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Family Euphorbiaceae
Alim
Melanolepis multiglandulosa (Reinw. ex Blume) Reichb. & Zoll.

Mo lin

Scientific names  Common names
Adelia monoica Blanco  Aem (Ting.) 
Croton multiglandulosus Reinw.  Ahem (Iv.)
Mallotus angulatus (Miq.) Mull. Arg. Alam (Ilk.) 
Mallotus calcosus Muell.-Arg.  Alem (Ilk.) 
Mallotus moluccanus Muell.-Arg.  Alim (Tag., P. Bis.) 
Mallotus multiglandulosus  (Reinw. ex Bliume) Hurus. Alum (Bik., Tagb., P. Bis., Sul., Mag.) 
Melanolepis angulata Miq.  Arum (P. Bis.)
Melanopsis moluccana  Pax & Hoffm.  Aling (Bik.) 
Melanolepis multiglandulosa (Reinw. ex Blume) Rchb. & Zoll. Ayum-ayum (Sbl.) 
Rottlera mutiglandulosa Blume  Girangan (Tagb.) 
  Pakalkal (Tag.) 
Melanolepis multiglandulosa (Reinw. ex Blume) Rchb. & Zoll. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Mo lin
INDONESIAN: Daun kapur, Ngalu, Tutup.
MALAYSIAN: Chawan, Jarak kayu.
PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Avima, Bapap.
VIETNAMESE: C[as]nh di[eef]u, H[aws]c l[aa]n nhi[eef]u tuy[ees]n.

Botany
Alim is a shrub or small tree, 4 to 10 meters high, with stellate hairs giving a velvety appearance. Leaves are large, orbicular-ovate, 10 to 25 centimeters long, very broad, with a heart-shaped base, pointed at the tip, and often deeply three- to five-lobed, with coarsely toothed margins. Flowers are greenish yellow. Fruit is a capsule, about millimeters each way, smooth and consisting of 2 or 3 parts.

Distribution
- Common in thickets and secondary forests at low and medium altitudes throughout the Philippines.
- Occurs in Indo-China to Taiwan, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, New Guinea, and to the Marianne Islands.

Constituents
- Roots have yielded triterpenes viz. friedelin, a-amyrin-acetate, oleanic acid, olean-12-en-3'-beta',28-diol, as well as steroids including campesterol, stigmasterol, ß-sitosterol, campesterol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside, stigmasterol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside, beta--sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside, 5-alpha-stigmastan-3,6-dione, stigmast-4-en-3-one, stigmast-4,22-dien-3-one and 6-beta-hydroxystigmast-4-en-3-one.
- Methanolic extract of roots yielded friedelin, oleanolic acid, olean-12-en-3β,28-diol, β-amyrin acetate, 6β- hydroxystigmast-4-en-3-one, stigmast-4-en-3-one & stigmast- 4,22-dien-3-one, 5α-stigmast-3,6-dione, phytosterols (campesterol, 11.44%; stigmasterol, 52.00﹪; β-sitosterol, 36.56%), phytosterol-3-O-β-D-glucosides (campesterol-3-O-β-D-glucoside , 14.91%; stigmasterol-3-O-β-D-glucoside, 47.54%; β-sitosterol- 3-O-β-D-glucoside,37.55% ) and D-sucrose.

Properties
- Sudorific, vermifuge, antiviral.
- Studies have suggested antiviral properties.

Parts utilized
Bark, leaves, flowers.

Uses
Edibility
- In Sumatra, leaves mixed with tape (fermented flour from cereals) to sweeten the taste.
Folkloric
- In the Philippines, bark leaves, and flowers, fresh or slightly heated, applied to the skin as sudorific for chest pains and fever.
- Bark used fore sore throat by the Subanons of Zamboanga del Sur. (8)
- In Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia, leaves, sometimes in a mixture with ginger, used as a poultice against different kinds of scurf.
- In Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra, decoction of leaves used as vermifuge.
- In Sulawesi, decoction of leaves used for cough; in Sabah, bark decoction used for the same.
- Decoction of leaves used as vermifuge.
- Bark used for chest pains; leaves or flowers on the wrist for fever.

- In Papua, New Guinea, one of the plants used to treat centipede and snake bites. Bark is chewed, juice swallowed or rubbed on affected area. (3) Glue-like sap applied to new cuts to stop bleeding. Bark used against lice. (9) Infusion of crushed dried leaves in cold water drunk to treat constipation, chest affections and tuberculosis.
- In Taiwan, roots used as anti-infection, diuretic, and insecticide. (4)
Others
- Dyeing: Ashes of old leaves used as additive to Bixa orellana in dyeing.
- Wood: Wood makes good firewood.

Studies
Anti-Viral / Hepatitis C Virus:
Study evaluated the ethanol extracts of 21 samples from 17 species of medicinal plants for anti-HCV activities using Huh7.5 cells and HCV strains of 9 different genotypes. Results showed four of 21 samples including M. multiglandulosa stems showed antiviral activities against HCV genotypes. (6)

Availability
Wild-crafted.
 

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update February 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Melanolepis angulata Miq. / Iskak Syamsudin / Prosea
(2)
Melanolepis multiglandulosa / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
(3)
INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA / STEVEN EDMUND WINDUO. / Macmillan Brown Centre for Pacific Studies
(4)
Taiwanese Native Medicinal Plants / Phytopharmacology and Therapeutic Values / Thomas S.C. Li, Ph.D. / CRC Press
(5)
Melanolepis multiglandulosa (Reinw. ex Blume) Rchb. & Zoll. / Synonyms / The Plant List
(6)
Antiviral activities of Indonesian medicinal plants in the East Java region against hepatitis C virus /
Tutik Sri Wahyuni, Lydia Tumewu, Adita Ayu Permanasari, Evhy Apriani, Myrna Adianti, Abdul Rahman, Aty Widyawaruyanti, Maria Inge Lusida, Achmad Fuad, Soetjipto, Nasronudin, Hiroyuki Fuchino, Nobuo Kawahara, Ikuo Shoji, Lin Deng, Chie Aoki, Hak Hotta / Virology Journal, August 2013, 10:259
(7)
Constituents of the roots of Melanolepis multiglandulosa / Lai, Jeng Shiow; Liou, Horng Shian; Huang, Keh Feng / Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal, 1996,48(2): 177-183
(8)
Medicinal Plants of the Subanens in Dumingag, Zamboanga del Sur, Philippines
/ Lady Jane G. Morilla, Nanette Hope N. Sumaya, Henry I. Rivero and Ma. Reina Suzette B. Madamba / International Conference on Food, Biological and Medical Sciences (FBMS-2014) Jan. 28-29, 2014 Bangkok (Thailand)
(9)
Traditional Plant Use by the Didipa Clan, Baitabag, Papua New Guinea / Plant descriptions (draft) ­ Heino Hertel 1998

(10)
Studies on the Constituents of the Root of Melanolepis multiglandulosa (Reinw.) Reichb. f. et Zoll.
/ Horng-Shan Liou / Keh-Feng Huang / Thesis

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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