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Family Asteraceae
Cyanthillium cinereum (L.) H.Rob.
Ye xiang niu

Scientific names Common names
Cacalia cinerea (L.) Kuntze Agas-moro (Ilk.) 
Conyza cinerea L. Begew (Ilongot)
Cyanthillium cinereum (L.) H.Rob. Bulabod (Sub.) 
Seneciodes cinereum (L.) Kuntze Kanding-kanding (Zam. del Sur)
Serratula cinerea (L.) Roxb. Kolong-kugon (S.L. Bis.) 
Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less. Magmansi (Pang.)
Accepted infraspecifics (9) Sagit (Bon.) 
Cyanthillium cinereum var. cinereum Tagulinai, tagulinay (Tag.) 
Cyanthillium cinereum var. glabriusculum (DC.) Karthik. & Moorthy Tagulinau (Tag.) 
Cyanthillium cinereum var. lanatum (J.Kost.) Ghafoor Ash coloured Fleabane (Engl.) 
Cyanthillium cinereum var. linifolium (Blume) Karthik. & Moorthy Common vernonia (Engl.)
Cyanthillium cinereum var. ludens (C.B.Clarke) Karthik. & Moorthy Ironweed (Engl.)
C. cinereum var. parviflorum (Reinw. ex Blume) Karthik. & Moorthy Little ironweed (Engl.)
Cyanthillium cinereum var. pinnatifidum Ghafoor Purple fleabane (Engl.)
Cyanthillium cinereum var. ugandense (C.Jeffrey) Isawumi  
Cyanthillium cinereum var. viale (DC.) Isawumi  
Tagulinau is a common name shared by tagulinaw (Emilia sonchifolia) and agas-moro (Vernonia cinerea).
Vernonia cinerea Less. is a synonym of Cyanthillium cinereum (L.) H.Rob.
Cyanthillium cinereum (L.) H.Rob. is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Kuksim.
CHINESE: Jia xian xia cua, Xiao shan hu, Ran se cao, Suo gai ban jiu ju, Guia gun can, Ji se cao.
FIJIAN: Kaukamea, Tho vuka, Vutikaumondro.
FRENCH: Ayapana savage.
GERMAN: Kleines Eisenholz, Kleines Scheinaster
HINDI: Sahadevi.
INDIA: Anktaa, Sahdei, Sandri, Naichette, Mukuthipundu, Sandri; Poovamkurunnal (Malayalam); Monara kudumbiya (Sinhalese); Khongjainapi (Manipuri).
INDONESIA: Buyung-buyung, Sawi Langit, Lidah Anjing, Rumput ekor kuda.
JAPAN: Yambaru-higotai, Mura-saki-mukashi-yomogi.
LAOS: Nya Phaen Din Yen
MALAYSIA: Rumput tahi babi, Tambak-tambak, Tambak bukit.
MARATHI: Sadodi.
MYANMAR: Byaing-chay-pin
NEPALESE: Pramalamram.
PUERTO RICO: Yerba Socialista, Rabo de buey.
SPANISH: Machadita, Rabo de buey, Yerba morada.
SRI LANKAN: Alavangu pillu, Monara kudumbiya.
TANZANIA: Kifuha, Kifusa, Mhadu.
THAI: Kaan thuup, Yaa dok khaao, Yaa-saam-wan, Ya-la-long.
VIETNAM: Bach Dau Ong

Gen info
- Cyanthillium cinereum is a species of perennial plants in the sunflower family. The species is native to tropical Africa and tropical Asia.
- The species can be confused with Emilia sonchifolia, but the flower bracts of the latter are much longer and vase-shaped. (13)
- Etymology: The genus name Cyanthillium derives from Greek words kyanos, meaning dark blue, referring to the color of the corollas, and anthyllion, meaning "little flower".

• Agas-moro is an erect, slender, sparingly branched, somewhat pubescent annual herb, growing up to 20 to 80 centimeters high. Leaves, smaller at higher altitudes, are oblanceolate to obovate, 2 to 6 centimeters long, with pointed or obtuse tips, with shallowly toothed margins. Heads are small, stalked, borne in open, lax corymbs, and about 7 millimeters long and 2.5 millimeters in diameter. Flowers are rather bright-purple, all perfect, the corolla all equal, tubular, slender 5-lobed, about 20 in each head, twice as long as the involucral bracts which are linear and silky. Fruits are achenes, striate, ribbed or angled; pappus hairs numerous.

• Herbaceous plant grows up to 1 m tall but is typically found as a small herb about 0.3 m tall. Foliage: Green leaves of widely variable size are oval with shallow teeth along the leaf margin. Leaf arrangement is alternate with 1 leaf per node or position on the stem. Flowers: Green leaves of widely variable size are oval with shallow teeth along the leaf margin. Leaf arrangement is alternate with 1 leaf per node or position on the stem. Flowers: Composite flowers are composed of white to light purple disc florets with no ray florets. Fruit: Small, brown fruits have fluffy white hairs called 'pappus' which help to disperse the fruits by wind. Each pappus is lined with 2 rows of bristly hairs.  Fruits are arranged with the pappus facing outwards, forming a puffball shape. (58)

- Native to the Philippines.
- Throughout the Philippines in open, waste places in all settled areas at low and medium altitudes.
- A common weed, flowering all the year.

- Also native to Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Central African Republic, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Comoros, Congo, East Himalaya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Gilbert Is., Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf States, Hawaii, India, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Madagascar, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Marshall Is., Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Pakistan, Pitcairn Is., Queensland, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Solomon Is., Somalia, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tuamotu, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe.

- Phytochemical screening yielded steroids glycosides, triterpenoids and esters in a methanolic extract of stem bark and leaves. Study also yielded lupeol, 12-oleanen-3-ol-3ß-acetate, stigmasterol, ß-sitosterol in an n-hexane fraction. (15)
- Methanol extract of whole plant yielded
3 major components, i.e., (n- hexadecanoic acid (42-88%) 1,2 benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisoocty ester (23.00) and squalene (11.31%) and six minor compounds, i.e., caryophyllene oxide (2.31%) guaiol (1.75% 3,7,11,15 tetramethyl -2- hexadecen -1-01(2.87) decanoic acid, ethyl ester (2.10%) 9,12 octadecanoic and(z-z)-(9.38) and octadecanoic and (4.,41%). (26)
- Study of hexane extract of flowers isolated a new sesquiterpene lactone, 8a-hydroxyhirsutinolide (2), and a new naturally occur- ring derivative, 8a-hydroxyl-1-O-methylhirsutinolide (3), along with seven known compounds (1 and 4– 9). (See study below) (31)
- GC-MS analyzed volatile fractions and essential oils obtained from flowers and leaves. The most abundant compounds from the volatile fractions of flowers yielded  α-cadinol (14.4%), δ-cadinene (11.0%), thymohydroquinone dimethyl ether (7.0%), α -humulene (6.4%), τ-muurolol (5.8%), and terpinen-4-ol (5.1%). Volatile fraction of leaves yielded α -cadinol (20.3%), δ-cadinene (11.7%), germacrene D-4-ol (9.1%), τ-muurolol (6.5%), terpinen-4-ol (5.8%), and elemol (5.1%).
Main compounds of flower essential oil were δ-cadinene (15.8%), -cadinol (15.7%), α -humulene (9.6%), τ -muurolol (6.1%), thymohydroquinone dimethyl ether (5.5%), and τ -cadinol (4.4%); from the leaves, α -cadinol (23.2%), elemol (10.6%), δ -cadinene (9.9%), τ-muurolol (8.2%), germacrene D-4-ol (6.1%), and terpinen-4-ol (4.9%). (52)
- Phytochemical analysis of whole plant extract yielded alkaloids, catecholic tannins, saponins, flavones, volatile oils, phenols and steroids. (see study below) (54)
- GC-MS study of aerial parts for essential oil yielded caryophyllene oxide (16.7%) as the major compound followed by n-hexadecanoic acid (8.9%) and phytol (7.1%). (see study below) (55)

- Considered cooling, febrifuge, sedating, anti-infectious, stomachic, tonic, astringent.
- Root is bitter; considered anthelmintic and diuretic.
- Seeds considered anthelmintic and alexipharmic.
- According to Ayurveda, the herb is sweet, cold, tonic, stomachic, astringent.
- Studies have shown anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, nephroprotective, diuretic, bactericidal, antipyretic, analgesic, larvicidal, antifungal, hepatoprotective, antitumor, antidiarrheal, immunomodulatory, radioprotective, antihyperglycemic properties.

Parts used
Whole plant, leaves, roots, flowers.

In the Philippines infusion of plant taken internally for cough.
Ayta communities in Dinalupihan, Bataan, reported to use the plant for treatment of measles, tuberculosis, ringworm, chicken pox, helminthiasis, rabies and malaria. (48)
• The Ilongot-Egongot community of Bayanihan, Aurora, Philippines, drink root decoction for body pain and stomachache. (53)
• In Zamboanga del Sur, poultice of leaves applied to sprains.
Plant also used for wounds infections and fever.
Decoction of leaves used against humid herpes, eczema, etc.
• Used for colds and fever; also for acute jaunditic hepatitis.
Plant decoction used by Hindus to promote perspiration in febrile affections.
• Combined with quinine, used for malarial fevers.
• Expressed juice of plant used for hemorrhoids.
• Plant paste used to treat paralysis.
• In Chuta Nagpus whole plant used as remedy for bladder spasms and strangury.
• Root given for dropsy.
• Flowers used for conjunctivitis; also reported useful for fevers.
• In Patna, leaves employed as alexipharmic and anthelmintic.
• In the Nighantas plant used for asthma, bronchitis, and consumption.
• Neurasthenia, insomnia, night urination among infants, infected sores, mastitis, snake bites, sprains, furuncle.
• Dosage: 15 to 30 gms dried material (among infants, 9 to 15 gms), 30 to 60 gms fresh material in decoction.
• Poultice of fresh material used for eczema, carbuncle and snake bites.
• In India, whole herb juice is used most frequently – for eye problems. Also used for poisonous insect and snake bites. As a tonic, taken twice a month with milk. For ringworm, applied to affected parts with milk. Used for all types of fever and considered one of the best remedies for typhoid.
• In India seeds used for cough, flatulence, intestinal colic. Paste of seeds with lime juice used to treat pediculi. Flowers used for conjunctivitis, rheumatism, fever.
• In Ayurveda, used for consumption, asthma, bronchitis and fevers.
• In Senegal and French Guinea plant infusion used to wash newborn infants; also used for children with incontinence of urine.
• Bitter root used as vermifuge.
• In Ceylon, used for wounds and sores; taken internally to promote sweating.
• In Tamil Nadu, India, root extract taken 3-4 times daily to treat diarrhea. Leaf juice taken twice daily to treat cough. (40) Leaves used for skin diseases: Handful of leaves pound and boiled in coconut oil and oil extract applied three times daily to treat leprosy and scabies.
• In Thailand, used as aid in smoking cessation.
- In India, leaf juice (15cc) mixed with equal amount of leaf juice of of Ocimum tenuiflorum given twice daily for 20 days in treatment of kidney stone. (56)

Anti-Arthritic / Anti-Inflammatory: An alcoholic extract from the flower of Vernonia cinerea was tested in adjuvant arthritic rats. The extract reversed major histopathological changes in the arthritic hind paws. Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, steroids and flavanoids. The study concluded that the extract contains a yet-unidentified anti-inflammatory principle. (2)
Free Radical Scavenging: The levels of oxygen derived free radicals, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione) were studied in experimental rats. (3)
Nephroprotective: A study on three extracts from the plant showed promising nephrocurative activity and nephroprotective activity in rat-model of cisplatin-induced renal toxicity. Cisplatin is a potent antitumor agent with limited clinical use because of its renal toxicity. (11)
Nephroprotective: In a study of extracts of aerial parts in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats, an alcoholic extract showed pronounced curative activity, an EAE showed good prophylactic activity, and a petroleum ether extract showed moderate protection in curative and prophylactic models.
Antioxidant / Anti-Inflammatory: Methanol extract of VC was found to scavenge hydroxyl radicals and nitric oxide. It also significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced inflammation together with down regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine level and gene expression. (5)
Diuretic / Anti-Diuretic Effects: The chloroform extract of leaf induced significant diuresis while the methanol and aqueous extracts induced significant anti-diuresis in rats. In both, the effects were dose-dependent. (6)
Smoking Cessation Treatment: Veronia cinerea has been used in traditional Thai medicine to relieve cigarette craving. A 24-week, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial on 64 subjects randomized to an infusion of 3-gm crushed dried whole plant of VC in infusion three times daily or placebo. Results were promising and suggest that VC may be a potential alternative to treatment for smoking cessation with significant cost savings. Large scale trials are needed to verify its efficacy. (7)
Bioactive Constituents: Study isolated four compounds: (+)-Lirioresinol B, stigmasterol, stigmasterol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside and 4-sulfo-benzocyclobutene. Three of the compounds showed cytotoxicity on PC-12 and three compounds showed inhibition activity. Compound 4 induced NGF-activity. (8)
Anti-Inflammatory: Methanol extract of the whole plant of VC exhibited significant dose-dependent activity against all phlogistic agents. In the chronic model, it exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity compared with the standard drug phenylbutazone.(9)
Antipyretic / Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory: Chloroform, methanolic and ether extracts of VC showed to possess analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects together with changes in behavioral activities. (10)
Bactericidal Against Ocular Pathogen: VC was one of 40 different medicinal plants that showed bioactivity against Corynebacterium macginleyi. (12)
Toxicity Study: A methanol extract which exhibited antimicrobial activity was tested for toxicity in mice. The extract did not show toxic effects in mice and brine shrimp in acute toxicity study. (4)
Larvicidal / Quinquefasciatus: Study of leaf extracts against common filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus third instar larvae showed effective results with an LC50 of 1.63 mg/ml after 24 hours. Results show potential for use in filarial and mosquito management programs. (25)
Antifungal / Candida albicans: Study of methanol extract screened screened for activity against pathogenic yeast Candida albicans showed complete inhibition and prolonged anti-yeast activity. (19)
Antinociceptive / Amelioration of Vincristine-induced Painful Neuropathy: Study investigated the antinociceptive potential of V. cinerea on vincristine-induced painful neuropathic pain in rats. Pretreatment showed significant dose-dependent attenuation of vincristine-induced painful behavioral, biochemical and histological effects. Results may be due to antioxidative, neuroprotetive, and calcium inhibitory action. (20)
Hepatoprotective / CCl4-Induced Dysfunction: A herbal powder prepared from leaves showed ameliorative hepatoprotective activity on both pre- and post-treated groups of CCl4-induced hepatic dysfunction in rats. (21)
Antitumor / Dalton's Ascitic Lymphoma: Study evaluated various extracts against Dalton's Ascitic Lymphoma (DAL) in Swiss albino mice. Results suggest an ethanolic extract and chloroform extract possess significant antitumor effect. (23)
Antidiarrheal: Study evaluated the antidiarrheal activity of whole plant of V. cinerea. Results showed a reduction in peristaltic movement of the GI tract of animals., with significant and dose-dependent decrease in the number of wet faeces and total number of faeces compared to control rats. (24) Study evaluated the anti-diarrheal activity of aqueous extract of whole plant of V. cinerea against castor oil-induced diarrhea, enteropooling and small intestine transit models in rats. Results showed anti-diarrheal effects in all test models and substantiates the folklore claim as anti-diarrheal agent. (41)
Antifungal / Anti-Dandruff / Leaves: Study evaluated an ethyl acetate extract for antifungal activity against Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. Results showed very good antifungal activity at all concentrations tested. It also exhibited excellent anti-dandruff activity against Pityrosporum ovale and P. folliculitis. (27)
Immunomodulatory / Human Peripheral Mononuclear Cells: Study evaluated the toxicity of hexane extract of V. cinerea trunk and its anti-inflammatory effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The hexane extract significantly reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine level (IL-6) which may be due to inhibition of NF-kB nuclear translocation. Results suggest an immunomodulatory effect on human PBMCs. (28)
Antihyperglycemic: A sesquiterpene lactone, Compound 1, possible a Hirsutinolide type, isolated from V. cinerea was evaluated against alloxan induced diabetic rats. Results showed a significant reduction of blood glucose, possibly through potentiation of insulin effect of plasma by increasing pancreatic secretion of insulin from ß cells of the islets of Langerhans or its release from bound form. (29)
Anti-Diarrheal / Anxiolytic / Antimicrobial / Membrane Stabilizing: Study evaluated a crude extract for anti-diarrhea, anxiolytic, antimicrobial and membrane stabilizing activities. There was significant and dose-dependent anti-diarrheal activity in the castor-oil induced diarrhea model in mice. The anxiolytic effect was compared with standard anxiolytic drug diazepam. There was moderate antimicrobial activity against Blastomyces dermatitidis. There was inhibition of heat-induced hemolysis of RBCs in RBC stability test. (30)
Radioprotective Effect: Study evaluated the radioprotective effect of VC extract against gamma-radiation induced immunosuppression and oxidative stress in balb/c mice. Treatment reduced enzyme elevations (ALP and GPT) and lipid peroxidation after irradiation. There was reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines that increased with irradiation. Administration of V cinerea did not compromise the anti-neoplastic effects of radiation; rather, there was a synergistic action of radiation and V. cinerea in reduction solid tumors. Results suggest potential as adjuvant during radiation therapy. (31)
Anti-Inflammatory Sesquiterpene Lactone / Flowers: Study of hexane extract of flowers isolated a new sesquiterpene lactone, 8a-hydroxyhirsutinolide (2), and a new naturally occur- ring derivative, 8a-hydroxyl-1-O-methylhirsutinolide (3), along with seven known compounds (1 and 4– 9). Isolated compounds were evaluated for cancer chemopreventive potential. Compounds 1, 2, 4, 5, and 9 inhibited TNF-
α-induced NF-kB activity, while compounds 4 and 6–9 exhibited significant NO inhibitory activity.   (32)
Antimetastatic Activity: Study strongly suggests the antimetastatic potential of V. cinerea and Vernolide-A. VC and vernolide-A inhibited tumor cell invasion and metastasis through stimulation of CMI and regulation of MMPs, VEGF, prolyl hydroxylase, lysyl oxidase, ERK-1, ERK-2, TIMPs, nm23 and proinflammatory cytokine gene expression in metastatic lung tissue. (33)
Safety Evaluation: Study evaluated the safety of ethanol extract of Vernonia cinerea whole plant in acute and chronic toxicity studies in rats. On acute toxicity study, extract was found safe at doses of 2000 mg/kbw orally with no toxicity or death. In chronic toxicity study in rats in doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg once weekly for six weeks, no significant changes were noted in hematologic, renal, and hepatic parameters at the termination of the study. (36)
Decreased Smoking Rate with Supplementation: Study showed the supplementation with V. cinerea and exercise provided benefit related to reduced smoking rate, which may be related to oxidative stress and beta-endorphin levels. (37)
Neuroprotective / Ameliorative Potential In Sciatic Nerve Injury and Neuropathic Pain: Study evaluated the ameliorative potential of ethanol extract of whole plant of VC in chronic constrictive injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve induced neuropathic pain in rats. Results showed dose dependent attenuation in pathologic changes induced by CCI, similar to attenuation of the pregabalin pretreated group. The effect may be due to the presence of flavonoids and attributed to antioxidative, neuroprotective, and calcium channel modulation. (38)
Cytoprotective on Endothelial Cells from Nicotine Toxicity: Study evaluated the cytoprotective effect and mechanisms of whole plant extract on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) from nicotine toxicity. Results showed a cytoprotective effect possibly via intracellular antioxidant mechanism, catalase. (39)
Anticataleptic in Haloperidol Induced Catalepsy: Study evaluated the anticataleptic effect of ethanol extract in haloperidol induced catalepsy in rats using block method, locomotor activity in actophotometer and exploratory behavior in hole board apparatus. Results suggest the protective effect against symptoms of Parkinson's disease (catalepsy) may be due to regulation of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, glutamate. (42)
Gold Nanoparticles / Anti-Malarial: Study reports on synthesis of gold mediated biocompatible nanocomposite of lactone-enriched fraction from Vernonia cinerea. Study showed the ability of lactone-enriched fraction gold nanopartices to restrict parasitaemia and extended mean survival time of mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. Lack of toxicity suggests a potential for application of nanoparticles in malaria therapy. (44)
Anti-Diabetic / Randomized Double-Blind Crossover Clinical Trial: A randomized, DB crossover clinical trial investigated the effects of an herbal preparation containing V. cinerea in T2DM patients. Results showed significant decrease in glucose, hemoglobin A1c, cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. There was no adverse effect noted on liver and renal function. (45)
• Protection Against Free Radical Associated Oxidative Damage: Study evaluated the therapeutic potential of polar (methanolic and aqueous) and nonpolar (hexane and chloroform) crude extracts of whole plant for antioxidative protection of DNA against free radical oxidative damage. All free-radical generating assay models exhibited positive scavenging activity. Only the hexane extract showed significant H2O2 scavenging effect. All extracts showed high degree of inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Oxidative damage to erythrocytes was hindered by all extracts. Results suggested potential for C. cinereum as preventing medicine against free radical associated oxidative damage and related degenerative diseases involving metabolic stress, genotoxicity and cytotoxicity. (46)
• Anti-Cataractogenesis / Selenite-Induced Cataract: Previous studies suggested that plants can retard the process of cataractogenesis by scavenging of free oxygen radicals. This study evaluated the efficacy of a methanolic extract of Vernonia cinerea on in-vivo selenite induced cataract in Sprague Dawley rats. Results suggest V. cinerea has potential against selenite induced cataract and could be useful against lens damage caused by ROS generation under oxidative stress. Study also suggests it is nontoxic in small doses. (49)
• Antispasmodic / Leaves: Study evaluated the antispasmodic activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Cyanthillium cinereum on isolated frog rectus abdominus muscle. Results showed antispasmodic activity when compared to standard antispasmodic agent atropine. At 100 µg/ml concentration, the plant extract showed 50% inhibition of acetylcholine action. Results suggest an alternative to existing drugs, with high degree of safety and efficacy. (50)
• Antibacterial / Roots: Root extract of C. cinereum exhibited high antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The root extract exhibited inverse dose-esponse, with anti-staphylococcal activity highest at lowest concentration (25 mg/ml), decreasing as concentration increased. (51)
• Comparative Antibiotic Potency with Synthetic Antibiotics: Study compared the antibiotic potency of C. cinereum and Moringa oleifera against Ampicillin and Erythromycin comparing zone of inhibition against against S. aureus, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa. The largest ZOI was observed with C/ cinereum extract at 5% concentration against S. aureus followed by P. aeruginosa. (54)
• Antibacterial / Essential Oil of Aerial Parts: Molecular docking study of aerial parts essential oil for antibacterial activity against bacterial proteins showed caryophyllene with highest activity. Study suggests essential oil compounds act as antibacterial by inhibiting cell wall synthesis and protein synthesis. (see constituents above) (55)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Antimicrobial Against Common Oral Pathogens / Leaves: Study of C. cinereum leaves showed strong antimicrobial activity against oral  pathogens such as Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Protein denaturation assay showedbetter anti-inflammatory activity than standard values. Results suggest potential applications in the pharmaceutical industry. (59)
• Standardized Extraction / Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory: Study reported on a standardized C. cinereum extract preparation method and its biologic activities. Results showed Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE) method with 75% EtOH was the most suitable method. The MAE obtained apigenin and luteolin at 0.32 and 0.487 mg/g respectively. A 50% plus 75% EtOH fractions showed high apigenin (91.20 mg/g) and luteolin (167.00 mg/g) contents and exerted potent bioactivities. Standardized extract exhibited high NO inhibitory activity with IC50 of 7.88 µg/mL, and exerted DPPH scavenging activity with IC50 of 8.88 µg/mL and quercetin equivalent at 137.50 mg/g by FRAP assay. (60)
• Antibacterial / Anticancer / Leaves: Study evaluated the antbacterial and anti-cancer activity of C. cinereum leaves extract. Cell apoptosis and MTT assay were carried out in MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. Zone of inhibition against E. coli was 21 mm, and 19 mm for S. aureus. The extract treated cells showed typical features of decrease in cells and cell death at morphological level such as rounding off of cells, cell shrinkage, and detachment from substrate.  The extract exhibited dose dependent cytotoxic and cell viability effect. Results showed antibacterial and anti-cancer activity with wide range of applications in the pharmaceutical industry. (61)
• Accelerated Wound Healing / Sirangak Oil: Study evaluated the effect of Sirangak oil in accelerating wound healing induced by superficial slice cutting in adult mice by enhancing hematological performances. Results showed Sirangak oil could significantly accelerate wound healing by 85.6% compared to control with 71.6% wound recovery. Sirangak oil increase the erythrocyte count snf hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). Study suggests Sirangak oil could potently accelerate wound healing via enhancement of the hematological effects, particularly the erythrocyte and hemoglobin level. (62)
• Antifungal / Wound Healing / Sirangak Oil: Study evaluated the virulence factors and resistance profile of Candida species isolated from urine samples of invitro efficacy of C. cinereum, Lippia multiflora, and Khaya senegalensis. Fifty-one different Candida strains were isolated from urine samples with predominance of C. albicans (52.94%) and C. glabrata (17.64%). All identified species were sensitive to amphotericin B and nystatin. Six virulence factors were identified with high frequency of hydrophobicity (96.08%) and adhesin (94.12%). At 100 mg/mL, the plant extracts were active on tested strains with better activity with C. cinereum and K. senegalensis. (63)


Updated July 2024 / Oct 2020 / Nov 2018 / June 2016

                                                   PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Close-up / Flowers / Ash Fleabane Vernonia cinerea in Talakona forest, in Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh, India. / File:Vernonia cinerea (Ash Fleabane) in Talakona forest, AP W IMG 8552.jpg/ J M Garg / 16 August 2008 / GNU Free Documentation License / CLICK ON PHOTO TO GO SEE SOURCE IMAGE / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Cyanthillium cinereum / Leaf  / Ravi Luckhun / Image modified / Non-commercial use / Click on image or link to go to source page / WIKTROP
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Vernonia cinerea Blanco / Flora de Filipinas / 1880 - 1883 / Francisco Manuel Blanco (OSA) / Public Domain / Wikispecies
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Cyanthillium cinereum / J M Garg / CC BY 3.0 / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Sahadevi (Vernonia cinerea) as medicinal herb in Chhattisgarh, India / Pankaj Oudhia
Effect of Vernonia cinerea flower extract in adjuvant-induced arthritis / Latha RM, Geetha T, Varalakshmi P. / General Pharmacology • Volume 31, Issue 4, October 1998, Pages 601-606 / doi:10.1016/S0306-3623(98)00049-4
Effect of vernonia cinerea less flower extract on free radical scavengers in adjuvant induced arthritis in rats
/ Latha RH et al /

Toxicity study of Vernonia cinerea / Latha L et al / Pharmaceutical Biology (Formerly International Journal of Pharmacognosy), Volume 48, Number 1, January 2010 , pp. 101-104(4)
Vernonia cinerea L. scavenges free radicals and regulates nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines profile in carrageenan induced paw edema model / P Pratheesh Kumar and Girija Kuttan / Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, Volume 31, Issue 1 March 2009 , pages 94 - 102 / DOI: 10.1080/08923970802438391
Diuretic and antidiuretic diuretic of the leaf extracts of Vernonia cinerea (Less) (Fam. Compositae) / J O Adeboye et al / Phytotherapy Research • Volume 11 Issue 6, Pages 454 - 456 / Published Online: 4 Dec 1998
EFFICACY OF VERNONIA CINEREA FOR SMOKING CESSATION / Supakit Wongwiwatthanahukit et al / J Health Res 2009, 23(1): 31-36
Studies on bioactive constituents of whole herbs of Vernonia cinerea / Hua-xu Zhu et al / Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 33(16):1986-8 (2008) /
Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Vernonia cinerea Less. extract in rats / U. K. Mazumder / Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Calcutta-700 032
Analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory effects of methanol, chloroform and ether extracts of Vernonia cinerea less leaf / E O Iwalewa et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 86, Issues 2-3, June 2003, Pages 229-234 / doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(03)00081-3
Nephroprotective Activity of Herbal Extracts of Vernonia Cinerea in the Cisplatin Model of
Renal Toxicity in Rats
/ S Adikay and K Bharathi / School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sri Padmavathi Mahila Vishwavidyalayam, Thirupathi 517502, India
Bactericidal activities of different Medicinal plants extracts against Ocular pathogen viz
Corynebacterium macginleyi
/ Nagendra Kumar Koday et al / Drug Invention Today Vol.2.Issue.1.January 2010
Cyanthillium cinereum / Wikipedia
Vernonia cinerea / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
Phytochemical investigation of Vernonia cinerea (Family: Asteraceae)
/ Md. Ahsanul Haque, Md. Musfizur Hassan, Atanu Das, Bilkis Begum, Md. Yousuf Ali and Helal Morshed / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 02 (06); 2012: 79-83
Chemical Constituents of Vernonia cinerea. Isolation and Structure Elucidation of a New Pentacyclic Triterpenoid / T. N. Misra, R. S. Singh, J. Upadhyay, R. Srivastava /Journal of Natural Products, 1984 47 (5), 865-867
Toxicity study of Vernonia cinerea / L. Yoga Latha, I. Darah, K. Jain, S. Sasidharan / Pharmaceutical Biology, January 2010, Vol. 48, No. 1 , Pages 101-104 / (doi:10.3109/13880200903046203)
Effect of Vernonia cinerea Aerial Parts Against Cisplatin-induced 􏰀ephrotoxicity in Rats/ A. Sreedevi, K. Bharathi, K.V.S.R.G. Prasad / Pharmacologyonline 2: 548-555 (2011) Sreedevi et al.
Effects of Vernonia cinerea Less methanol extract on growth and morphogenesis of Candida albicans / European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences / European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences, 2011; 15: 543-549.
Ameliorative effect of Vernonia cinerea in vincristine-induced painful neuropathy in rats. / Thiagarajan VR, Shanmugam P, Krishnan UM, Muthuraman A. / Toxicol Ind Health. 2012 Oct 18.
AMELIORATIVE ROLE OF Vernonia cinerea IN CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED HEPATIC DYSFUNCTION IN RATS / C. Gokilaveni, A. Nishadh and V. Selvi* / Ancient Science of Life Vol : XXV (3 & 4) January, February, March & April, May, June 2006
The Research Package to Develop Vernonia cinerea: A Herbal Medicine for Smoking Cessation in Thailand / S. Pitayarangsarit, D. Leelarungrayub, C. Banchonglikitkul, S. buathong, C. Sittipunt, S. kitpaiboontawee , O. jaiboon /
Antitumor activity of aerial parts of vernonia cinerea(L) Less. against Dalton's ascitic lymphoma /
Sangeetha.T., Venkatarathinakumar.T. / International Journal of PharmTech Research, Vol.3, No.4, pp 2075-2079, Oct-Dec 2011
Antidiarrheal Activity of Methanolic Extract of Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less. on Female Albino Rats
/ Panday Ganesh, Kasana Virendra Kumar and Hore Suredra Kumar / International Research Journ of Pharmacy, Vol 2, No 5, 2011: 211-213.
Larvicidal efficacy of Vernonia cinerea (L.) (Asteraceae) leaf extracts against the filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) / S. Arivoli*, Samuel Tennyson and J. Jesudoss Martin / Journal of Biopesticides, 4 (1): 37 - 42 (2011)
GC-MS analysis of methanol extracts of Vernonia cinerea / P. Abirami* and A. Rajendran** / European Journal of Experimental Biology, 2012, 2 (1):9-12
Immunomodulatory effect of hexane extract of Vernonia cinerea Less. trunk on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells / Thitiporn Laosim, Siriporn Chuchawankul and Tewin Tencomnao* / J. Chem. Pharm. Res., 2011, 3(4):188-195
Antihyperglycemic activity of Vernonia cinerea L. on alloxan-induced diabetic mice. / Sheetal Choudhary, Manik Sharma, Jagrati Tripathi, Pramod Mishra / International Journal of Advanced Research (2013), Volume 1, Issue 2, 35-42
Anti-diarrheal, Anxiolytic, Antimicrobial and Membrane Stabilizing Activities of Vernonia cinerea Less:A Medicinal Plant of Bangladesh / Md. Khairul Bashar, Mohammed Ibrahim, Irin Sultana, Md. Ruhul Kuddus, Ridwan Bin Rashid, Mohammad Abdur Rashid* / American Journal of PharmaTech Research
Protective role of Vernonia cinerea L. against gamma radiation—induced immunosupression and oxidative stress in mice / P. Pratheeshkumar / Hum Exp Toxicol August 2011 vol. 30 no. 8 1022-1038 / doi: 10.1177/0960327110385959
Anti-inflammatory sesquiterpene lactones from the flower of Vernonia cinerea / U. J. Youn et al. / Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 22 (2012) 5559–5562
Cyanthillium cinereum (L.) H.Rob. / Synonyms / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Therapeutic Uses of Vernonia cinerea - A Short Review / Lakshmi Prabha.J / International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 2015; 7(4): 323-325
SAFETY EVALUATION OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF VERNONIA CINEREA L. IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS / *G. Aruna, P. Jayachandra Reddy, V. Prabhakaran / International Journal of Pharmacy, 2(1), 2012, 34-38.
Vernonia cinerea Less. supplementation and strenuous exercise reduce smoking rate: relation to oxidative stress status and beta-endorphin release in active smokers / Donrawee Leelarungrayub, Sainatee Pratanaphon, Prapas Pothongsunun, Thanyaluck Sriboonreung, Araya Yankai and Richard J Bloomer / Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 20107:21 / DOI: 10.1186/1550-2783-7-21
Ameliorative potential of Vernonia cinerea on chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve induced neuropathic pain in rats / VENKATA R.K. THIAGARAJAN, PALANICHAMY SHANMUGAM, UMA M. KRISHNAN, ARUNACHALAM MUTHURAMAN / An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc. vol.86 no.3 Rio de Janeiro Sept. 2014 Epub Sep 09, 2014 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201420130404
Cytoprotective effect of Vernonia cinerea Less. extract on human umbilical vein endothelial cells against nicotine toxicity / Roongtawan Supabphol*, Rith Wattanachaiyingcharoen, Narisa Kamkaen and Athikom Supabphol / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Vol.7(15), pp. 980-987, April 2013 / DOI: 10.5897/JMPR12.1294
Floristic survey of traditional herbal medicinal plants for treatments of various diseases from coastal diversity in Pudhukkottai District, Tamilnadu, India / Rameshkumar S*, Ramakritinan CM / Journal of Coastal Life Medicine 2013; 1(3): 225-232
PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES OF ANTI-DIARRHOEAL ACTIVITY OF VERNONIA CINEREA IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS / D.Senthil Nagaraj and B.Venkateswarlu / International Journal of Pharmacological Screening Methods, Vol 3, Issue 1 (2013): 16-21
ANTI-CATALEPTIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF VERNONIA CINEREA L. / *P. Jayachandra Reddy, V. Prabhakaran, K. Umasankar, M. Sekar Babu / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science & Technology, Vol 2, Issue 1 (2012) pp 23-29
Ethnomedicinal Plants Used by the Kanikkars of Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu, India to Treat Skin Diseases / B. Anitha, V. R. Mohan*, T. Athiperumalsami and S. Sutha / Ethnobotanical Leaflets 12: 171-180. 2008.
Synthesis of Gold Mediated Biocompatible Nanocomposite of Lactone Enriched Fraction from Sahadevi (Vernonia cinerea Lees): An Assessment of Antimalarial Potential / Jyotshna, Karuna Shanker, Puja Khare, Nimisha Tiwari, Shilpa Mohanty, Dnyaneshwar U. Bawankule and Anirban Pal / Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, 16(18): 2043-2050
A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study of an Herbal Preparation Containing Vernonia cinerea in the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes / Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed, A.G.M. Mostofa, F.M. Touhidul Islam Ferdous, and Md. Siddiqul Islam. / The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. September 2013, 19(9): 767-771. / doi:10.1089/acm.2012.0063.
Therapeutic Potential of Polar and Non-Polar Extracts of Cyanthillium cinereum In Vitro / Gunjan Guha, Venkatadri Rajkumar et al / Evid Based Complement Alternat Med., 2011: 784826 / PMID: 19875433 /
Chemical constituents, biological activity of Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less., and its formulation development as a smoking cessation aid. / Paeratakul O / Journal of Traditional Thai and Alternative Medicine, 2010; 8(1): pp 81-92
Ethnobotanical Survey of Medicinal Plants used by Ayta Communities in Dinalupihan, Bataan, Philippines
/ Ourlad Alzeus G. Tantengco, Marlon Lian C. Condes, Hanna Hasmini T. Estadilla, Elena M. Ragragio / Pharmacogn J., 2018; 10(5): pp 859-870
THERAPEUTIC EFFICACY OF VERNONIA CINEREA IN SELENITE INDUCED CATARACT MODELS / Asha and Annie Abraham / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research
EVALUATION OF INVITRO ANTISPASMODIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF CYANTHILLIUM CINEREUM (L) H. ROB. ON ISOLATED FROG RECTUS ABDOMINUS MUSCLE / Swetha bindu Ch, Soundarya V and Pradeep Kumar Ch / International Journal of Pharmacy & Technology, June 2018; 10(2): 31363-31371
Antibacterial activity of Vitex parviflra A.Juss. and Cyanthillium cinereum (L.) H.Rob. against human pathogens / Ourlad Alzeus G. Tantengco, Marlon Lian C. Condes, Hanna Hasmin T. Estadilla, Elena M. Ragragio / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, 2016; 6(12): pp 1004-1006 / DOI 10.1016/S2222-1808(16)61173-8
Chemical study of the volatile secondary metabolites of flowers and leaves of cyanthillium cinereum (L.) H. Rob from juan de acosta (Atlántico, Colombia) / Amner Muñoz-Acevedo, Adriana L. Mendez-Beltran, Eliana M. Ortega-Morales, Monica E. Niño-Porras / Boletin Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromaticas, July 2012; 11(4): pp 331-340
Ethnomedicinal Plants Utilized by the Ilongot-Eǵongot Community of Bayanihan, Maria Aurora, Aurora, Philippines / Balberona, A. N., Noveno, J. J., Angeles, M. G. B., Santos R. I., Cachin, E. J. D. J. and Cruz, K. G. J. / International Journal of Agricultural Technology, 2018; 14(2): pp 145-159
Comparatiive Study of the Antibiotic Potency of Natural (Cyanthillium cinereum and Moringa oleifera) and Synthetic (Ampicillin and Erythromycin) Antibiotics / Tresonne Headley, Ruth Daniel, Elford Liverpool and Abdullah Adil Ansari / J Pure Aool Microbiol., 2020; 14(1): pp 287-300 / http://doi.org/1022207//JPAM.14.1.30
Chemical Composition of Cyanthillium Cinereum (L.) H. Rob Essential Oil and its Molecular Docking Study against Bacterial Proteins / J Dharani, R Sripathi, S Ravi / Journal of Pharamceutical Sciences and Research, 2018; 10(9): pp2216-2220 / ISSN:0975-1459
Documentation of ethnomedicinal knowledge among the tribes of Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve, Central India / Arjun Prasad Tiwari, RLS Sikarwar, PC Dubey / Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, Dec 2014; 5(4): pp 345-350
Cyanthillium cinereum / National Parks: FLORA & FAUNA WEB
Anti-Inflammatory Activity and Antimicrobial Activity Against Common Oral Pathogens of Cyanthillium Cinereum - An Invitro Study / Sushanthi Suresh, L Leelavathi, S Rajeshkumar et al / Journal of Complementary Medicine Research, 2023; 14(2): pp 9-15 / ISSN: 2146-8397
Development of Standardized Cyanthillium cinereum (L.) H.Rob. Extract and Determination of its Biological Activities / Mafusol Kaji, Panupong Puttarak / The Natural Products Journal, 2022; 12(5): pp 46-54 / DOI: 10.2174/2210315511666210927122616
The sirangak (cyanthillium cinereum; asteraceae) oil accelerates sliced-wound healing by enhanching the hematological endurance in male albino mice / M Fadillah, P Santoso / Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Volume 1317; 2018: 012080
Efficacy of Extracts of Cyanthillium CinereumKhaya senegalensis and Lippia multiflora on CandidaStrains Isolated From Urine Samples in Benin (West Africa) / Brice Armand Fanou, Jean Robert Klotoe, Victorien Dougnon, Frederic Loki et al / Front. Trop. Dis., 2022; Sec. Antimicrobial Resistance, Vol 3 /
DOI: 10.3389/fotd.2022.890296


DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
                                          New plant names needed
The compilation now numbers over 1,500 medicinal plants. While I believe there are hundreds more that can be added to the collection, they are becoming more difficult to find. If you have a plant to suggest for inclusion, native or introduced, please email the info: scientific name (most helpful), local plant name (if known), any known folkloric medicinal use, and, if possible, a photo. Your help will be greatly appreciated.

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