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Family Amaranthaceae
Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants

Chou xing

Scientific names Common names 
Agathophytum ambrosioides (L.) Peterm. Adlabon (Ig.) 
Ambrina ambrosioides (L.) Spach Alpasote (Tag., Bis., Ilk.) 
Ambrina incisa Moq. Alpasotis (Tag., Bis., Ilk.)
Ambrina parvula Phil. Apazot (Mexican)
Ambrina spathulata Moq. Aposotis  (Tag., Bis., Ilk.) 
Atriplex ambrosioides (L.) Crantz Bulbula (Bon.) 
Atriplex ambrosioides f. minus Aellen Libug (Ig.)
Blitum ambrosioides (L.) Beck Pasotis (Tag., Bis., Ilk.) 
Botrys ambrosioides (L.) Nieuwl. American wormseed (Engl.)
Chenopodium album subsp. ambrosioides (L.) Coste & Reyn. Baltimore oil (Engl.)
Chenopodium amboanum (Murr) Aellen Epazote (Engl.)
Chenopodium ambrosioides Linn. Hedge mustard (Engl.)
Chenopodium ambrosioides f. angustifolium (Pav. ex Moq.) Aellen Indian goosefoot (Engl.)
Chenopodium ambrosioides var. angustifolium Sieber ex Moq. Jesuit's tree (Engl.)
Chenopodium ambrosioides var. cinerascens Sennen Mexican tea (Engl.)
Chenopodium ambrosioides var. comosum Willk. Skunkweed (Engl.)
Chenopodium ambrosioides var. costei Aellen Sweet pigweed (Engl.)
Chenopodium ambrosioides f. dentatum (Fenzl) Aellen Wormseed (Engl.)
Chenopodium ambrosioides var. dentatum Fenzl  
Chenopodium ambrosioides subsp. euambrosioides Aellen  
Chenopodium ambrosioides f. genuinum Aellen  
Chenopodium ambrosioides var. genuinum Willk.  
Chenopodium ambrosioides var. incisum (Phil.) Aellen  
Chenopodium ambrosioides f. integrifolium (Fenzl) Aellen  
Chenopodium ambrosioides var. integrifolium Fenzl  
Chenopodium ambrosioides var. microphyllum Sennen  
Chenopodium ambrosioides f. minus (Murr) Aellen  
Chenopodium ambrosioides f. normale Aellen  
Chenopodium ambrosioides f. pinnatifidum (Willk.) Aellen  
Chenopodium ambrosioides subsp. pinnatifidum Asch. & Graebn.  
Chenopodium ambrosioides var. pinnatifidum Willk.  
Chenopodium ambrosioides var. polystachium Willk.  
Chenopodium ambrosioides var. pubescens Makino  
Chenopodium ambrosioides var. querciforme (Murr) Aellen  
Chenopodium ambrosioides f. rotundatum Aellen  
Chenopodium ambrosioides f. spathulatum (Moq.) Aellen  
Chenopodium ambrosioides var. suffruticosum (Willd.) P.Fourn.  
Chenopodium ambrosioides subsp. suffruticosum (Willd.) Thell.  
Chenopodium ambrosioides proles suffruticosum (Willd.) Thell.  
Chenopodium ambrosioides var. suffruticosum (Willd.) Allen.  
Chenopodium ambrosioides var. suffruticosum (Willd.) Graebn.  
Chenopodium ambrosioides f. suffruticosum (Willd.) Aellen  
Chenopodium ambrosioides var. typicum Speg.  
Chenopodium ambrosioides var. viridis Sennen  
Chenopodium angustifolium Pav. ex Moq.  
Chenopodium anthelminticum var. glabratum Fenzl  
Chenopodium anthelminticum var. hastatum Moq.  
Chenopodium anthelminticum var. subhirsutum Fenzl  
Chenopodium chilense var. incisa (Phil.) Reiche  
Chenopodium cuneifolium Vent. ex Moq.  
Chenopodium integrifolium Vorosch.  
Chenopodium integrifolium subsp. ramosissimum Vorosch.  
Chenopodium opulifolium subsp. amboanum Murr  
Chenopodium querciforme Murr  
Chenopodium querciforme var. minus Murr  
Chenopodium rugosum Raf.  
Chenopodium sancta-maria Vell.  
Chenopodium spathulatum (Moq.) Sieber ex Moq.  
Chenopodium spathulatum var. angustifolim Moq.  
Chenopodium spathulatum var. platyphyllum Moq.  
Chenopodium suffuticosum Willd.  
Chenopodium suffuticosum subsp. remotum Vorosch.  
Chenopodium variegatum Gouan  
Dysphania ambrosioides var. integrifolia (Vorosch) Schwar. & Mered.  
Neobotrydium ambrosioides (L.) M.L.Zhang & G.L.Chu  
Orthsporum ambrosioides (L.) Kostel  
Orthsporum suffruticosum Kostel  
Roubieva anthelmintica (L.) Hook. & Arn.  
Roubieva querciformis (Murr) G.L.Chu  
Teloxys ambrosioides (L.) W.A. Weber  
Vulvaria ambrosioides (L.) Bubani  

Chenopodium ambrosioides L. is a synonym of Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants.

Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Bathu sag.
BRAZIL: Mastruz.
CHINESE: Chou xing, T'u Ching-chieh, Chau hahn.
CROATIAN: Cjelolista loboda.
CZECH: Merlík, Merlík vonný, Měsíček lékařský.
DANISH: Meksikansk Gåsefod, Vellugtende Gåsefod.
DUTCH: Amerikaans Wormzaad, Welriekende Ganzenvoet, Welriekende Ganzevoet, Wormkruid.
ESTONIAN: Ürt-Hanemalts.
FINNISH: Sitruunasavikka.
FRENCH: épazote, Ambroisie Du Mexique, Ansérine Vermifuge, Botrice, Chénopode fausse-ambroisie, Herbe à puces, Thé du Mexique, Thé du Mexique.
GERMAN: Echter Erdbeerspinat, Jesuitentee, Karthäusertee, Mexicanischer Traubentee, Mexicanisches Teekraut, Mexikanischer Tee, Mexikanisches Teekraut, Wohlriechender Gänsefuß, Wohlriechender Gänsefuß, Wurmsamen Gänsefuß
GREEK: Chenopodion to ambrosioides.
HERBREW: - kaf-Avaz Reichanit
ITALIAN: Ambrosia, Farinello aromatico, Te del messico.
JAPANESE: Amerika-Ritaso, henopoji, Ke Aritasou, Kearitaso.
KOREAN: E-Pa-Jo-Te, Epajote, Naem-Sae-Myeong-A-Ju, Naemsaem-Yeongaju, To-Hyeong-Gae, Tohyeonggae, Tohyonggae, Yang-Myeong-A-Ju, Yang-Myeongaju, Yang-Myongaju,
MALAYALAM: Katuayamodakam.
NEPALESE: Hyang hamo.
NORWEGIAN: Sitronmelde.
POLISH: Komosa Piżmowa.
PORTUGUESE: Ambrósia, Anserina-Vermífuga, Ereva-Mata-Pulga,, Erva-Das-Lombrigas, Erva-De-Bicho (Brazil), Erva-De-Santa-Maria, Erva-Formigueira, Erva-Formigueira, Formigueira, Mastruço, Mastruço, Mastruz, Menstruço, Mentruz, Quenopódio.
RUSSIAN: Epazot, Mar Ambrozievidnaya, Mar´ Ambrozievidnaia, Mar' Ambrozievidnaâ,
SPANISH: Alapasotes,, Apasotes (Guam Island), Apazote, Aposote, Apozote, Epasote, Epazote, Hierba Hormiguera, Huacatay, Ipazote, Paico, Paico Macho, Pazote, Peru), Yerba De Santa Maria
TAMIL: Kattsambadam.
TURKISH: Meksika çay, Meksika çayı.
UNANI: Bathua.
VIETNAMESE: Ca Dau Giun, Câ Dầu Hôi, Câ đầu Giun, Thổr Kinh Giới

Gen info
- Chenopodium ambrosioides originated in Central American, long used as an anthelmintic in many parts of the world. Although Chenopodium has been replaced by more effective and less toxic anthelmintics, it is still used in many indigenous traditional systems for the treatment of worm infections in both humans and livestock.
- Once referred to as Baltimore Oil for that Maryland city's large oil extraction facility.
- Etymology: the Spanish name, epazote, derives from the Nahuatl epazotl, a compound word formed from epatl and tzotl, roughly meaning "skunk smell".

• Alpasotis is an erect or ascending, branched, glandular herb, often nearly 1 meter high. Stems are angled, smooth or glandular-pubescent. Leaves are oblong to oblong-lanceolate 3 to 10 centimeters in length, with lobed margins, and with a rank aromatic odor when crushed. Flowers are small and spicate, regular and perfect. Sepals are 5, sometimes only 3, enclosing the utricle, which is less than 1 millimeter long. Stamens are as many as sepals, hypogynous or somewhat perigynous, filaments distinct. Ovary is 1-celled, free, usually depressed, styles are 2 or 3. Fruits are utricles, the seed horizontal, smooth and shining.

- Introduced to the Philippines.
- In the settled areas throughout the Philippines, cultivated and spontaneous, at medium and higher altitudes, like Benguet, often very abundant.

- Native of Mexico; now, pantropic.

- The compound considered to be the active ingredient is ascaridole, a monoterpene. The major component of chenopodium oil are: ascaridole (60-80%), isoascaridole, p-cymene, limonene, and x-terpinene. The levels of the compounds vary according to age, part, and whether fresh or dried.
- Oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides var. anthelminticum, yielded cymene and terpinene in addition to ascaridol.
- Plant yields anthraglycosides, cinnamic acid derivatives, mucins and pectins, saponins, amygdalin, volatile oils ascaridol and geraniol, cymene, terpenine.
- Oil is chiefly distilled from the fruit, stored in the hairs in the surface. Pharmacognostical study distinguishes two types of hairs, and the sac type contains the oil.

- Contains oxalic acid which is reduced by cooking. Should be used with caution in patients with gout, kidney stones, rheumatism.
- Main constituents of leaf essential oil were ascaridole 51.12%, p-cymene 19.88%, neral 8.70%, and geraniol 7.55%. (See study below). (19)
- Study of aerial parts (leaves, flowers, and stem) for essential oil by GC and GC/MS analysis yielded 14 components representing 98.8% of the total oil. Major components were α-terpinene (51.3%), p-cymene (23.4%) and p-mentha-1,,8-diene (15.3%). (see study below) (37)
- Study of fruits yielded two flavonol glycosides, kaempferol 3-rhamnoside-4'-xyloside and kaempferol 3-rhamnoside-7-xyloside. (40)
- Study of methanolic extract yielded stigmasterol (1), ß-sitosterol (2), octadecanoic acid (3), scopoletin (4), and 1-piperoylpiperidine (5). (41)
- Ascaridole is formed in highest concentration in the seeds. Other components are limonene, transpino-carveol, ascaridole-glycol, aritasone, α-pinene, myrcene, phellandrene, and α-terpinol.
- The leaves are a source of bioactive compounds such as α-terpinene, α-terpinenyl-acetate, beta-cymene, p-cymene, piperitone, carvyl acetate, piperitol acetate, trans-ascaridol, carvacrol, thymol, and limonene. In addition, chrysin, patulin, piperoylpiperidine, and scopoletin are present in this species. (49)
- GC-MS and GC-FID analysis of essential oil identified 44 components, representing 88.95% of total hydrodistilled oil. Most abundant components were cis-ascaridole (60.33%), m-cymene  (22.17%), and α-terpinene (see study below) (50)
- Chromatographic study of hydroethanolic extract of flowers yielded nine alkaloids: trisphaeridine (1), galanthamine (2), crinine (3), demethylmaritidine (4), anhydrolycorine (5), nor-galanthamine (6), N-formylnorgalanthamine (most prevalent) (7), peramine (8), and ergovaline (9). (see study below) (51)

- Analgesic, anti-asthmatic, anti-fungal, carminative, diuretic, emmenagogue, stomachic, sudorific, vermifuge.
- Bruised leaves emit a somewhat foetid odor.
- Fruit well known for its vermifuge properties.
- The characteristic smell of the plant is attributed to ascaridol.

- Studies have suggested antitumor, anthelmintic, antispasmodic, antioxidant, myorelaxant, antimycotic, trypanocidal, nematicidal, antileishmanial, analgesic, antidiabetic, antipyretic, antifungal, antibacterial, anti-viral, drug-modulating, anticancer, anti-helicobacter, anti-inflammatory, hypotensive, insecticidal, mosquitocidal, anxiolytic properties.

Parts utilized
- Entire plant.
- Collect during the months of May to October.
- Rinse, dry under the sun and compress.

• Used as dietary condiment.
• Tender leaves sometimes used as potherb.
• Leaves used as herbal tea.
• Fruit well known for its vermifuge use; as bruised fruit in small doses, or juice expressed from the plant, taken straight or as a decoction in milk or water.
• Hookworms (Ankylostoma duodenale) and the amoeba which cause dysentery are destroyed by the oil.
• Oil sometimes applied to tropical ulcers.
• Hookworm infections and hookworm inflammatory disease: dose for adults - 2.6 to 3 gms of dried powdered material every morning and every night daily for 3 to 6 consecutive days.
• Decoction may be used as wash for various skin diseases of the lower limbs, eczema, ulcers.
• Prepared drug is sharp and bitter tasting.
• Infusion taken as digestive remedy, for colic and stomach pains.
• Leaves and tops, crushed and mixed with cooked rice, used as carminative in poultices applied to abdomen of children suffering from dyspepsia.
• Used as a wash for hemorrhoids.
• Poultice for snake bites and other poisons.
• Used for wound healing.
• Anecdotal reports of cures in use for uterine fibroids and certain cancers.
• In Mexico, used as emmenagogue and vermifuge.
• Used as abortifacient.
• In the Antilles, used as antispasmodic; decoction as internal hemostatic; the bruised plant for ulcers.
• In southern Africa, Sutos and Zulus use an infusion for colds and stomach aches; as an enema for intestinal ulceration and as sudorific.
• In Mexico, used as emmenagogue and vermifuge.
• Infusion used as diuretic and sudorific.
• Oil used for pectoral complaints and nervous affections. Also used as abortifacient.
• In Martinique, oil is used as stomachic.
• In the Yucatan, indigenous tribes have used epazote for intestinal parasites, asthma, chorea and other nervous afflictions.
• In Peru, plant soaks used topically for arthritis.
• In Cameroon, plant used to repel and kill insects. (42)
• In Brazil, plant used for treatment of worms (hookworms, round worms, and tapeworms), cough, asthma, bronchitis, and other upper respiratory ailments; for angina, to relieve intestinal gas, to promote sweating, and as general digestive aid. Indigenous tribes bathe with decoction of epazote to reduce fever. (44)
Dye: Whole plant yields a gold/green dye.
Pesticidal: Leaf decoction used as fumigant against mosquitoes and flies. Added to fertilizers to inhibit insect larvae. Also used to kill snails.
• Ethnoveterinary / Anhelmintic: In Latin America, plant is used to treat worms in livestock.

Caution / Toxicity
- The essential oil in the seed and flowering plant is highly toxic. It can cause dizziness, vomiting, salivation, increased heart rate and respirations, convulsions and death. Inhalation is dangerous.
- Oil of chenopodium can cause skin reactions.
- The toxicity in animals vary from no adverse reactions to severe toxicity.
- Oil of chenopodium has caused death or adverse reactions at various doses: goats, 0.2 ml/kbw; sheep, 0.1 ml/kbw; cats, 0.2 ml/kbw; dogs o.2 ml/kbw (vomiting), rabbits, 0.5 ml. These doses are close to efficacious doses, so caution is advised in use of the oil in animals. (
Contains oxalic acid which is reduced by cooking. Should be used with caution in patients with gout, kidney stones, rheumatism.
- Acute and Subacute Toxicity Studies / Alkaloids / Flowers: Results suggest low to moderate toxicity. (see study below) (51)
- Interactions: Medications that increase sensitivity to sunlight (photosensitizing drugs) interacts with chenopodium oil and increase the risk of sunburn, blistering or rashes on skin exposed to sunlight. Drugs that may cause photosensitivity include amitryptiline, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, etc. (34)

- See studies below: (3) (60)

Genotoxic: Study evaluated the genetic damage induced by decoction and infusion of the plant assayed in different concentrations (1, 10, 100, 1000 µg/ml) by addition of the extract to human lymphocyte cell cultures. Endpoints evaluated were chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), cell proliferation kinetics (CPK) and mitotic indexes (MI). Results suggested a possible genotoxic effect of both preparations, probably due to different active principles. (3) (see study below: 60)
Antitumor: Study on Swiss mice concluded that Chenopodium ambrosioides has potent anti-tumoral effect attributed to its anti-oxidant properties. (4)
Anthelmintic: Although the study did not reduce the number of nematode adults or eggs on short-term treatment, in in-vitro testing, the oil reduced the viability of eggs and suggested a long-term strategy for reduction of parasite loads at a whole farm level.
Anthelmintic / Nematocidal Infusion: Study suggests the traditional use of CA infusions as vermifuge is safer than use of the herb's essential oil. (6)
Antimycotic: The essential oil from the leaves exhibited antimycotic activity against dermatophytes Trychophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum audouinii. Petroleum jelly oil showed to control established ringworm infection in guinea-pigs in preliminary trials. (7)
Trypanocidal: Study yielded four monoterpene hydroperoxides and ascaridole and exhibited trypanocidal activity against T cruzi. (8)
Anti-Leishmaniasis / Essential Oil: Study showed the essential oil of CA had potent inhibitory effect against promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis and presents a potential source of a drug to combat leishmaniasis.
Anti-Leishmaniasis: Study clearly demonstrated that the essential oil of CA could be an alternative for the development of a new drug against cutaneous leishmaniasis.
Analgesic / Antipyretic: Moroccan study of fresh leaf aqueous extract exhibited marked analgesic effect. Also, the extract produced a significant inhibition of yeast-induced pyrexia in rats, confirming its traditional use as a remedy for fever. (12)
Antidiabetic / Antipyretic: Study evaluated the hypoglycemic effect of C. ambrosioides in mice fed with high-fat diet before induction of diabetes in mice by streptozotocin (STZ). Animals treated with crude extract (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg) showed significant (p<0.05) hypoglycemic effect compared to control. (14)
Subchronic Toxicity Study: Study of subchronic treatment hydroalcoholic extract did not induce toxic alterations using the therapeutic dose. Results suggest that it is safe to use the product in the adequate dose. (15)
Reproductive Study / Safety: Study showed the aqueous extract did not have any maternal or fetal toxicity nor did it impair reproductive performance in rat dams. The extract administered during gestation to rats did not impair fertility or negatively impact gestation in rats.
Nematicidal: Study of a hexane and ethanolic extract of C. ambrosioides had a negative effect of embryos, hatching rate and larval survival of H. bakeri. Data show both extracts possess nematicidal activity justifying its use as worm medicine all over the world. (16)
Intralesional Treatment of Leishmaniasis: Study showed intralesional hydroalcoholic extract treatment was more efficient than oral HCE treatment probably through a direct leishmanicidal effect or improvement in the NO production by HCE-stimulated macrophages. Results could justify the topical use of CA leaves in the treatment of ulcers caused by leishmaniasis. (17)
Cytotoxicity / Antifungal: Extracts from C. ambrosioides showed high bioactivity against A. salina, which may be associated with cytotoxic activity against cancer cells. Extracts also showed activity against Candida krusei. (18)
Leaf Essential Oil / Cytotoxicity: Main constituents of leaf essential oil were ascaridole 51.12%, p-cymene 19.88%, neral 8.70%, and geraniol 7.55%. The essential oil showed moderate toxicity on in vitro cytotoxicity bioassays on human cell line HaCaT. (19)
Chronic Toxicity Study: An aqueous leaf extract given ad libitum for six weeks showed a decrease in weight of the treated animals whereas body weight of en-treated animals rose progressively. Phytochemicals yielded saponins, alkaloids, and volatile oils. Pathologic features included lung congestion, metaplastic changes in the stomach mucosal surface, and necroses of kidney tubules. (20)
Antibacterial / Roots: Study evaluated a crude methanolic extract of roots and fractions for antimicrobial activity against five bacterial and five fungal strains. The n-hexane fraction showed good to low activities against all bacterial strains and good activity against S. epidermis. (23)
Acute and Sub-Chronic Toxicity Studies / Leaves: Study evaluated the toxicity of aqueous extract of C. ambrosioides leaves in rats through oral gavage. Results showed slight hepatotoxic lesions in rats.     (24)
Digestive Effects / and Sub-Chronic Toxicity Studies / Leaves: Study of aqueous extract of leaves for digestive effects in goats showed good laxative properties and digestive benefits. It increases the digestibility of dry matter without degrading assimilation of nitrogenous matter. Results suggest a potential as functional food for the species. (25)
Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study evaluated a methanol extract of dried leaves of CA for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Results showed anti-inflammatory effect with dose related inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet induced granuloma in rats. It showed analgesic effect in the hot plate and formalin induced paw licking in rats. (26)
Anti-Helicobacter pylori: Chenopodium ambrosioides demonstrated effective bactericidal activity against Helicobacter pylori both in vitro and in vivo. The conclusion that the effect rivals triple therapy should be made prudently because of the small sample size. (27)
Hypotensive / Leaves: Study evaluated various extracts of leaves of C. ambrosioides for hypotensive effect in anesthetized normotensive rats. Intravenous administration of AqE of leaves induced a dose-dependent hypotension. Results suggest the presence of cholinomimetic-muscarinic component in the fractions. (28)
Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles: Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was achieved using an aqueous extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides as reducer and coating agent. Results suggest a promising potential to produce a large amount of small particles (<10 nm) in an ecofriendly protocol.(29)
Ascaridole / Caryophyllene Oxide / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the toxic mechanism of essential oil and its major pure ingredients viz., carvacrol, caryophyllene oxide and ascaridole. Results showed the toxicity of essential oil of CA is partially related to the inhibition of the respiratory chair preferably by caryophyllene oxide while the toxicity of the antiparasitic agent ascaridole is dependent on the availability of redox-active iron. (30)
Analgesic / CNS Depressant Effect of Homeopathic Formulations: Study of homeopathic formulations (3X, 6X, 12X, and 30X potencies) of CA were evaluated for analgesic and behavioral effects The homeopathic formulations showed analgesic effects and CNS depressant property. (31)
Larvicidal / Repellent / Essential Oil / Anopheles gambiae: Study of essential oil from seeds and leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides showed larvicidal and repellent effects against the larvae and adults of Anopheles gambiae s.s. mosquitoes. Results suggest a potential to explore in combating malaria through anti-vector intervention. (32)
Assessment of Anthelmintic Efficacy / Clinical Field Trials: Commercial preparations of chenopodium oil have been used and continues to be use with considerable success in mass treatment campaigns. However, therapeutic doses of up to 6000 mg/kg of powdered, dried plant had not significant anthelmintic effect on adults of Necator, Trichuris or Ascaris. Study suggests possible origins of subjective belief in the efficacy of C. ambrosioides may be the positive association of spontaneous, or peristalsis-induced passage of senescent worms immediately following a therapeutic episode. It is also possible, varieties of plants containing much more ascaridol were used. Results of controlled field studies did not sustain widely held traditional beliefs or the value of therapeutic practice regarding the plant. Findings further suggest all indigenous ethnomedical practices be objectively evaluated for efficacy and safety before adoption or promotion in health care programs. (33)
Prevention of Bone Loss: Study evaluated the effect of Chenopodium ambrosioides extract for preventing bone loss and bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats. Results showed effects of a hydroalcoholic extract on bone metabolism by changing blood proteins and enzymes and preventing bone loss and substitution of bone marrow cells by adipocytes in ovariectomized rats. (35)
Synergism of Essential Oil and Pentamidine Against Leishmania: Study showed the essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides exhibited synergism with pentamidine against promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis. (36)
• Antifungal / Essential Oil of Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the essential oil of aerial parts for antifungal activity. In vitro antifungal activity by well diffusion and broth microdilution methods showed concentration dependent activity with MIC from 0.25 go 2 mg/ml. The oil showed in-vivo antifungal activity on induced vaginal candidiasis in a rat model. (see constituents above) (37)
• Amoebicidal / Ascaridole / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the in-vitro and in-vivo antiamoebic activity of essential oil of Dysphania ambrosioides in an hamster model of amoebic liver abscess. Results showed an IC50 of 0.7 mg/mL against trophozoites. Oral administration of essential oil (8 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg) to hamster infected with Entamoeba histolytica reverted the infection. Ascaridole was identified as the main component of the essential oil. (38)
• Anticancer / Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 / Essential Oil: In-vitro study evaluated the C. ambrosioides essential oil for induction of cell death in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). MCF-7 cells were treated with essential oil and its two main components viz. 1-isopropyl-4-methylbenzene and α-terpinene. Results showed the EO and its two main components significantly inhibited the growth of MCF-7 cells. Effect was attributed to induction of oxidative damage. The two main components showed less effective anticancer activity than the essential oil. (39)
• Insecticide / Essential Oil / Aerial Parts: Distillation study evaluated aerial parts of Dysphanis ambrosioides and leaves of Clausena anista for essential oil and insecticidal activity. Essential oil of D. ambrosioides was characterized by monoterpene peroxide ascaridole (61.4%) and aromatic p-cymene (29.0%). The EO of DA was more toxic to adults of M. domestica with LD50 of 51.7 µg/;. The mixture of essential oils of DA and Clausena anisata showed significant synergistic effect against mosquito larvae with LC50 of 19.3 µg/l. (42)
• Drug Modulating Action / Antimicrobial / Essential Oil: Study of essential oil yielded α-terpinene as the major compound at 54.09%. The EO demonstrated antimicrobial activity with significant MIC against Staphylococcus aureus (256 µg/ml) and moderate activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (512 µg/ml).  Modulating effect on antibiotics was significant against P. aeruginosa potentiating the effect of all antibiotics tested. Combined effect with fluconazole was significant. (45)
• Antispasmodic / Myorelaxant / Antioxidant / Flowers: Study evaluated the antispasmodic, myorelaxant, and antioxidant effects of hydroethanolic extract of flowers and fractions. The extract showed significant myorelaxant effect (IC50 0.39 mg/mL), antispasmodic activity (IC50 4.34 mg/mL) . LC/MS-MS analysis showed the plant extract to be rich in flavonoids, to which the extract activity was attributed. (46)
• Schistosomicidal / Cytotoxic / Antibacterial / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the essential oil for antibacterial activity against a panel of cariogenic bacteria and invitro schistosomicidal effects on Schistosoma mansoni and its cytotoxicity to GM07492-A cells. GC and GC-MS study revealed major constituents of monoterpenes cis-piperitone oxide (35.2%), p-cymene (14.5%), isoascaridole (14.1%), and α-terpinene (11,6%), The extract exhibited weak activity against Streptococcus sobrinus and Enterococcus faecalis (MIC = 1000 µg/ml). The EO showed remarkable schistosommicidal activity in vitro, killing 100% of adult worm pairs within 24 and 72 h, respectively. Selectivity index showed the EO was 31.8 times more toxic to adult S. mansoni worms than GM07492-A cells. Results suggest promising schistosomidical potential of the essential oil. (47)
• Antinociceptive / Anti-Inflammatory / Wound Healing / Leaves and Stems: Study evaluated the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing effects of ethanol extract of stems and leaves of C. ambrosioides in animal models. The extract (5% per ear) was effective in reducing ear edema induced by croton oil by 78.09%, capsaicin by 70.85%, and arachidonic acid by 77.02%. At 500 mg/kg p.o. the extract significantly inhibited paw edema induced by Cg (carrageenan) by 40%, PGE by 51%, SP by 56%, and BK by 57%. Topical application of the extract on excision wounds significantly reduced the wound area compared to untreated controls. At 150-500 mg/kg, the extract did not showed any significant alterations in motor performance or body temperature. Results, along with inhibition of mediators (BK, NO, SP, PGE2 and TNF -α)  and enzymes (MPO and ADA) activity, validate the use of the plant for treatment of inflammatory conditions, pain, and wound healing processes. (48)
• Antiviral / Antimicrobial / Essential Oil: GC-MS and GC-FID analysis of essential oil identified 44 components, representing 88.95% of total hydrodistilled oil. Most abundant components were cis-ascaridole (60.33%), m-cymene  (22.17%), and α-terpinene (1.70%). The oil showed notable antiviral activity against  CV-B4 virus with IC5o 21.75 µg/mL.  It showed strong antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis strains, and antifungal activity against pathogenic strain Candida albicans. (50)
Acute and Subacute Toxicity Studies / Alkaloids / Flowers: Study evaluated the acute and subacute toxicity of D. ambrosioides hydroethanolic extract (DAHE), and its alkaloid composition. Chromatographic study yielded nine alkaloids, with N-formylnorgalanthamine being the most prevalent. Acute toxicity testing of 1-7 g/kg as single oral dose, showed an oral LD50 value of 5000 mg/kg. In subacute toxicity study using doses of 5, 50, and 500 mg/kg for 15 days, the 500 mg/kg dose significantly enhanced ALT, AST and urea, while liver and kidney histological exams revealed modest infiltration of hepatocyte trabeculae by inflammatory cells in the liver and slight alternation in the kidney architecture. Results suggest low to moderate toxicity. (see constituents above) (51)
Anticancer against Leukemia Cancer Cells / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the anticancer and antioxidant potential of Pasote leaf powder extract by MTT method on P388 leukemia cells. The pasote water extract showed anticancer potential with IC50 of 0.105 µg/mL. Antioxidant testing by DPPH method showed IC50 of 50.736 µg/mL. Results showed anticancer and antioxidant potential. (52)
Anxiolytic / Leaves: Study evaluated the anxiolytic effects of D. ambrosioides aqueous extracts and its mechanism of action. The extract increased percentage of entries into and percentage of time in open arms; reduced rearing, head dipping and percentage of time in close arms in elevated plus maze. It reduced rearing and defecation and increased crossing in open field. The anxiolytic activity was blocked by GABAa antagonists, complex receptors (N-methyl-ß-carboline-3-carboxamide, flumazenil or bicuculline) in elevated plus maze test. Activity of GABA-T activity was inhibited and brain GABA concentration was increased. Results suggest anxiolytic properties in mice that include action on benzodiazepine and/or GABA sites in the GABAa receptor complex or by modulation of brain GABA concentration in the CNS. (53) Study evaluated the anxiolytic activity of D. ambrosioides leaf extract orally in Swiss albino mice, using EPM (elevated plus maze), OFT (open field test), LDT (light and dark test), and HBT (hole board test). Diazepam was used as standard. D. ambrosioides was used in dosage concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/kg. The leaf extract showed mild anxiolytic activity. Treated mice showed notable (p<0.05) increase in all parameters compared to negative control. (55)
ZnO Nanoparticles / Antibacterial / Leaves: Study reports on the green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) using D. ambrosioides extract. The NPs were evaluated for antibacterial properties using disc diffusion assay.  Most of the bacterial strains tested were sensitive to the ZnO-NPs, with Prevotella intermedia the most sensitive. The antibacterial properties were similar to commercial ZnO-NPs used as reference. (54)
Inhibition of Migration and Invasion / Hepatocellular Carcinoma / Seeds: Study evaluated the possible mechanism for preventing or treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma using Mexican tea. GC-MS study of seed extract identified eight compounds with ascaridole (25.82%) showing highest content. Migration and invasion were significantly (p<0.05) inhibited. Transcription analysis suggests 2-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]heptan-3-one, cis-11-eicosenoic acid and 2-ethylcyclohexanone might be the active compounds. Results suggest the seed extracts inhibits invasion and migration of SMMC-7221 cells in hepatocellular carcinoma through the Wnt signaling pathway. (56)
Mosquitocidal / Culex quinquefasciatus / Essential Oil: Study of essential obtained by hydrodistillation and GC-MS identified major compounds of 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-2,3-dioxabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-ene (cis-ascaridole), 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl) benzene (р-cymene), and 1-isopropyl-4-methyl-1,3-cyclohexadiene (p-mentha-1,3-diene also known as α-terpinene). The EO and major fractions showed remarkable mosquitocidal activity against third instar larvae and adults of Culex quinquefasciatus. Mortality was time- and dose-dependent. LC50s after 24h treatment ranged between 6.2 - 20.1 µl/l and 5.1 - 13.9 µl/l against larvae and adults, respectively. Results suggest potential of EO and major fractions as natural mosquitocides against Cx quinquefasciatus. (57
Alleviation of Scopolamine-Induced Amnesia: Study evaluated the memory-enhancing activity of ethanolic extracts of D. ambrosioides on scopolamine-induced amnesia in experimental animals. Memory enhancement was evaluated using elevated plus maze, Morris water maze, and Barnes maze models. Two plant dosages, Dys100 and Dys200 were used. Dys100 and Dys200 exhibited memory-enhancing activity. Decrease in transfer latency in EPM, and decrease in both escape latency and path length, increase time spent in Morris water maze revealed the antiamnesic property of the extracts. The extracts showed significant decreases in escape latency and number of poke errors in the Barnes maze model. Results showed dose-dependent alleviation of scopolamine-induced amnesia. Further studies are required to understand the underlying mechanisms. (58)
Alleviation of Scopolamine-Induced Amnesia: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a lethal and aggressive breast cancer subtype, which is characterized by deficient expression of the three main receptors implicated in breast cancers, making it unresponsive to hormone therapy. Study evaluated the anticancer properties of 25 biologically active compounds domiciled in the plant. Molecular docking study identified several potent inhibitors of AKT1 and 2 isoforms from D. ambrosioides. Cynaroside and epicatechin gallate having binding energy of -9.9 and -10.2 kcal/mol for AKT1 and 2 respectively, demonstrated considerable drug-likeness than the reference drug, capivasertib, with AKT1 and 2 binding strengths of -9.5 and -8.4 kcal/mol.  The compounds could emerge as efficacious drug candidates in the treatment of TNBC. (59)
Vitamin C Protective Effect against Cyto-Genotoxicity Induced by D. ambrosioides: Despite its widespread use, there are reports of inadvertent intoxication linked with consumption of D. ambrosioides. Study evaluated the potential cytogenotoxic effects of D. ambrosioides leaf aqueous extract (DAAE) and the prospective protective role of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) through micronucleus test conducted on (1) Vicia faba root-tip meristem and (2) mouse bone marrow cells. The DAAE showed dose-dependent cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on both biological models. V. faba treated with DAAE showed significant increases in activities of SOD and CAT enzymes. DAAE treated mice showed significant elevations in serum biochemical parameters, and histological exam of liver and kidney showed hepatic degeneration, glomerular shrinkage, and distinct vacuolated tubular epithelial cells. Co-treatment with vitamin C showed significant protective effect against DAAE-induced cytogenotoxicity. Study underscores the importance of vitamin C as a protective agent against oxidative stress and cytogenotoxicity by DAAE and recommends its use in any DAAE-based preparation. (60)
Myorelaxant / α-Terpinene / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the myorelaxant effect of D. ambrosioides essential oil (EODa) and its major constituent α-terpinene on tracheal smooth muscle isolated from rats. The EO and α-terpinene induced myorelaxant effects on top of contractions induced by KCl, ACh, and 5-HT. Relaxation induced by the agents is via inhibition of L-type VGCC, inhibiting the inward Ca2+ current through the channels. Results suggest the EODa, due to efficacy on relaxation of respiratory tract, possess therapeutic potential as an antispasmodic agent for the respiratory tract. (61)
Modulation of Hind-Limb Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury / Seeds: Study evaluated the effect of seeds extract on left hindlimb IR injury in adult rats. Da aqueous extract is rich in 60 secondary metabolites, mainly phenolic acids and flavonoids. Pretreatment with Da extract ameliorated structural defects of both left kidney and left gastrocnemius muscle. The extract decreased  serum markers of both muscle and kidney damages. The Da extract attenuated oxidative stress by modulation of the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. The extract attenuated NLRP3 inflammasome by reducing key inflammatory cytokines, IL-ß and TNF-α.  Results suggest Da seeds have a protective effect on HLIRI, which may be attributed to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mechanisms. (62)


Updated March 2024 / January 2020 / August 2016


IMAGE SOURCE: Chenopodium ambrosioides L. / Robert H. Mohlenbrock @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA NRCS. 1992. Western wetland flora: Field office guide to plant species. West Region, Sacramento / AlterVISTA

IMAGE SOURCE: Chenopodium ambrosioides /USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. Vol. 2: 14. / AlterVISTA
IMAGE SOURCE: Chenopodiaceae / Chenopodium ambrosioides / Darstellung und Beschreibung sämtlicher in der Pharmacopoea Borusica aufgeführten offizinellen Gewächse by Otto Carl Berg & Carl Friedrich Schmidt. Leipzig, Arthur Felix, [1858-1863] / Meemelink
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Mexican tea / Dysphania ambrosioides / © J Richard Abbott / Some rights reserved / CC BY-NC / Click on image or link to go to source page / iNaturalist
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Mexican tea / Dysphania ambrosioides / © Kevin Thiele / Some rights reserved / CC BY-NC / Click on image or link to go to source page / iNaturalist

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Chenopodium ambrosioides / Synonyms / Tropicos
Chenopodium ambrosioides anthelminticum - (L.)Gray. Wormseed / Plants For A Future
In vitro genotoxic evaluation of the medicinal plant Chenopodium ambrosioides L. / A Gadano et al / J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Jun;81(1): pp 11-6 / DOI:10.1016/S0378-8741(01)00418-4
Ascitic and solid Ehrlich tumor inhibition by Chenopodium ambrosioides L. treatment / Life Sciences, 2006; 78(22): pp 2650-2653 / DOI:10.1016/j.lfs.2005.10.006
Chenopodium ambrosioides and its essential oil as treatments for Haemonchus contortus and mixed adult-nematode infections in goats / Small Ruminant Research Vol 44, Issue 3, June 2002, Pages 193-200 / doi:10.1016/S0921-4488(02)00047-0
Ascaridole-less infusions of Chenopodium ambrosioides contain a nematocide(s) that is(are) not toxic to mammalian smooth muscle / Journal of ethnopharmacology. 01/07/2004; 92(2-3):215-21. / DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2004.02.018
Antidermatophytic action of the essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides and an ointment prepared from it / N Kishore et al / PTR. Phytotherapy research / 1996, vol. 10, no5, pp. 453-455 / / DOI 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(199608)10:5<453::AID-PTR874>3.0.CO;2-A
Monoterpene Hydroperoxides with Trypanocidal Activity from Chenopodium ambrosioides / J. Nat. Prod., 2002, 65 (4), pp 509–512 / DOI: 10.1021/np010445g
Activity of the Essential Oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides Grown in Cuba against Leishmania amazonensis / Lianet Monzote et al / Chemotherapy 2006;52:130-136 (DOI: 10.1159/000092858)
EPAZOTE (Chenopodium ambrosioides) / Raintree Nutrition
Chenopodium ambrosioides / Medicinal Plants for Livestock / Cornell University • Dept of Animal Science
Evaluation of the Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Chenopodium ambrosioides L / A Hallal et al / ASIAN J. EXP. BIOL. SCI., VOL 1 (1) 2010: 189-192
Activity, toxicity and analysis of resistance of essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides after intraperitoneal, oral and intralesional administration in BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania amazonensis: a preliminary study / Monzote L et al / Biomed Pharmacother. 2007 Feb-Apr;61(2-3):148-53. Epub 2006 Dec 28.

Antidiabetic effect of Chenopodium ambrosioides / Mi-Jang song, Sun-Mee Lee, Dong-Ku Kim / Phytopharmacology 2011; 1(2): pp 12-15
Evaluation of the subchronic toxicity of oral treatment with Chenopodium ambrosioides in mice / Pereira WS, Ribeiro BP, Sousa AL et al / J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Feb 17;127(3):602-5. Epub 2009 Dec 22.
The in vitro effects of Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae) extracts on the parasitic nematode
Heligmosomoides bakeri (Nematoda, Heligmosomatidae)
/ Wabo Pone J, Yondo Jeannette, Fossi Tankoua Olivia et al / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy Vol. 3(4), pp. 56-62, May 2011
Efficacy of the intralesional treatment with Chenopodium ambrosioides in the murine infection by Leishmania amazonensis / Patricio FJ, Costa CG, Pereira PV et al / Laboratório de Imunofisiologia, Departamento de Patologia, UFMA, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde (CCBS), Campus do Bacanga, Av. dos Portugueses s/n, São Luís, MA, Brazil.
Biological activities of extracts from Chenopodium ambrosioides Lineu and Kielmeyera neglecta Saddi
Zulane L Sousa, Fernando F de Oliveira, Aline O da Conceição, Luiz Alberto M Silva, Maria H Rossi, Juliana da S Santos and João L Andrioli / Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 2012, 11:20 doi:10.1186/1476-0711-11-20
Chemical Composition and Cytotoxic Activity of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Essential Oil from Togo
/ Koffi Koba, Guyon Catherine, Christine Raynaud, Jean-Pierre Chaumont, Komla Sanda, Nicod Laurence / Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research > Vol 44, No 4 (2009)
Chronic toxicity of Chenopodium ambrosioides in rats / O.O. Amole and *M.C. Izegbu / Biomedical Research 2005; 16 (2): 111-113
Chenopodium ambrosioides (Epazote) / Common names / Zipcodezoo
Chenopodium ambrosioides / Medicinal Plants for Livestock / Cornell University Unit Signature
Antimicrobial studies of the crude extracts from the roots of Chenopodium ambrosioides Linn. / Hameed Shah*, Muhammad Nisar, Muhammad Suhail and Nafees Bacha / African Journal of Microbiology Research, Vol. 8(21), pp. 2099-2104, 21 May, 2014 / DOI: 10.5897/AJMR2013.5548
Acute and Sub-Chronic Toxicity of Aqueous Extracts of Chenopodium ambrosioides Leaves in Rats / Marcel Gianni C. da Silva et al / JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL FOOD 17(9):979-984 · SEPTEMBER 2014 / DOI: 10.1089/jmf.2013.0134
Preliminary study of the digestive effects of Chenopodium ambrosioides Linn. (Chenopodiaceae) leaves extracts in goats / Daga Dadjo Florian, Sabbas Attindehou*, Marcellin Cokou Takin, Armand Bienvenu Gbangboche, Aimé Gnancadja and Sahidou Salifou / Indian J. Pharm. Biol. Res., 2013;1(4):55-58
Studies on the Anti–Inflammatory and Analgesic Properties of Chenopodium Ambrosioides Leaf Extract in Rats / G.F. Ibironke and K.I. Ajiboye / International Journal of Pharmacology, 3: 111-115 (2007) / DOI: 10.3923/ijp.2007.111.115
Anti-Helicobacter pylori activities of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. in vitro and in vivo / Hui Ye, Yu Liu, Ning Li, Jing Yu, Hong Cheng, Jiang Li, Xue-Zhi Zhang / World J Gastroenterol 2015 April 14; 21(14): 4178-4183 / DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i14.4178
Hypotensive property of Chenopodium ambrosioides in anesthetized normotensive rats / Asmae Assaidi, Abdelkhaleq Legssyer, Abdelbasset Berrichi, Mohammed Aziz, Hassane Mekhfi, Mohammed Bnouham, Abderrahim Ziyyat / Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Vol 11, Issue 1, Feb 2014
Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Chenopodium ambrosioides / Luis M. Carrillo-López, Hilda A. Zavaleta-Mancera, Alfredo Vilchis-Nestor, R. Marcos Soto-Hernández, Jesús Arenas-Alatorre, Libia I. Trejo-Téllez, and Fernando Gómez-Merino / Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2014 (2014) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/951746
Toxicity of ascaridole from Chenopodium ambrosioides in mammalian mitochondria / Lars Gille*, Lianet Monzote, Werner Stamberg, Katrin Staniek / BMC Pharmacology 2010, 10(Suppl 1):A10
Preliminary studies on analgesic and behavioural activities of the homoeopathic formulations of Chenopodium ambrosioides in experimental animal models / E.N. Sundaram*, K.P. Singh, K. Pratap Reddy, P. Umamaheshwara Reddy, Ch. Raveendar, K.R.J. Nair, C. Nayak / Indian Journal of Research in Homoeopathy Vol. 4, No. 3, July-September 2010
Larvicidal and Repellent Potential of Chenopodium ambrosioides Linn Essential Oil against Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) / Jude D. Bigoga*, Petola A. Saahkem, Sali A. Ndindeng, Judith L. Ngondi, Maximilienne Nyegue, Julius E. Oben, and Rose G.F. Leke / The Open Entomology Journal, 2013, 7, 16-22
Studies on the traditional herbal anthelmintic Chenopodium ambrosioides L.: ethnopharmacological evaluation and clinical field trials. / Kliks MM. / Soc Sci Med. 1985;21(8):879-86.
Chenopodium oil: Interactions / WEBMd
Chenopodium ambrosioides L. extract prevents bone loss / Ciro Dantas Soares, Maria Goretti Freire de Carvalho, Rejane Andrade de Carvalho, Sérgio Rodrigo Pereira Trindade, Amália Cinthia Meneses do Rêgo, Irami Araújo-Filho, Márcia Martins Marques / Acta Cir. Bras. vol.30 no.12 São Paulo Dec. 2015 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-865020150120000004
Combined Effect of the Essential Oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides and Antileishmanial Drugs on Promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis / Lianet MONZOTE, Ana Margarita MONTALVO, Ramón SCULL, Migdalia MIRANDA & Juan ABREU / Rev. Inst. Med. trop. S. Paulo 49(4):257-260, July-August, 2007
Antifungal Properties of Chenopodium ambrosioides Essential Oil Against Candida Species / Marie Stéphanie Goka Chekem, Paul Keilah Lunga, Jean De Dieu Tamokou, Jules Roger Kuiat,*Pierre Tane, Gerard Vilarem, and  Muriel Cerny / Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2010 Sep; 3(9): 2900–2909. / doi:  10.3390/ph3092900
Amoebicidal Activity of Essential Oil of Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants in an Amoebic Liver Abscess Hamster Model / Manuel Enrique Ávila-Blanco, Martín Gerardo Rodríguez, José Luis Moreno Duque, Martin Muñoz-Ortega, and Javier Ventura-Juárez / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Vol 2014  (2014) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/930208
Anticancer Effects of Chenopodium ambrosiodes L. Essential Oil on Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cells In vitro / Wang Ya-Nan*, Wu Jia-Liang, Ma Dan-Wei, Li Jiao and Zhang Du-Yu / Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research October 2015; 14(10): 1813-1820 / http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v14i10.11
Two flavonol glycosides from Chenopodium ambrosioides / Jain N, Alam M S, Kamil M, Ilyas M, Niwa M, Sakae A /  Phytochemistry 1990 Vol.29 No.12 pp.3988-3991 / DOI :10.1016/0031-9422(90)85389-W
Phytochemical characterisation of an important medicinal plant, Chenopodium ambrosioides Linn. / Hameed Shah, Ashfag Ahmad Khan / Natural Product Research, 2017; 31(19) / https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2017.1299722
Clausena anisata and Dysphania ambrosioides essential oils: from ethno-medicine to modern uses as effective insecticides. / Pavela R, Maggi F, Lupidi G, Mbuntcha H et al /  Apr 2018; 25(11): pp 10493-10503. / DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-0267-9
Dysphania ambrosioides / KEW: Plants of the World Online
CHENOPODIUM AMBROSIOIDES: AN ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEW / SE Potawale, KP Luniya, RA Mantri, UK Metha, MD Waseem Sadiq, YD Vetal, R S Deshmukh / Pharmacologyonline, 2008; 2: pp 272-286
Chemical composition, antimicrobial, modulator and antioxidant activity of essential oil of Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants / Jose Weverton Almeida Bezerra, Adrielle Rodrigues Costa, Maria Audilene de Freitas, Felicidade Caroline Rodrigues et al / Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 2019; Vol 65: pp 58-64 / DOI: 10.1016/j.cimid.2019.04.010
Phytochemical Analysis, Antispasmodic, Myorelaxant, and Antioxidant Effect of Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin and Clemants Flower Hydroethanolic Extracts and Its Chloroform and Ethyl Acetate Fractions / Fahd Kandsi, Raffaele Conte, Mohamed Marghich, Nadia Gseyra et al / Molecules, 26(23) / DOI: 10.3390/molecules 26237300.
Chemical Composition, Antibacterial, Schistosomicidal, and Cytotoxic Activities of the Essential Oil of Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants (Chenopodiaceae) / Marina H Soares, Herbert J Dias, Tatiana M Vieira, Maria G M de Souza et al / CHEIMISTRY & BIODIVERSITY, 2017; 14(8): e1700149 /DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700149
From popular use to pharmacological validation: A study of the anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive and healing effects of Chenopodium ambrosioides extract / Liliane Trivellato Grassi, Angela Malheiros, Christiane Meyre-Silva, Marcia Maria de Souza et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2013; 149(1): pp 127-138 / DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.10.040
PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOUNDS FROM DYSPHANIA AMBROSOIDES LEAVES: A REVIEW OF BIOACTIVE CONSTITUENTS PRESENT IN THE PHYTOCOMPLEX / Rachel Melo Ribeiro, Mateus Balbino Barbosa de Carvalho, Ellen Caroline da Silva Penha et al / REVISTA Contemporanea, 2023; 3(7) / DOI: 10.56083/RCV3N7-117 / eISSN: 2447-0961
The Essential Oil of Tunisian Dysphania ambrosioides and its Antimicrobial and Antiviral Properties / Ridha El Mokni, Fadia S Youssef, Hbib Jmii, Abdelbeki Khmiri, Sihem Bouazzi, Ibrahim Jlassi et al / Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 2019; 22(1): pp 282-294 / DOI: 10.1080/0972060X.2019.1588171
Evaluation of Acute and Subacute Toxicity and LC-MS/MS Compositional Alkaloid Determination of the Hydroethanolic Extract of Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin and Clemants Flowers / Fahd Kandsi, Fatima Zahra Lafil, Amine Elbouzidi, Saliha Bouknana,Nadia Gseyra et al / Toxins, 2022; 14(7): 475 /
DOI: 10.3390/toxins14070475
Antioxidant and Anticancer Activity Tests of "Pasote" Leaf Water Extracts (Dysphania ambrosioides L.) by In Vitro Method in Leukemia Cancer Cells / D Pandiangan, P Y Lamlean, P F Maningkas, N Nainggolan, A J A Unitly / Journal of Physic: Conference Series 1463: 012020 / DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/1463/1/012020
BEHAVIOURAL AND NEUROCHEMICAL CHARACTERISATION OF THE ANXIOLYTIC PROPERTIES OF AN AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF DYSPHANIA AMBROSIOIDES (L.) MOSYAKIN AND CLEMANTS (CHENOPODIACEAE) IN EXPERIMENTAL MICE / Bigued, Germain Sotoing Taiwe, Jacqueline Stephanie Kamebni Njadounke, Elisabeth Ngo Bum et al / GSC Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2021; 14(3) / eISSN: 2581-3250 / DOI: 10.30574/gscbps.2021.14.3.0078
Green synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using a Dysphania ambrosioides extract. Structural characterization and antibacterial properties / Rafael Alvarez-Chimal, Victor Irahuen Garcia-Perez, Marco Antonio Alvarez-Perez, Jesus Angel Arenas-Alatorre / Materials Science and Engineering: C / 2021; Volume 118:
111540 / DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2020.111540
Assessment of the Anti-Anxiety Potential of the Plant Dysphania Ambrosioides in Mice / Rupshikha Malakar, Arundhati Medhi, Rajashri Bezbaruah, Raja Chakraborty, Ghanshyam Panigrihi /  Healthcare Research and Related Technologies, 2023 / DOI: 10.1007/978-981-99-4056-1_11 / pISSN: 978-981-99-4055-4 / eISSN: 978-981-99-4056-1
Possible Mechanism of Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants Seed Extract Suppresses the Migration and Invasion of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells SMMC-7721 / Jing Huang, Junmei Hao, Jiantao Nie, Yanan Wang et al / CHEMISTRY & BIODIVERSITY, 2023; 20(3): e20200768
Chemical profile, mosquitocidal, and biochemical effects of essential oil and major components of Dysphania ambrosioides against Culex quinquefasciatus Say / Abdulrhman A Almadiy / Environmental Science and Pollution, 2020; Volume 27: pp 41568-41576 / DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-10137-z
Ethanolic Extracts of Dysphania ambrosioides Alleviates Scopolamine-Induced Amnesia in Experimental Animals / Rajashri Bezbaruah, Chandana C Barua, Ghanshyam Panigrahi et al /  Phytomedicine and Alzheimer;s Diseasem 1st edition; 2020 / eBook ISBN: 9780429318429
Molecular docking appraisal of Dysphania ambrosioides phytochemicals as potential inhibitor of a key triple-negative breast cancer driver gene / Lateef O Anifowose, Oluwatomiwa K Paimo, Mohamed A Ghazy et al / In Silico Pharmacology,  2023; 11(15) / DOI: 10.1007/s40203-023-00152-6
In vivo protective effects of vitamin C against cyto-genotoxicity induced by Dysphania ambrosioidesaqueous extract / Laila El-Bouzidi, Ahmed Khadra, Souad Sellami, Hanane Rais et al / Open Chemistry / DOI: 10.1515/chem-2023-0207
Myorelaxant action of the Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants essential oil and its major constituent α-terpinene in isolated rat trachea / Luis Pereira-de-Morais, Andressa de Alencar Silva, Roseli Barbosa et al / Food Chemistry, 2020; Vol 325: 136923 / DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.126923
Mexican tea (Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants) seeds attenuate tourniquet-induced hind limb ischemia–reperfusion injury by modulating ROS and NLRP3 inflammasome pathways / Hassan Annaz, Shimaa Abdelaal, Dalia A Mandour, Ismail Mahdi, Mona F Mahmoud, Mansour Sobeh / Journal of Functional Foods, 2023; Vol 108: 105712 / DOI: 10.1016/j.jff.2023.105712

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
                                          New plant names needed
The compilation now numbers over 1,300 medicinal plants. While I believe there are hundreds more that can be added to the collection, they are becoming more difficult to find. If you have a plant to suggest for inclusion, native or introduced, please email the info: scientific name (most helpful), local plant name (if known), any known folkloric medicinal use, and, if possible, a photo. Your help will be greatly appreciated.

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