essential oils from leaf, stem-bark and twig of Terminalia mantaly were isolated by hydrodistillation.
GC and GC-MS analysis identified 12, 23, and 17 constituents from the leaf, stem-bark and twig and accounted for 89.57%, 95.77%, and 05.92%, respectively. Hexahydrofarnesylacetone (30.05%) and Z-pinene (16.71%) were the main constituents in the leaf oil; and nonanal (21.16%) and heptanal (10.57%) in the stem bark volatile oil. Xylene isomers, namely: meta and para (21.98%-23.56%) were the major components of the twig, with substantial among of nonanal (13.64%). (21)
- Evergreen at higher altitudes; drought resistant once established.
- Studies have shown antifungal, antibacterial, antiplasmodial, antitrypanosomal, anticancer, anti-candida biofilm properties.
Leaves, roots, stem bark.
- No reported folkoric medicinal use in the Philippines.
In Madagscar, bark and wood used for treating dysentery..
- In Cameroon, plant used to treat malaria.
- Bark used for treatment of cutaneous candidiasis,
gingivitis, and diarrhea.
- Dyes and tannins: Bark and wood used for dyeing.
- Agroforestry: Used for reforestation.
- Ornamental: In In some African countries, widely planted as an ornamental and shade tree.
- Exudate: Exudate studied as natural alternative as drilling mud additive. (see study below) (18)
• Enzymatic Activity of Endophytic Fungi: Study evaluated the enzymatic activity of endophytic fungi from the medicinal plants Terminalia catappa, Terminalia mantaly, and Cananga odorata. Amylase, cellulase, lipase and lactase activities were detectd in a significant number of isolates. The plants showed high diversity of endophytes, which could be potentially useful for the production of industrial enzymes. (3)
• Antibacterial Activity of Endophytic Fungi: Endophytes are known to be a source of structurally novel secondary metabolites with a wide range of biological activities. Study evaluated the antibacterial potential of endophytic fungi isolated from different issues of Terminalia mantaly, T. catappa, and Cananga odorata. The crude methanolic extracts of 56 different fungi were screened against seven bacterial strains, of which 13% were very active, 66% partially active, and 21% nonactive against all strains. The extracts exhibited DPPH free radical scavenging activity with IC50s ranging from 150.71 to 936.08 µg/mL. Results suggested that endophytes from plants might contain potent antibacterial metabolites. (4)
• Antimalarial / Antiplasmodial: Study evaluated the antiplasmodial activity and selectivity of extracts and fractions from powdered dried leaves, stem bark, and roots pf Terminalia mantaly and T. superba that are used in Cameroon to treat malaria. The antiplasmodial IC50 ranged from 0.26 to > 25 µg/mL Extracts from the stem bark of T. mantaly and leaf of R. superba exhibited the highest antiplasmodial activities (IC50 0.26-1.26 µg/mL) and selectivity (DI >158) on both resistant and sensitive strains. Four fractions showed potent activities against both P. falcifarum strains and high selectivity. (5)
• Comparative Antifungal Activity / More Potent Than Terminalia catappa: Study compared the antifungal activity of aqueous, hydroalcoholic and residual extracts of Terminalia mantaly and T. catappa against the growth of Aspergillus fumigatus. Results showed that T. mantaly water extract was 64 times more potent, the hydroalcoholic extract 2 times more active, and the residual extract 128 times more active than T. catappa. (6)
• Polyherbal Antifungal Synergism : Bio-guided study screened the antifungal activity of fractionated extracts alone and combinations of Terminalia catappa, T. mantaly, and Monodora tenuifolia against isolates of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and Cr. neoformans Extracts from T. mantaly bark were the most active with the best MIC values ranging from 0.04 mg/mL to 0.16 mg/mL. Synergistic interactions were noted with combinations of sub-fractions from M. tenuifolia, T. mantaly, and T. catappa. Combination of subfractions from M tenuifolia and T. mantaly showed synergistic interaction and fungicidal effect against four of five tested yeasts. (7)
• Antiplasmodial / Antimalarial / / Plasmodium berghei / Stem Bark: Study evaluated the invivo and invitro activity and oral acute toxicity of Terminalia mantaly extracts. The stem bark extract was safe in mice with a median lethal dose (LD50) higher than 2000 mg/kbw. It showed good antimalarial efficacy in vivo with ED50 of 69.50 mg/kg with no significant effects on biochemical, hematological and histological parameters. (8)
• Antifungal / Stem Bark: Study evaluated anti-yeast extract from stem bark of T. mantaly against Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei and against four enzymes of metabolic significance viz., glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, human erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase I an II, and glutathione S-transferase. Study yielded seven compounds, of which compounds 1, 2, and 4 showed anti-yeast activity Of these compounds 1, 2, and 4 showed anti-yeast activity comparable to fluconazole with MIC below 32 µg/mL Arjunglucoside potently inhibited the tested enzymes with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) below 4 µM and inhibitory constant (Li) <3 µM. (see constituents above) (9)
• Gold Nanoparticles / Anticancer /: Study reports on the use of methanolic extracts of root, leaf, and stem bark of Terminalia mantaly to synthesize gold nanoparticles with enhanced cytotoxic effects. The cytotoxic effects were investigated in cancer (Caco-2, MCF-7 and HepG2) and non-cancer cells by MTT assay. While the plant extracts showed some cytotoxicity towards the cancer cells, some AuNPs showed even more toxicity to the cells with IC50 values as low as 0.18 µg/mL. Some TMAuNPs showed selective toxicity towards specific cancer cell types. (10)
• Terminaliamide / Antibacterial / Antiplasmodial / Antitrypanosomal / Roots: Study isolated terminaliamide (1) a new ceramide from the roots of T. mantaly along with four known compounds. Compound 1 exhibited moderate antibacterial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus with MIC of 62.5 µg/ml. The crude MeOH extract reduced Plasmodium falcifarum growth with IV50 of 10.11 µg/mL, while the hexane fraction highly reduced Trypanosoma brucei brucei growth with IC50 5.60 µg/mL. (11)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Antibacterial / Leaves: Study reports on the use of Terminalia mantaly leaf extracts for the synthesis of biogenic silver NPs and its antibacterial activity. TM-AgNPs The AgNPs showed significant antibacterial activity compared to respective extracts. The AgNPs showed significant antibacterial activity against all bacterial strains tested, and particularly higher against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. (12)
• Antibacterial / Enterobacter Strains / Bark: Study evaluated the antibacterial activity of bark extracts of Terminalia mantaly on Enterobacteria. All tested bacterial strains were sensitive to the aqueous and hydroethanolic bark extracts in a dose-response relationship. The extracts were bactericidal on all strains tested. (13)
• Safety Study on Hematological Effects: Study evaluated the acute and subacute toxicity effects of hydro-alcoholic extracts of Terminalia mantaly on hematological parameters in mice. Single dose of 300, 2000, and 5000 mg/kbw were administered orally. The limit dose of 5000 mg/kg did not cause mortality or signs of acute toxicity. There was a decrease in Hb, Hct and RBC count,, no significant change in lymphocytes, with increase in neutrophil and monocyte counts. Study suggests the single oral dose is relatively safe when administered orally in rats. (14)
• Safety Study on Hepatic Tolerance: Study evaluated the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Terminalia manta;y on liver tissue and biochemical markers in rats. Doses or 150, 300, and 500 mg/kbw were used. Results showed the hydroalcoholic extract of T. mantaly, when used in the dose range evaluated in the study, may be well tolerated by the liver. (15)
• Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study evaluated antimicrobial activity of ethanol extract and fractions of leaves of Terminalia mantaly. Antimcrobial assay of extract and fractions showed comparable potency with gentamicin against Streptococcus pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli, and comparable potency to ketoconazole against Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. *see constituents above) (16)
• Inhibition of Plasmodium falcifarum: Study evaluated the antiplasmodial potential of chromatographic sub-fractions from Terminalia mantaly. Subfractions showed highly potent antiplasmodial with high selectivity on two plasmodial strains. GC-MS analysis of eight selected SFs identified 99 phytometabolites, with D-limonene (2), benzaldehyde (12), carvone (13), caryophyllene (35), hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (74), and 9-octadecenoic acid, methyl ester (82) as main constituents. Subfractions Tm28, 29, 30, 36, and 38 inhibited all the three intraerythrocytic stages of P. falcifarum, with strong potency against ring stage development, merozoite egress, and invasion processes. The SFs qualify as potential sources of novel antiplasmodial lead compounds. (17)
• Antifungal Ointment Formulation: Study compared the anticandidosic activities of crude extract of T. mantaly and an ointment containing shea butter and the crude extract of T. mantaly. Ketoconazole was used as standard for the antifungal assay. Results showed C. albicans is sensitive to each substance tested. The Shea butter has only fungistatic activity. The ointment (MFC=1.874 µg/mL) was most active, 52 times more active than the crude extract, and more active than ketoconazole.
-Ornamental cultivation. (18)
• Exudate as Alternative Drilling Mud Additive: Polymers are known for controlling fluid loss and modifying rheology in drilling muds through polymer chain entanglement and polymer-solvent interactions. Study evaluated the rheological properties of T. mantaly exudate and showed the exudate can be a substitute for conventional natural polymers in water-based frilling muds. (18)
• Comparative Nutritive Analysis / Fresh and Dried Leaves: Study evaluated the effects of different drying methods of Terminalia mantaly leaves n their nutritive values. Samples of leaves were fresh, air-dried, and sun-dried. There were significant differences in the crude protein, ether extract, moisture and ash contents in the three treatments. Crude protein was highest in the sun-dried sample. Phytochemical analysis showed that alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, and oxalates were detected. Fresh leaves had the highest values for alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, and oxalates. Sun-dried leaves had the lowest value for tannins. Air-dried leaves had the highest oxalates. Fresh leaves had the highest saponins. The results conclude that sun-dried leaves could be partially or fully incorporated in the diets of livestock because of generally low anti-nutritional phytochemical content and highest crude protein content. (19)
• Anti-Candida Biofilm Property: Candida infections can be superficial, invasive or disseminating. Its virulence has been attributed to several factors, including the promotion of hyphae and biofilm formation, adherence to host tissues. Study evaluated response to environmental changes and morphogenesis. Study evaluated the anti-candida and anti-biofilm activities of some Cameroonian plant extracts against Candida albicans and C. glabrata. Results of the study demonstrate in vitro anti-biofilm potential of T. mantaly aqueous leaf extract. (20)
• Fungus Causing Canker: In 2015, cankers were observed on the tree bark of T. mantaly. A fungus with orange mycelium was consistently isolated and was identified as Aurifilum marmelostoma. (22)