- Cordia is a genus of flowering plants in the borage family, Boraginaceae, containing about 300 species of shrubs and trees found worldwide, mostly in warmer regions.
The genus name Cordia honors German botanist and pharmacist Valerius Cordus (1515-1544). The specific epithet dichotoma means 'divisions in pairs'.
Anonang is a tree growing to
a height of 5 to 10 meters, deciduous and smooth or nearly so. Leaves
are alternate, ovate to oblong-ovate or elliptic-ovate, 6 to 15 centimeters long,
with entire or somewhat undulate margins, with a pointed tip and rounded
or heart-shaped base. Flowers are stalkless, white or yellowish-white,
about 7 millimeters long and borne in lax inflorescences 5 to 10 centimeters long. The
calyx is ovoid. Corolla tube is no longer than the calyx, with spreading
and reflexed lobes. Throat of the corolla and stamens are hairy. Fruit
is a drupe, yellowish white or pinkish, ovoid, 10 to 13 millimeters long with
a rather scanty pulp and a hard stone. The persistent calyx in the fruit
is broadly funnel-shaped, enlarged and about 8 millimeters in diameter.
- Native to the Philippines.
Throughout the Philippines in most islands and provinces, usually common in secondary forests and thickets, at low and medium altitudes.
- Also native to Andaman Is., Assam, Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, Himalaya, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Northern Territory, Pakistan, Queensland, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vanuatu, Vietnam. (22)
- Bark contains a large
amount of tannic acid.
- Fruit yields saponins, amino acids, flavonoids, sugar, gum, proteins, palmitic, stearic, linoleic acids, oleic, arachidic, behenic acids.
- Bark contains a principle similar to "cathartin."
- Phytochemical screening of leaves and fruits yielded pyrrolizidine alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, terpenes, and sterols.
- Fruit pulp extract yielded flavonoid, alkaloid, glycosides.
- Study of twigs and leaves yielded five compounds viz., β- sitosteryl-3β-glucopyranoside-6'-O-palmitate (1), nervonyl 4-hydroxy-trans-cinnamate ester (2), β-sitosterol (3), and chlorophyll a from the leaves (4) and 4 and 1,2-dilinoleoyl-3-linolenoylglycerol (5) from the twigs. (24)
- Study of C. dichotoma leaves showed total ash value (2.5%) and maximum amount of extractive value in methanol and petroleum ether solvents. Methanol extract of leaves yielded phenol (1.188 ± 0.08 mg/g), tannins (0.721 ± 0.02 mg/g) and phytosterols (1.787 ± 0.09) mg/g). GC-MS analysis showed prevailing compounds are 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (49.81%), tris(2,4-di-tert-butyphenyl)phiosphate (6.80%) and octacosanal (4.80%). (36)
- Study of stem bark yielded 17 fatty acids. Major fatty acid methyl esters identified were 2-methyl pentane (18.28%), bis-isopropyl (20.79%), 1-nonene, 2-methyl (18.34%), cicloesana (12.47%), among others. (45)
- Qualitative exam of various extracts (petroleum ether,PE; solvent ether fraction, SE; ethyl acetate fraction, EA; Butanone fraction, Be; Butanol, Bl) of fruits yielded alkaloids (SE), carbohydrates (all), phytosterols (none), flavonoids (EA, Be, Bl), tannins (none), proteins and amino acids (all), saponins (PE, SE). (see study below) (57)
- Bark considered astringent and tonic.
- Fruit considered demulcent, expectorant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, diuretic, aphrodisiac and anthelmintic.
- Studies have shown anti-ulcer, wound healing, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antimicrobial, anti-implantation properties.
Leaves, fruit, seeds,
- In India,
the translucent pulp of the fruit is sweet and edible; sometimes, pickled.
- In Pakistan, ripe fruit
eaten raw, green, eaten as vegetable.
- The bark is moistened
an applied to boils and tumors to hasten ripening.
- Also used for headaches and stomachaches.
- Bark is used as antidyspeptic and as febrifuge.
- Powdered bark used for mouth ulcers.
- Infusion of bark used as gargle.
- The bark juice, mixed with coconut milk, is used to relieve colicky
- The Higaonon tribe of Rogongon, Iligan City, Mindanao drink a leaf decoction three times daily for treatment of tuberculosis. (44)
- Traditional healers in Laguna use leaf decoction for post-partum fever. (47)
- In Java and Bengal,
the bark is used as a tonic.
- In Java, the bark is used
for dysentery; and with pomegranate rind, used for fevers.
- The bark are rubbed on the teeth to strengthen them.
- Leaves used for ulcers and headaches.
- The highly mucilaginous fruit is used for coughs and ailments of the
chest, uterus and urethra. In large quantities, used as a laxative.
- In India traditionally used for ulcerative colitis, ulcers, and colic pain. (•) Fruits used for arthralgia. (49)
- In Bengal, fresh fruit
is used as laxative and pectoral.
- In Java, fruit used for
- In Punjab and Cashmere,
dried fruit used as expectorant.
- Kernels, powdered and mixed with oil, used for ringworm.
- In Pakistan, used as tonic
and refrigerant; for irritation of urinary passages, alleviation of
thirst and dry cough. Leaves used for treatment of asthma. (•) Eating of the fruit before meals, as needed, for treatment of masculine sexual weakness. (41)
- In Ayurveda, leaves and stem bark used for dyspepsia, fever, diarrhea and leprosy.
- In India, used by tribal women as abortifacient.
- In India, used traditionally for treatment of fever, ringworm, ulcers, prolapsed uterus/vagina, urinary passage afflictions, diseases of the lungs and spleen. (33)
- Rope: In the Philippines, rope is made from the bast.
- Glue: From the fruit, the white gelatinous substance is used as glue.
- Wrappers: Used for wrapping fish for cooking. In Burma, the leaves substitute
for cigar wrappers.
- Fuel: Tree is used as fuelwood. (26)
- Timber: Wood used for making agricultural implements. (26)
- Poison: Fuel extract used to suppress larval hatching of Meloidogyne incognita.
Antiulcer Activity: Study yielded flavonoids in all
three extracts of CD tested and showed significant anti-ulcer and cytoprotective
effects against gastric ulcer in rats. (1)
• Hepatoprotective :
Study of the methanolic extract of Cordia dichotoma studied its hepatoprotective
action in male Wistar rats with carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage. (2)
• Wound Healing / Fruit: Study of fruit extracts of C dichotoma showed significant wound healing activity on three different models, viz. excision, incision and dead space wound models on albino rats. (4)
• Anti-Inflammatory: Study of C. dichotoma seeds extract yielded alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, tannins and carbohydrates. Screening showed the ethanol extract and aqueous fraction of C. dichotoma possess acute anti-inflammatory activity. (5)
• Antioxidant: Study of methanolic extract of seeds and leaves of C. dichotoma showed positive antioxidant activity in a concentration dependent manner. The activity was more pronounced in leaves as compared to seeds. (6) Study evaluated various extracts of CD for antioxidant activity using DPPH testing. All extracts showed to have radical scavenging activity, with the methanol extract showing maximum antioxidant activity i.e. 66.99%. (20)
• Corrosion Inhibitor: Study investigated the corrosion inhibition of mild steel using C. dichotoma extracts. Results showed the alcoholic extracts to be a better corrosion inhibitor than toxic chemicals. (7).
• Antioxidant in Cerebral Reperfusion Injury: Study investigated the effect of C. dichotoma on acute cerebral reperfusion in rats. Pretreatment with methanol, chloroform, and aqueous extracts decreased MDA level, increased SOD, catalase, and glutathione levels, with a decrease in BBB penetration and infarct volume. Results suggest Cd may be useful in reducing neuronal damage in stroke patients. (8)
• Anthelmintic: Study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Cd on Eudrilus euginieae earthworms. Both extracts showed concentration dependent paralysis and death of worms, with the aqueous extract showing more significant activity. (9)
• Antidepressant / Leaves: Study of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves in behavioral animal models showed antidepressant activity. (10)
• Wound Healing / Fruits : Ethanol fruit extracts showed wound healing activity in three different models, viz. excision, incision, and dead space wound models on either sex of albino Wistar rats. (11)
• Effects on Long-term Hypoperfusion / Potential Benefit for Cerebrovascular Insufficiency: Study evaluated the effect of C. dichotoma on long-term cerebral hypoperfusion in rats. Long-term hypoperfusion caused a tendency for anxiety, listlessness, and depression, with histopathological changes in the forebrain. Treatment with Cd alleviated the behavioral, cognitive and histopathological changes, and suggests a benefit for treatment of cerebrovascular insufficiency. (14)
• Anti-Implantation: A methanolic extract of Cordia dichotoma showed significant anti-implantation activity. (15)
• Antimicrobial: Study investigated the antibacterial and antifungal potentials of C. dichotoma bark. Extracts showed remarkable inhibition zones of bacterial and fungal growth comparable with standard drugs. with the activity increasing with concentration. (16)
• Ulcerative Colitis Benefits / Antioxidant Potential / Bark: Extract fractions from dried bark powder were tested for effectiveness against ulcerative colitis. Results showed animals treated with the methanol extract fraction showed lower pathological scores and good healing. The fraction contained a high level of phenolics, and showed antioxidant potential in the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. (17)
• Degenerative Disorders / Leaves and Seeds: An etiologic factor in several degenerative disorders is free radical induced stress, which affect immunomodulatory response and recruit inflammatory cells. In an in-vitro model viz DPPD and hydrogen peroxide assays, a methanolic extract of seeds and leaves demonstrated positive antioxidant activity in a concentration-dependent manner, an activity more pronounced in the leaves. (18)
• Reversible Contraceptive Potential / Leaves: Study evaluated the ethno-contraceptive use of C. dichotoma leaves (LCD) in post-coital albino rats. (2-hydroxypropyl)-β-cyclodextrin (BCD) was used as bioavailability enhancer to form LCD-BCD complex, Leaves extract showed 100% anti-implantation activity. LCD-BCD complex exhibited 100% pregnancy interception and showed strong estrogenic potential with a luteal phase defect. Histological and biochemical estimations showed reversible contraceptive potential after withdrawal. (19)
• Analgesic / Antipyretic / Leaves: Study evaluated a leaf extract for analgesic (Eddy's hot plate), anti-inflammatory (carrageenan-induced paw edema) and antipyretic (yeast-induced pyrexia) activity. In all three tests, the 400 mg/kg methanolic extract showed highly significant results compared to standard drug. (21)
• Anthelmintic / Roots: Study Study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of Cordia dichotoma root extract against Indian earthworm, Pheretima posthuma. Results showed dose-dependent effects, affecting worm motility, viability, and mortality. (23)
• Anti-fertility / Leaves: Study evaluated a hydroalcoholic extract of C. dichotoma leave for antifertility activity using two experimental animal models i.e., anti-implantation and estrogenic/antiestrogenic activity in female rats. Extract was found safe up to a dose of 2,000 mg/kbw when administered orally. Results showed significant antifertiity activity with good anti-implantation activity (81.22%). It also showed significant (p<0.01) increase in uterine weight and significant change in biochemical parameters in immature rats. (25)
• Hypolipidemic / Antioxidant / Fruit Pulp: Study evaluated the potential hypolipidemic and antioxidant action of an aqueous extract from fruit pulp on dietary hyperlipidemic and healthy Wistar albino rat models. Treatment with extract decreased TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C, and TG to normal levels, together with increase in HDL levels. Treatment also improved the levels of antioxidant enzymes in hyperlipidemic rats. (27)
• Anti-Diabetic / Fruit Pulp: Study evaluated the in vivo hypoglycemic and antidiabetic potential of methanolic extract of fruits of Cordia dichotoma in glucose loaded and alloxan induced diabetic animals. In both models, CD reduced blood glucose level, exerting a significant hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effect. However, the potency was less than standard drug metformin. (28)
• Antioxidant / Cytoprotective/ Anti-Ulcer / Fruit: Study evaluated the antioxidant, cytoprotective, and antiulcer properties of fruit extracts of CD. Aqueous and methanolic extracts yielded 5.81 and 3.56 Tannic acid equivalents (TAE) mg/g, respectively. In antiulcer studies, the aqueous extract exhibited almost equal potential to omeprazole. Antioxidant potential was determined by reducing power assay. (29)
• Biosorption of Lead / Seed Powder: Study reports a method for the biosorption of Pb from aqueous solution as well as natural water samples by using biomass prepared from the seed powder of Cordia dichotoma. (30)
• Antibacterial / Antioxidant / Fruit Pulp: Study investigated various extracts of CD (leaves, stem, fruit peel and fruit pulp) for antibacterial and antioxidant activities. Fruit pulp showed the most significant antibacterial and antioxidant properties. The antibacterial activity was more effective against gram negative than gram positive organisms. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was susceptible to the fruit pulp extract. (31)
• Green Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel / Fruit: Study reported on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel using extracts of Cordia dichotoma in different acid media. Results showed the alcoholic extracts dry fruit, stems and leaves of C. dichotoma are better corrosion inhibitors than that of toxic chemicals. The fruit extract is more potent than leaves and stems. (32)
• Anticancer / Human Prostatic Carcinoma Cell Line / Leaves: Study evaluated the anticancer activity of a methanolic extract of C. dichotoma leaves against a human prostate carcinoma cell line, PC3. Flavonoid content was found to be 160 mg QE/g extract. IC50 in various assays such as DPPH, NO, peroxy radical, superoxide anion, hydroxy radical were 315.5, 476, 523, 197, 82 µg/ml, respectively. MECD exposure to PC3 cells significantly increased cell death (p<0.001) indicating an apoptotic cascade in a dose dependent manner. Results confirmed antioxidant property and prevention of carcinogenesis by reduction of oxidative stress. The anticancer activity is via PC3 cell death by induction of apoptosis mediated through excessive ROS generation. Flavonoids may be responsible for the activity via dual oxidant and pro-oxidant properties. (34)
• ß-Sitosterol / Bark: Study sought to identify the bioactivity principle from the bark of C. dichotoma. Phytochemical screening showed presence of a phytosterol and isolated ß-sitosterol. Studies have shown that phytosterols like ß-sitosterol acts to attenuate heart disease and high cholesterol. It may also boost the immune system and help prevent cancer, gallstones, hair loss, among others. (35)
• Antibacterial Against Urinary Tract Pathogens / Fruits: Study evaluated the antibacterial activity of C. dichotoma on selected urinary tract pathogens such as E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumonia, P. mirabilis. S. aureus, and P. vulgaris using disc diffusion techniques. Results showed a methanol extract exhibiting better antibacterial activity compared to others extracts. (37)
• Gastroprotective / Antiulcer / Ripe Flesh Fruit: Study evaluated the gastroprotective effect of ripe flesh fruits or C. dichotoma in aspirin-induced gastric ulcer model and pylorus-ligation model inn rats. Water and alcoholic extracts showed antiulcer activity, the former more effective than the latter compared to standard ranitidine. (38)
• Biologically Active Flavonoids / Antioxidant: Study isolated and identified three biologically active flavonoids, quercetin, apigenin, and kaempferol from hydolyzed methanolic extract of three indigenous medicinal Cordia species, i.e., Cordia dichotoma, C. rothi, and C. macleodii barks. The antioxidant compounds were screening through DPPH derivatization method. Cordia dichotoma yielded the highest
apigenin (0.28%), while C. rothi yielded highest quercetin (0.21%) and kaempferol (0.19%). (39)
• Film-Forming Potential / Transdermal Drug Delivery / Fruit Mucilage: Study evaluated the transdermal films of alfuzosin hydrochloride for controlled release and assessed the film forming ability of Cordia dichotoma fruit mucilage using alfuzosin as drug of choice. Study showed C. dichotoma fruit mucilage has good film forming ability alone and in combination with sodium alginate. (40)
• Antihyperlipidemia Mechanisms / Fruits: Study investigated the antioxidant capacity of aqueous extract of C. dichotoma fruits in-vitro and their effect on nutritional parameters in high-fat diet fed rats. Administration of C. dichotoma extract caused significant improvement in lipid metabolism of rats, along with reduced total body weight gai8n and total feed intake, and enhanced fresh and dry weight of fecal excretion The protective effect against hyperlipidemia may be attributed to reduced ability of the animal to ingest and absorb fat and cholesterol, and enhanced ability to dispose of it through fecal excretion. (42)
• Mechanical Properties of Dichotoma Based Natural Fiber/Epoxy Composite: Study reports on attempt on fabrication of composite using Cordia dichotoma fiber and epoxy resin through hand layup method. (43)
• Corrosion Inhibitor for Aluminum Alloy / Seeds: Study evaluated Cordia dichotoma as corrosion inhibitor for aluminum alloy in hydrochloric acid. Results of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters, along with equilibrium constant for absorption processes, showed the CdS performed well as inhibitor. The CdS presence effectively lowered the dissolution currents. (46)
• Fruit Mucilage for Sustained Release Matrix Tablets: Study evaluated the development of sustained release matrix tablets of glimepiride with C. dichotoma fruit mucilage and studied its functionality as a matrix forming agent for sustained release. Dissolution study showed that dried Cordia dichotoma fruit mucilage can be used as a matrix forming material for making sustained release tablets. (48)
• Apigenin for Ulcerative Colitis / Bark: In India, bark is traditionally used for treatment of colitis and colic pain. Column chromatography of methanol fraction of crude methanol extract of bark isolated apigenin. Apigenin (5 mg/kg p.o) showed significant healing and reduction in inflammatory enzymes when screened for UC. Apigenin may be responsible for the treatment of acetic acid induced ulcerative colitis. Results suggest potential as complementary or alternative treatment for UC. (50)
• Bioactive Antidiabetic Flavonoids / Stem Bark: A previous study reported the antidiabetic activity of methanolic bark extract. This study isolated two flavonoid molecules from the methanolic bark extract of C. dichotoma. The isolated flavonoids were identified as 3,5,7,3′,4′-tetrahydroxy-4-methoxyflavone-3-O-l-rhamnopyranoside and 5,7,3′-trihydroxy-4-methoxyflavone-7-O-l-rhamnopyranoside (quercitrin). Docking and ADMET studies revealed promising binding affinity of the flavonoid molecules for human lysosomal α-glucosidase and human pancreatic α-amulase with acceptable ADMET properties. Results suggest antidiabetic potential of the isolated flavonoids. (51)
• Herbal Gel for Mouth Ulcers / Guava and C. dichotoma Leaves: Study evaluated the formulation of an herbal gel for mouth ulcer treatment from dried Cordia dichotaoma leaves and guava leaves. The formulations showed antifungal activity against Aspargiliousaureus. The prepared gel showed good appearance, stability, low cost, and efficacy suitable for mouth ulcer treatment. (52)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Antibacterial, Anti-biofilm, Photo Catalytic
/ Fruit: Study reports on the green and eco-friendly photo-synthesized Cd-AgNPs using C. dichotoma fruits for capping and reduction. The synthesized Cd-AgNPs showed significant antibacterial activity against Gram-positive S. aureus and Gram-negative E. coli. The NPs exhibited more than 90% inhibition of biofilm activity formed by S. aureus and E. coli. On photocatalytic degradation, the NPs exhibited ∼85% degradation activity for crystal violet. Results suggest a novel biocidal agent against bacterial pathogens and a potent photo-catalytic agent. (53)
• Gastroprotective / Anti-Inflammatory / Antioxidant
/ Leaves: Study evaluated methanol extract of leaves for gastroprotective effect against indomethacin induced gastric ulceration and stress-induced gastric ulceration in Wistar rats. Extract treated rats showed significant and dose dependent decreased gastric volume, total acidity, and gastric mucosal damage, along with increased antioxidant enzymes like SOD and CAT, significantly decreased MDA levels, decreased TNF-α, IL-6, and increased IL-10 levels. Pretreatment showed significant gastroprotective effects attributed to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. (54)
• Anticancer / Human Cervical Cancer Cell Line
/ Leaves: Study evaluated the anticancer potential and apoptosis inducing effect of methanolic extract of C. dichotoma leaves against human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa). The extract with IC50 of 202 µg/mL inhibited in vitro proliferation of HeLa cancer cell line and induced apoptosis compared to standard tamoxifen with IC50 of 48 µg/mL. Total phenolic content was 176.5 mg GAE/g dried extract. (55)
• Antimycobacterial / Antimicrobial / Antioxidant / Roots: Study evaluated the antimicrobial, antimycobacterial, and antioxidant activities of C. dichotoma roots. P. vulgaris and K. pneumonia were most sensitive to ME and CF. CF showed best activity against M. tuberculosis with lowest MIC of 30 mg/ml and highest activity index of 0.85. Dose dependent antioxidant activity was observed with DPPH and H2O2 radical scavenging assays. (56)
• Hematological Effects / Fruits: Study evaluated the anti-anemic effect of petroleum ether, solvent ether, ethyl acetate, butanol, and butanon extracts of C. dichotoma fruits in albino rats, The EA, butanol, and butanon extract of fruits exhibited significant dose dependent rise in hemoglobin content and RBC count. WBC count increased only with higher doses (300mg) The higher doses (200 and 300 mg) reduced clotting and bleeding time. Results suggest extracts have significant anti-anemic effect and are hematologically non toxic. (see constituents above) (57)
• Anticancer Potential / Fruits: Study evaluated the in vitro anticancer potential of C. dichotoma bark, leaves, pulp and seed against 10 human cancer cell lines. The bark portion showed in vitro cytotoxicity against the A-549 human lung cancer cell line. There was induced chromatin condensation, confirmed cell death via ROS generation, and significantly decreased colony formation in A-549 cell line in a dose-dependent manner. HPLC and GCMS investigations indicated the presence of bioactive molecules such as gallic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, vanillic acid, palmitic acid, cis-vaccenic acid from the bark. Results suggest potential for a cancer chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic medication for patients with lung cancer. (58)
• Anti-Acetylcholinesterase / Antioxidant / Leaves: Alzheimer's disease presents with amyloid beta overproduction, aggregation of tau protein inside the cell, acetylcholine deficiency, and production of free radicals. Study evaluated the anti-acethylcholinesterase and antiodidant activity of C. dichotoma leaves extract. The EA extract showed highest gallic acid equivalent with 307.67 µg. The EA, methanol and aqueous extracts showed highest inhibition using DPPH radical scaenging assay. The EA showed highest ferric reducing power with 464.77 µg. EA, ME and AE exhibited anti-cholinesterase inhibitory activity with IC50 of 549.10, 453.80, and 664.50 mg/ml, respectively. (59)