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Family Asteraceae
Anjenjo
Crossostephium chinense (A.Gray ex L.) Makino
CHINESE WORMWOOD

Xiang ju

Scientific names  Common names 
Artemisia chinensis L. Ajenjo (Span., Tag.)
Chrysanthemum artemisioides (Less.) Kitam. Anjenjo (Tag.)
Crossostephium artemisioides Less. ex Cham. & Schltr. Anghingho (Tag.)
Crossostephium chinense (A.Gray ex L.) Makino Xiang ju (Chin.)
Tanacetum chinense A. Gray Chinese wormwood (Engl.)
  Silver fragrant weed (Engl.)
Crossostephium chinense (A.Gray ex L.) Makino is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Yu fu rong, Qian nian ai, Qi ai, Hai fu rong, Fu rong ju.
JAPANESE: Moku-byakko
SPANISH: Ajenjo.
THAI: Dton ae nang

Botany
Anjenjo is a low, erect or spreading, branching perennial under-shrub, growing to 50 centimeters high. Leaves are alternate, crowded toward the ends of the branches, narrowly obovate-cuneate, 2 to 3 centimeters long, densely and softly covered with short, grayish-white hairs; the base long and narrow, the apex prominently 3- to 5-toothed or lobed, and the lobes are ovate to narrowly oblong. Flowering heads are borne in the upper axils of the leaves, peduncled from the terminal leafy racemes, somewhat rounded, about 4 to 5 millimeters in diameter.

Distribution
- In open slopes, near the sea.
- Ornamental cultivation.
- Probably introduced to the Philippines in the early Spanish times.
- Native to China.

Constituents
- Whole herbs yielded scopoletin (1), scopolin (2), tanacetin (3), quercetagetin-3,6,7-trimethylether (4) and 5-O-methyl-myo-inositol (5).
- Extracts of dried whole plants yielded tricetin 3′,4′,5′-trimethylether (1), scopoletin (2), tanacetin, hispidulin (3), apometzgerin (4), chrysoeriol (5), quercetagetin 3,6,7-trimethylether (6), selagin (7), scopolin (8), and quercetagetin-3,6-dimethylether (9).

Properties
- Leaves and tops considered carminative and emmenagogue.
- Studies have suggested antioxidant, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and hepatoprotective properties.

Parts used
Leaves, tops, stems.

Uses
Folkloric
- In the Philippines, not well known for its folkloric medicinal use.
- In the some parts of rural Quezon, used for hepatitis and arthritis.
- Infused leaves and tops are carminative and emmenagogue.
- Leaves and stems used in making moxa (burning herbs).
- In Taiwan, a folkloric medicine for common colds, rheumatoid arthritis, hepatitis, bladder and kidney stones, prostate problems, gastritis.
- In China, leaves and stems used in making moxa. Also used for diabetes.

Studies
Antioxidant / Antiproliferative: Both water and methanol extract showed ability to dose-dependently scavenge free radicals. The water extract showed higher antioxidant and antiproliferative activities than the methanol extract. Study showed the water extract of Crossostephium chinensis might be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants and as anti-tumor agent. (1)
Chemical Constituents: Study isolated eight compounds from the whole plant of C chinense: taraxerol, alpha-amyrin acetate, beta-amyrin acetate, beta-sitosterol, 3-beta-acetoxy-12ursen-11-one, uracil and 5-O-methyl-myo-inositol. Six were isolated for the first time. (2)
Insulin Secretion Effects: Chemical constituents isolated from the whole herb were tested on its effects on insulin secretion in rat islets. Quercetagetin-3,6,7-trimethylether and 5-O-methyl-myo-inositol showed to enhance rat islet insulin secretion while scopletin suppressed rat islet insulin secretion. (3)
Sesquiterpenes / Coumarins: Study of ethanolic extract yielded crossostephin and coumarin, biscopoletin, with four other known compounds, artesin, tanacetin, scopoletin and scopolin. (4)
Membrane Transport of Flavonoids: Study yielded six flavonoids: selagin, apometzgerin, tricetin-3',4',5'-trimethylether, quercetagetin-3,6,7-trimethylether, hispidulin and quercetagetin. Results showed a structure-permeation relationship and role of MRPs in mediating efflux of flavonoids. Experimental results suggest pharmacological applications of the C. chinense flavonoids. (6)
Sequoyitol / Anti-diabetic: Study in STZ-induced diabetic mice showed sequoyitol (5-O-methyl-myo-inositol) treatments decreased hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance by increasing both insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion.. Sequoyitol directly targets hepatocytes, adipocytes, and ß-cells. (7)
Scopoletin / Anti-Inflammatory: Study of scopoletin (6-methoxy-7-hydroxycoumarin)) in mice showed anti-inflammatory effects probably related to a decrease in the level of MDA (malondialdehyde) via increased activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx in the edema paw and effects on the production of NO, TNF-a, and PGE2. (8)
Alpha-Glusosidase Inhibition/ Anti-Inflammatory: Extracts of dried whole plants yielded compounds that showed inhibitory activity against alpha-glucosidase suggesting a potential use for the treatment of diabetes in humans. (9)
Hepatoprotective: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective potential of CC water extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in preventive and curative rat models. Results showed protection against acute liver damage through its radical scavenging ability. It also inhibited the expression of MMP-9 protein, indicating MMP-9 role in CCl4-induced chronic liver damage in rats. Scopoletin may be an important compound in CCW. (10)
Sequoyitol Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy: Sequoyitol has been shown to decrease blood glucose, improve glucose tolerance and enhance insulin signaling in ob/ob mice. Study evaluated the effect of sequoyitol o diabetic nephropathy in rats with diabetes induced by a high-fat diet and low dose streptozotocin. Results showed sequotiyol ameliorates progression of diabetic nephropathy through its glucose lowering effects, antioxidant activity, and regulation of TGF-ß1 expression. (11)
Potential for Treatment of Tophaceous Gout / Osteoclast Inhibition: Study investigated the effects of CC extract on the formation of RANKL-activating osteoclasts from RAW264.7 macrophages cells and from PBMCs in patients with tophaceous gout. Results suggest CC extract has the potential to treat gouty erosions through inhibiting differentiation, formation, and bone resorptive ability of osteoclasts. (13)

Availability
Wild-crafted

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update April 2016

Photos ©Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Crossostephium chinensis (L.) Makino
/ Tien-Ning Chang et al / American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Vol 37, No 4, pp 797-814
(2)

Studies on chemical constituents from whole plants of Crossostephium chinense / Yang X W et al / Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2008 Apr;33(8):905-8.
(3)
Effects of chemical constituents of Crossostephium chinense on insulin secretion in rat islets in vitro / Zou L et al /Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2009 Jun;34(11):1401-5
(4)
Novel sesquiterpene and coumarin constituents from the whole herbs of Crossostephium chinense / Qi Wu et al / Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, Volume 11, Issue 1 January 2009 , pages 85 - 90 / DOI: 10.1080/10286020802435703

(5)
Crossostephium chinense (L.) Makino / Catalogue of Life, China
(6)
The membrane transport of flavonoids from Crossostephium chinense across the Caco-2 monolayer /
Wang Y, Wu Q, Yang XW, Yang X, Wang K. / Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2011 Jan;32(1):16-24. doi: 10.1002/bdd.735. Epub 2010 Dec 7.
(7)
Herbal Constituent Sequoyitol Improves Hyperglycemia and Glucose Intolerance by Targeting Hepatocytes, Adipocytes, and β cells / Hong Shen, Mengle Shao, Kae Won Cho, Suqing Wang, Zheng Chen, Liang Sheng, Ting Wang, Yong Liu, and Liangyou Rui / American Journ of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism
(8)
Ameliorative Effects of Scopoletin from Crossostephium chinensis against Inflammation Pain and Its Mechanisms in Mice / Tien-Ning Chang, Jeng-Shyan Deng, Yi-Chih Chang, Chao-Ying et al / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2012 (2012) / doi:10.1155/2012/595603
(9)
Bioactivity guided isolation of alpha-glucosidase inhibitor from whole herbs of Crossostephium chinense
/ Wu Qi; Yang XiuWei; Zou Lei; Fu DeXian / China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica 2009 Vol. 34 No. 17 pp. 2206-2211
(10)
Hepatoprotective Effect of Crossostephium chinensis (L.) Makino in Rats / Tien-Ning Chang, Yu-Ling Ho, Yuan-Shiun Chang et al / American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Vol 39, No 3, 503-521, 2011
(11)
Sequoyitol ameliorates diabetic nephropathy in diabetic rats induced with a high-fat diet and a low dose of streptozotocin / Xian-Wei Li,* Yan Liu,* Wei Hao, Jie-Ren Yang / Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 2014, 92(5): 405-417, 10.1139/cjpp-2013-0307
(12)
Crossostephium chinense (A.Gray ex L.) Makino / Synonyms / The Plant List
(13)
Inhibitory effect of Crossostephium chinense extract on RANKL-activating osteoclastogenesis in patients with tophaceous gout / Shih-Wei Wang, Han-Chun Kuo, Hsia-Fen Hsu & Jer-Yiing Houng / Bone Abstracts (2014) 3 PP167 / DOI:10.1530/boneabs.3.PP167

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