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Family Urticaceae
Leucosyke capitellata (Poir.) Wedd.


Scientific names Common names
Leucocnide alba (Zoll. & Moritzi) Miq. Alagasi (Bis., Tag.)
Leucosyke alba Zoll. & Moritzi Alangasi (Bis.) 
Leucosyke angusta Unruh Amagasi (Bik., tag.)
Leucosyke bimensis Zoll. & Moritzi Anagau (Bik.)
Leucosyke capitellata (Poir.) Wedd. Anagasi (Bik.)
Leucosyke celtidifolia (Gaudich. ex Wedd.) Miq. Anugas (Bik.)
Leucosyke elongata (Blume) Miq. Alalasi (Bon., Ilk.)
Leucosyke falcata (Blume) Miq. Aragasi (Bik., S. L., Bis.)
Leucosyke leytensis Merr. Ararasi (Bon.)
Leucosyke mutabilis (Blume) Miq. Arasi (Bon.)
Leucosyke palawanensis Unruh Asis (Tag.)
Leucosyke samarensis Unruh Bahibahi (P. Bis.)
Leucosyke villosa (Blume) Miq. Bauaua (S. L. Bis.)
Missiessya alba (Zoll. & Moritzi) Wedd. Bilan-bilan (Sub.)
Missiessya aspera Wedd. Bunkilan (Yak.)
Missiessya bimensis (Zoll. & Moritzi) Wedd. Damakadios (P. Bis.)
Missiessya capitellata (Poir.) Bakh.f. Gasigasi (Sul.)
Missiessya celtidifolia Gaudich. ex Wedd. Ginagasi (Tag.)
Missiessya elongata Blume Gombilan (Zamb.)
Missiessya fagifolia Gaudich. ex Wedd. Gugutu (Ig.)
Missiessya falcata Blume Haganasi (Bik.)
Missiessya mutabilis Blume Halagasi (Tag.)
Missiessya villosa Blume Hilagasi (Tag.)
Urtica alba Blume Hinagasi (Tag.)
Urtica capitellata Poir. Hinlagasi (P. Bis.)
Urtica melastomoides Spreng. Isis (Tag.)
Urtica sphaerocephala Roxb. Isis ngipin (Tag.)
  Karikasin (Neg.)
  Lagasi (Tag., C. Bis.)
  Laglag (P. Bis.)
  Lalasi (Ig.)
  Langasi (Bis.)
  Lapsik (Ig.)
  Layasin (Tag.)
  Liasin (Tag.)
  Manombila (Buk.)
  Namey (Benguet)
  Opli (Tag.)
  Sagombibilan (Mbo.)
  Salagiso (Bik.)
  Salasi (Bon.)
  Tinagasi (Bik.)
  Upli (Tag.)
  Toothscrubber (Engl.)
Leucosyke capitellata Wedd. is accepted. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
INDONESIA: Ki beunteur, Jurang gunung, Kayu te pa'ei, Simarhambing-hambing.
MALAYSIA: Mandahasi, Tahpoi, Teh kampung, Kuliat-mato.

Alagasi is an erect shrub or small tree, reaching a height of 2 to 4 meters. Leaves are papery, oblong or ovate, 10 to 15 centimeters long, 3 to 5 centimeters wide, felty and harsh to touch, gray or chalky white beneath and green on the other side; pointed at the apex, abruptly and broadly rounded, and 3-nerved at the base. Flowers are capitate, on 8-millimeter long peduncles, either single or few-clustered, 1 centimeter in diameter. Male flowers are white, upon short pedicels. Fruiting heads are dark green, nearly spherical, with compressed achenes.

- Native to the Philippines.
- In thickets and second-growth forests at low and medium altitudes throughout the Philippines.
- Also native to Bismark Archipelago, Borneo, Jawa, Lesser Sunda Is., Maluku, New Guinea, Solomon Is., Sulawesi, Sumatera, Vanuatu. (13)

• High Magnesium Content: The Kampung (Leucosyke capitellata) leaves are particularly high in magnesium (626 mg/100 g).
- Root extract yielded α-deoxysuagrs (Keller-Killary Test) and hydrolyzable tannins (Ferric Chloride Test). (see study below) (17)

- Studies have shown antioxidant, adaptogenic, antihyperglycemic, antiplatelet, hepatoprotective properties.

Parts used
Roots, leaves, sap.

- Decoction of roots and various concoctions of leaves, bark, and stems are used for phthisis, coughs, headache and gastralgia.
- The Manobo tribe of Agusan del Sur, Philippines, used decoction of leaf for stomach aches and vomiting. (18)
- The Mamanwa tribe of Mindanao scrape the mature skin of stem to obtain the bark, and chew the bark for treatment of mouth ulcers (luas). (19)
- Subanens in Dumingag, Zamboanga del Sur, apply the bark on the throat for treatment of cough. (
- Subanen tribe of Lapuyan, Zamboanga del Sur eat small amounts of stem for cough. Necklace made out of the outer layer of stem put around the child's neck for colds. Decoction made from trunk of L. capitellata with leaves of Coleus aromaticus and roots of Flemingia strobilifera drunk for cough. (16)
- Polyherbal decoction of a mixture of alagasi, Cordia dichotoma (Anonang), Ficus septica (Lagnob), Dendrocnide meyeniana (Alingatong kahoy), and Sonneratia caseolaris (Pagatpat) drunk for relapse, fatigue, headache, body pains, fever and migraine. (
- In Malaysia, decoction of leaves used for diabetes, high blood pressure and lumbago.
- In Kalimantan, Indonesia, plant used for treating stomach aches. (4)
- In Sabah, Malaysia, plant sap used as eye drops and for pain in the ears. (3)
Used by Kadazandusun tribe to treat diabetes. (2)
- In Borneo, decoction of leaves used to treat hypertension and diabetes. (8)
Fiber: Bark used for its strong bast fibers in making ropes.
Scouring: Leaves, with its one-sided roughness, used for scouring pots and pans.

Wood: Durable, used for making implements, rice pounders, etc.

Antihyperglycemic / Antioxidant:
Study evaluated L. capitellata leaves for its effect on blood glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Results suggest the leaves extract has the ability to reduce oxidative stress and possess antihyperglycemic effect in diabetic rats probably through its antioxidant property. (2)
Adaptogenic / Anti-Stress / Roots: Study evaluated the adaptogenic effect of aqueous extracts of roots of Leucosyke capitellata on stress-induced mice based on time of exhaustion using the Swim endurance test. Extract yielded
α-deoxysuagrs (Keller-Killary Test) and hydrolyzable tannins (Ferric Chloride Test). Mice pretreated with higher doses of alagasi roots exhibited longer duration of time compared to control. (9)
Antioxidant / Anti-Stress / Roots: Study evaluated various extracts of leaves five plant species, the decoction, crude ethanol and 50:50 ethanol-water extracts of L. capitellata and L. aculeate showed antioxidant profiles comparable to those of standards ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene. (10)
• Antioxidant / Bark: Study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant activity of 37 methanolic extracts of Indonesian plants using DPPH assay. Twenty-nine of the samples exhibited radical scavenging activities of more than 50% at 1000 ppm. Five, including bark extracts of L. capitellata, exhibited high activities. (11)
• Hepatoprotective / CCl4-Induced Toxicity / Leaves: Study investigated the hepatoprotective effect of L. capitellata leaf decoction using carbon tetrachloride (CCL4)-induced hepatic damage in mice. The leaf decoction of leaf significantly decreased ALT, AST, and ALP (p<0.05) along with significantly increase TP level. Histopathological exam supported the biochemical improvements in liver damage. Reference drug was silymarin. (12)
• Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the antioxidant activities of decoction, crude ethanol and 50:50 ethanol:water extracts from leaves of five plant sources using DPPH and total phenolic contents. Best results were obtained from Leucosyke capitellata and Leea aculeata with comparable antioxidant profiles with reference standards ascorbic acid and BHT. (15)
• Antiplatelet Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated ethanolic extract of leaves of L. capitellata for antiplatelet activity. Results showed inhibition of blood coagulation. Plasma absorbance reduction before and after addition of ADP showed significant comparison from negative to positive control of 0.007 to 0.05. Previous studies have shown the presence of antioxidative flavonoid compound which may inhibit the adherence, aggregation and secretion of plates through its obstructive effect on the metabolism of arachidonic acid by cyclooxygenase. (17)


Updated  November 2022 / May 2020 / March 2018 / February 2016

                                                  PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Unticaceae: Leucosyke capitellata / Flowering shoot / © 2011: Leonardo L. Co / mbleton /  Contact: benctan@berkeley.edu) [ref. DOL34732 / Non-Commercial Use / click on image to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo /Unticaceae: Leucosyke capitellata / Abaxial view of Leaf / Copyright © 2017 by P.B. Pelser & J.F. Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL117303] / Non-Commercial Use / click on image to go to source page // Phytoimages.siu.edu

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
The Nutritional Value of Indigenous Fruits and Vegetables in Sarawak / Voon Boon Hoe and Kueh Hong Siong
/ Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1999, Volume 8 Issue 1, Pages 24 - 31
Evaluation of anti-hyperglycaemic effect of Leucosyke capitellata leaf in normal and streptozotocin - induced diabetic rats / Ling, Lina / 2008 / Institutional Repository, Universiti Malaysia Sabah. (Unpublished)
LOCAL USE OF FOREST PRODUCTS IN KUYONGON, SABAH, MALAYSIA / Jacob Andersen et al / ASEAN Review of Biodiversity and Environmental Conservation (ARBEC) January-March 2003
MEDICINAL PLANTS OF KALIMANTAN FOREST : A REVIEW / Wawan Kustiawan / Natural Life, Vol. 2. No.1, 2007, 24-34
Leucosyke capitellata (Poir.) Wedd. / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
Medicinal Plants of the Subanens in Dumingag, Zamboanga del Sur, Philippines / Lady Jane G. Morilla, Nanette Hope N. Sumaya, Henry I. Rivero and Ma. Reina Suzette B. Madamba / International Conference on Food, Biological and Medical Sciences (FBMS-2014) Jan. 28-29, 2014 Bangkok (Thailand)
Fasihuddin B. Ahmad and Ghazally Ismail / ASEAN Review of Biodiversity and Environmental Conservation (ARBEC) January-March 2003
Adaptogenic evaluation of Alagasi leucosyke capitellata, poir., 1869, aqueous root extracts on stress-induced mice / Arvin Jay G. Mangawang, Ritzjerald Christer A. Pahilan / Thesis/Dissertations / Oct 2013 / University of San Carlos
The antioxidant properties of the Philippine medicinal plants Cassia sophera L., Derris elliptica Benth, Ficus minahassea Tesym. and De Vr., Leea aculeata Blume and Leucosyke capitellata Wedd / Uy, Mylene M.; Villazorda, Marvelous G. L. / Advances in Agriculture & Botanics;2015, Vol. 7 Issue 3, p150
HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF Leucosyke capitellata Wedd. (KAJAJAHI) LEAVES AGAINST CCl4-INDUCED LIVER DAMAGE IN MICE / Nurlely, Asmiliati, Refiana Prima Putri, Noor Cahaya / Universitas Lambung Mangkurat
Leucosyke capitellata / KEW: Plants of the World Online
The antioxidant properties of the Philippine medicinal plants Cassia sophera Linn., Derris elliptica Benth, Ficus minahassea Tesym. and De Vr., Leea aculeata Blume and Leucosyke capitellata Wedd / Mylene M Uy, Marvelous G L Villazorda / Advances in Agriculture and Botanics-International Journal of the Bioflux Socieity / AAB: Bioflux, 2015; 7(3): pp 150-156
Ethnobotany of Medicinal Plants Used by the Subanen Tribe of Lapuyan, Zamboanga del Sur / Jhoan Rhea L. Pizon, Olga M. Nuñeza, Mylene M. Uy, WTPSK Senarath / Bull. Env. Pharmacol. Life Sci., Vol 5 (5); April 2016: pp 53-67
Quantitative ethnopharmacological documentation and molecular confirmation of medicinal plants used by the Manobo tribe of Agusan del Sur, Philippines / Mark Llyod G Dapar, Grecebio Jonathan D Alejandro, Ulrich Meve, Sigrid Liede-Schumann / Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 2020; 16:; 16(14) / https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-020-00363-7
Ethnobotanical survery of medicinal plants used by the Mamanwa tribe of Surigao del Norte and Agusan del Norte, Mindanao, Philippines / Olga M Nuneza, Biverly C Rodriguez, Juliet Grace M Nasiad / Biodiversitas, 2021; 22(6): pp 3284-3296 / eISSN: 2085-4722 /  DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d220634 / pISSN: 1412-033X
Ethnomedicinal documentation of polyherbal formulations and other folk medicines in Aurora, Zamboanga del Sur, Philippines / Jayson R Pucot, Cesar G Demayo / BIODIVERSITAS, 2021; 22(12): pp 5331-5343 / DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d221214 / eISSN: 2085-4722 / pISSN: 1412-033X

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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