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Family Moraceae

Artocarpus lacucha Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don
Ye bo luo mi

Scientific names Common names
Artocarpus cumingiana Trec. Anobion (Pamp.)
Artocarpus lacucha Buchanan-Hamilton ex D.Don Anobling (Tag.)
Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb. Anobung (Tag.)
Artocarpus ovatus Blanco Anubing (Tag., Bik., Bis.)
Artocarpus paloensis Elmer Anubling (Tag.)
Artocarpus refractus Becc. Bayuko (P. Bis.)
Ficus inconstantissima Miq. Buriuas (Tagb.)
Saccus cumingianus (Trec.) Kuntze Indang (Tag.)
Saccus lakoocha (Roxb.) Kuntze Kalauahan (Bon.)
Saccus mollis (Miq.) Kuntze Kamandag (Neg.)
  Kanabling (Bik.)
  Kanet (Tag.)
  Kanubling (Bik.)
  Koliung (Ting.)
  Kubi (Bis., Tag.)
  Obien (Ilk.)
  Tugap (Neg.)
  Ubien (Ilk., Ibn.)
  Monkey fruit (Engl.)
  Monkey jack (Engl.)
  Monkey jack tree (Engl.)
There are conflicting attributions of synonyms for scientific names of Artocarpus cumingiana.
Quisumbing's compilation lists A. cumingiana Trec. as a species endemic to the Philippines, with Artocapus ovata Blanco as synonym.
Catalogue of Life: 25th March 2016 (World Plants / Species 2000 / ITIS) lists Artocarpus cumingiana Trec. as a synonym of Artocarpus lacucha Buchanan-Hamilton ex D.Don (accepted name) with more than 20 other synonyms and a distribution that stretches from China (S-Yunnan), Taiwan (introduced), India, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar [Burma] (Chin, Mandalay, Taninthayi, Yangon), Andamans (South Andamans), Sikkim, Nepal, Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, ?Cambodia, Solomons, Sumatra, peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Sulawesi, Moluccas, Aru Isl., New Guinea, Philippines (widespread), Palawan. World Plants / Catalogue of Life
Artocarpus lacucha Buchanan-Hamilton ex D.Don is an accepted name World Plants / Catalogue of Life
The page is based on Artocarpus lacucha Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don as the accepted name, with the various scientific studies attributed to A. lakoocha considered by most compilations as a synonym of A. lacucha Buch.-Ham ex D.Don.

Other vernacular names (Artocarpus lakoocha)
ASSAMESE: Boho't, Dewa.
AYURVEDA: Lakuch, Kshudra panas, Granthiphala, Pitanaasha.
CHINESE: Ye bo luo mi.
HINDI: Dahua, Barhal, Beng, Dahu, Lakoocha, Lakuch, Lakuchi, Sans.
KANNADA: Lakucha, Otehuli.
MALAY: Tampang.
THAI: Ma-haad, Puag hadd.

The page is a revision of the earlier page on Anubing. which was based on information from Quisumbing's compilation which lists Artocarpus cumingiana as scientific name. The revision, with its expanded information, is based on the use Artocarpus lacucha Buch.-Ham as the accepted name. The studies are mostly attributed to Artocarpus lakoocha, a synonym of A. lacucha.

Anubing is a deciduous tree reaching a height of 30 meters and a diameter of about 100 centimeters. Leaves are oblong or subelliptic, 20 to 30 centimeters long, and 6 to 10 centimeters wide, hairy, pointed or slightly heart-shaped at the base. Petioles are 1 to 2 centimeters long. Male spikes are pear-shaped and 1 to 2 centimeters long. Female heads are rounded and nearly 2 centimeters in diameter. Fruit is about 10 centimeters long, irregularly rounded with the anthocarp extending into brownish, hairy appendages or tails, green when young, yellow to brown into maturity. Seeds are ellipsoid, 10 to 30 per fruit, and embedded in whitish, more or less gummy meat.

- Widespread in the Philippines; in forests at low and medium altitudes from northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao.
- Also found in China (S-Yunnan), Taiwan (introduced), India, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar [Burma] (Chin, Mandalay, Taninthayi, Yangon), Andamans (South Andamans), Sikkim, Nepal, Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, ?Cambodia, Solomons, Sumatra, peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Sulawesi, Moluccas, Aru Isl., and New Guinea.
World Plants / Catalogue of Life

- Qualitative tests showed the presence of protein and waxes, with the absence of carbohydrates and tannins.
- Studies on the heartwood of Artocarpus lacucha has yielded
oxyresveratrol (2,4,3',5'- tetrahydroxy-stilbene) as the major constituent.
- Study of A. lakoocha heartwood yielded foreign matter 0.04, acid-soluble ash 2.06, total ash 2.51, moisture 9.57, and oxyresveratrol 1.44%.
- Study of root bark of A. lakoocha Roxb. yielded three new prenylated 2-arylbenzofurans viz., artoakoochol, 4-hydroxyartolakoochol and cycloartolakoochol. (12)
- Study of mineral composition of pericarp yielded principal elements viz., potassium 13,500 ppm, magnesium 1545 ppm, phosphorus 1500 ppm, and calcium 950 ppm. Trace elements were iron 108.1 ppm, zinc 12.4 ppm, manganese 5.4 ppm and copper 2.7 ppm. (14)

- Studies have suggested anthelmintic, skin depigmenting, and anti-herpetic activity (attributed to
oxyresveratrol heartwood constituent).
- Seeds considered purgative, hemagglutinating.
- Studies have suggested antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antioxidant properties.

Parts utilized
Bark, seeds.

• Monkey jack fruit (Artocarpus lakoocha) is edible, with a sweet sour pulp.
• Different parts of the fruit and spike of make flowers used to prepare curries, pickles and sauces. (10)
• Bark is boiled and used for stomach aches.
• In Thailand, a dried aqueous extract from the heartwood used as anthelmintic, especially the treatment of taeniasis.
• Edible fruit pulp used as liver tonic.
• Seeds and milky latex used as purgative.
• Seeds and bark used for stomach and liver diseases.
• Bark applied externally to draw out purulent matter; used for boils, cracked skin and pimples. (9)
• In Thai medicine, used as anti-inflammatory and anti-aging agent.
Wood: Timber and wood used in making furniture, boats, cabinets. Also, ideal for heavy construction, poles, furniture and plywood with termite resistant capacities. (10)
Fodder: In Nepal, a preferred fodder tree. Leaves of A. lakoocha yields 16% crude protein, and one mature tree produces 60-200 kg fresh feedstuff per year. (10)

Antimicrobial / Bark:
Study evaluated the antibacterial activity of A. lakoocha Roxb. bark against different species of bacterial. A methanolic extract showed good activity against gram negative bacteria (Shigella sonneii, E. coli, B. pumilus, P. mirabilis, B. subtilis). (3)
Anti-Aging Activity / Phytooxyresveratrol: A. lakoocha extraction yielded phytooxyresveratrol (POV). POV exhibited antiaging activity and also showed high levels of phenolic content, radical scavenging activity, and anti-glycation activities. (4)
Antioxidant Activity / Phenolic Content / Bark: Study showed the methanolic extract of bark of A. lakoocha exhibited strong antioxidant activity on DPPH and Ferric Ion Reducing assays. The flavonoid content was 53.2 mg g-1 and phenolic content was 0.360 µg/ml. (5)
Antiglycation / Heartwood: Study of heartwood of Artocarpus lakoocha yielded 10% oxyresveratrol. The isolated oxyresveratrol showed strong antiglycation and antioxidant activities. The IC50 for antiglycation was 2.0—0.03 µg/ml (five times higher than aminoguanidine) and the IC50 for antioxidation were 0.1±0.01 mg/ml (DPPH) and o.43±0.03 mg/ml (TBARS), which were nearly twice as strong as those of resveratrol. (6)
Anticandidal and Antibiofilm Activity: Study investigated the anticandidal and antibiofilm activity of Artocarpus lakoocha extract against various candida. Results showed A. lakoocha extract acts as a potent antibiofilm agent with dual actions, preventing and eradicating the biofilm. The extract is a potential source of natural candidal agent, which may be useful for prevention or treatment or treatment of candidiasis. (7)
Antioxidant / Toxicity Study / Heartwood: Study showed antioxidant activity of 128.30 ± 0.01 ABTS, 55.86 ± 0.01 DPPH, and 463.49 ± 0.01 µmol H2O2 scavenging methods. Study suggests a high concentration of the extract might be toxic. (8) Also see: toxicity study (13)
Gold Nanoparticles / Fruit and Leaves: Study reports on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) synthesis using fresh leaves and fruit pulp of Artocarpus lakoocha and loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) leaves. Results suggest the green synthesis using botanical extracts is a cost-effective and non-toxic alternative to nanoparticle preparation. (11)
Toxicity Study: Study evaluated the toxicities of Puag Hadd in a rat model. The LD50 was noted to be 1,148 mg/200 gm body weight, which is 45.9 times the therapeutic dose. Study showed no pathologic change on viscera. Results suggest a drug of choice for the treatment of taeniasis, with a wide margin of safety when taken with cool water. (13)
Anticariogenic / Cytotoxicity / Pericarp: Study evaluated a pericarp extract against 12 isolates of streptococcus mutans recovered from dental caries patients. The extract showed inhibition of isolates. However, inhibition by antibiotic was higher than the extract. On Brine Shrimp Lethality bioassay, lethality was proportional to the concentration of the extract, with 100% mortality observed at 1000 µg/ml concentration. LC50 was found to be 452.49 µg/ml. (14)


Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Revised and Updated April 2016

Photo / Leaves © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: LINE DRAWING: Digitally modified image from Minor Products of Philippine Forests / Vol 2 / Will iam Brown and Arthur Fisher / Figure 23 / 1920
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph / The Archives of the Rare Fruit Council Australia / Non-Commercial Use / Lakoocha (Artocarpus lakoocha) / Photo © George Allen / click on photo to go to source page / The Archives of the Rare Fruit Council Australia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / File:Monkey Jack (Artocarpus lakoocha) 5.jpg / Lakoocha or Monkey Jack (Artocarpus lakoocha) / 7 June 2011 / Balaram Mahalder / Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. / click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Artocarpus lacucha Buchanan-Ham. ex D.Don / Synonyms / Catalogue of Life

PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDY OF ARTOCARPUS LAKOOCHA HEARTWOOD / Chanida Palanuvej, Somchai Issaravanich, Tanasorn Tunsaringkarn, Anusorn Rungsiyothin, Niran Vipunngeun, Nijsiri Ruangrungsi, Kittisak Likhitwitayawuid / J Health Res 2007, 21(4): 257-262
Preliminary Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial studies on Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb. / Pandey A, Bhatnagar SP. / Anc Sci Life. 2009 Apr;28(4):21-4.
Anti-Aging Activity and Non-Toxic Dose of Phytooxyresveratrol from Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb / Prasit Suwannalert*, Nasapon Povichit, Pranom Puchadapirom and Mutita Junking / Trop J Pharm Res, February2012;11 (1): 69
Antioxidant and Phenolic Content of the Bark of Artocarpus Lakoocha / Anima Pandey, S.P. Bhatnagar   /
Antiglycation and antioxidant activities of oxyresveratrol extracted from the heartwood of Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb. / Nasapon Povichit, Ampai Phrutivorapongkul, Maitree Suttajit and Pimporn Leelapornpisid* / Maejo Int. J. Sci. Technol. 2010, 4(03), 454-461
Anticandidal and antibiofilm activity of Artocarpus lakoocha extract / Sukunlaya Senapong, Jindaporn Puripattanavong, and Rawee Teanpaisan* / Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol. 36 (4), 451-457, Jul. - Aug. 2014
Antioxidant and toxicity activities of Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb. heartwood extract / Supawatchara Singhatong, Donrawee Leelarungrayub* and Chaiyavat Chaiyasut / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 4(10), pp. 947-953, 18 May, 2010 / DOI: 10.5897/JMPR10.133
Nutritional value and medicinal uses of Monkey Jack fruit (Artocarpus lakoocha) / Hossain M.F.*, Islam M.A., Akhtar S. and Numan S.M. / International Research Journal of Biological Sciences, Vol. 5(1), 60-63, January (2016)
Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using extracts of Artocarpus Lakoocha fruit and its leaves, and Eriobotrya Japonica leaves / Ankita Sharma, Naresh Dhiman, Bhanu P Singh and Arvind K Gathania / Materials Research Express, Volume 1, Number 2
New 2-Arylbenzofurans from the Root Bark of Artocarpus lakoocha / Boonchoo Sritularak, Kullasap Tantrakarnsakul, Kittisak Likhitwitayawuid,* and Vimolmas Lipipun / Molecules 2010, 15, 6548-6558; doi:10.3390/molecules15096548
Toxicity test of Puag Haad (Artocarpus lakoocha)
/ Nantaporn Nilvises, Rangsun Panyathanya, Walla Wamnutchinda / Bulletin of Department of Health Sciences, Vol.27 No.1 January - March 1985.
Elemental Composition, Anticariogenic, Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory and Cytotoxic Activity of Artocarpus Lakoocha Roxb Pericarp / Prashith Kekuda T R, Raghavendra H L*, Mallikarjun N1, Venugopal TM, Anil Kumar H S / Int. J. Drug Dev. & Res., Jan-March 2012, 4(1): 330-336
Sorting Artocarpus names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The Univers ity of Melbourne. Australia.
It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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