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Family Moraceae

Artocarpus ovatus Blanco

Scientific names Common names
Artocarpus acuminatissimus Merr. Anobion (Pamp.)
Artocarpus cumingianus Trecul Anobling (Tag.)
Artocarpus ovatus Blanco Anobung (Tag.)
Saccus cumingianus (Trecul) Kuntze Anubing (Tag., Bik., Bis.)
  Anubling (Tag.)
  Bayuko (P. Bis.)
  Buriuas (Tagb.)
  Indang (Tag.)
  Kalauahan (Bon.)
  Kamandag (Neg.)
  Kanabling (Bik.)
  Kanet (Tag.)
  Kanubling (Bik.)
  Koliung (Ting.)
  Kubi (Bis., Tag.)
  Kili-kili (S.L.Bis.)
  Kubi (Cagayan)
  Obien (Ilk.)
  Tugap (Neg.)
  Ubien (Ilk., Ibn.)
Artocarpus ovatus Blanco is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online
Quisumbing's compilation lists A. cumingiana Trec. as a species endemic to the Philippines, with Artocapus ovata Blanco as synonym.
Many of the local names are for Artocarpus cumingiana (syn. A. ovata Blanco) from Quisumbing's compilation.
Anubing is a common name shared by Artocarpus ovatus and A. rubrovenius.

Gen info
- Artocarpus is a genus of about 60 trees and shrubs of Southeast Asian and Pacific origin, belonging to the mulberry family, Moraceae.
- Etymology: The genus name Artocarpus derives from Greek words artos ("bread") and karpos ("fruit"). The name was coined by Johann Reinhold Forster and J. Georg Adam Forster; recorded in their book Characteres generum plantarum. (7)

Anubing is a deciduous tree reaching a height of 30 meters and a diameter of about 100 centimeters. Leaves are oblong or subelliptic, 20 to 30 centimeters long, and 6 to 10 centimeters wide, hairy, pointed or slightly heart-shaped at the base. Petioles are 1 to 2 centimeters long. Male spikes are pear-shaped and 1 to 2 centimeters long. Female heads are rounded and nearly 2 centimeters in diameter. Fruit is about 10 centimeters long, irregularly rounded with the anthocarp extending into brownish, hairy appendages or tails, green when young, yellow to brown into maturity. Seeds are ellipsoid, 10 to 30 per fruit, and embedded in whitish, more or less gummy meat.

Artocarpus ovatus is a medium-sized tree up to 30 m tall, bole up to 100(-125) cm in diameter. Leaves oblong to obovate-oblong or elliptical, base cordate to rounded, glabrous or pubescent on the main veins above, sparsely to densely pubescent on the veins below, with 11-20 pairs of secondary veins, stipules not amplexicaul. Male head obovoid, 10-15 mm across, on a (15-)20-40 mm long peduncle; styles in female head simple. Syncarp subglobose and shallowly lobed, up to 3 cm across, smooth, shortly pubescent. (2)

- Endemic in the Philippines.
- Widespread in forests at low and medium altitudes from northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao, up to 750 m altitude.

- Study of dichloromethane extract of leaves isolated
3β-friedelinol (1), squalene (2), polyprenol (3), triacylglycerols (4), and chlorophyll a (5). (see study below) (3)
- Study of dichloromethane extract of twigs yielded lupeol (1a), α- amyrin (1b), β-amyrin (1c), lupeol fatty acid ester (2a), α-amyrin fatty acid ester (2b), β-myrin fatty acid ester (2c), betulin (3a), 3β, 28-Dihydroxyolean-12-ene (3b), oleanolic acid (4), β-sitosterol (5), and chlorophyll a (6). (4)

- Studies have suggested
cholesterol lowering, antioxidant, radical scavenging properties.

Parts utilized
Bark, leaves.

• Fruit reported as edible, although some report the pulp as inedible.
• Seeds are edible, boiled or roasted.
• Bark used for stomach aches.
Wood: Used for purposes requiring strength and durability such as house posts, telegraph poles and bridges.
(2) Use for furniture making, light carpentry, interior joinery and paneling, boxes and crates, etc. In Malaysia, used for making high class coffins. (6)
Gum: Latex is a source of anubing gum. (2) The latex has potential for use as chewing gum base. (3)
Fodder: Fruit and leaves used as fodder.

Cholesterol-Lowering Activity / Acute Oral Toxicity Study / Leaves:
Study evaluated the cholesterol-lowering activity of A. ovatus ethanolic leaf extract in Sprague-Dawley rats. Using OECD-guidelines, the extract was found safe and non-toxic up to 2000 mg/kbw. The extract at doses of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg showed time dependent reduction of total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides (p<0.05), with improved HDL and high catalase enzyme levels and unremarkable degree of lipid peroxidation. (5)
Constituents / Air-Dried Leaves: Study of dichloromethane extract of leaves isolated 3β-friedelinol (1), squalene (2), polyprenol (3), triacylglycerols (4), and chlorophyll a (5). Although bioassays were not done, previous studies have reported biologic activities. Friedelinol (1) has shown antibacterial activity. Squalene (2) has showed suppression of colonic ACF formation and crypt multiplicity and chemopreventive activity against colon carcinogenesis. Polyprenols (3) have exhibited hepatoprotective effects. Triacylglycerols (4) have shown antimicrobial activity. Chlorophyll and it derivatives have been studied for wound healing, anti-inflammatory, and chemopreventive properties.  (3)
Antioxidant / Free Radical Scavenging Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated the free radical scavenging activities of A. ovatus ethanolic extracts of leaves. Phytochemical analysis yielded secondary metabolites such as flavonoids and polyphenols. In invitro antioxidant assays, the extract demonstrated significant DPPH (IC50 0.078 mg/mL) and nitric oxide (IC50 0.045 mg/ml) radical scavenging activities and hydrogen peroxide (IC50 0.098 mg/mL) scavenging effect. (8)
Latex: Study evaluated the physicochemical and mechanical properties of latex extract from five Artocarpus species viz., A. altilis, A. ovatus, A. blancoi, A. camansi, and A. heterophyllus. All were hydrophillic with low contact angle values. A. ovatus yielded highest resin content. A. ovatus showed highest value for Young's modulus of elasticity and highest adhesive shear strength with maximum force values. Among the five, A. ovatus and A. camansi exhibited high results on adhesive strength tests. (9)

- Wild-crafted.
- Fruit seeds in the cybermarket.

© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

June 2023

IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Moraceae - Artocarpus ovatus / Leaves and fruits / Copyright © 2015 by P B Pelser & J F Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL38851] / Image modified / Non-Commercial Use / click on image or link to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Moraceae - Artocarpus ovatus / Leaf / Copyright © 2015 by P B Pelser & J F Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL96682] / Image modified / Non-Commercial Use / click on image or link to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Illustration: Artocarpus ovata / Francisco Manuel Blanco (OSA) / Public domain / click on image or link to go to source page /  Useful Tropical Plants
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Artocarpus ovatus Blanco / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Artocarpus ovatus (PROSEA) / M S M Sosef / Pl@ntUse
Chemical constituents of Artocarpus ovatus Blanco / Consolacion Y. Ragasa , Jocelyn L. Caro and Chien-Chang Shen /  Der Pharma Chemica, 2015; 7(2): pp 178-182 / ISSN: 0975-413X
Triterpenes and Sterol from Artocarpus ovatus / Consolacion Y Ragasa, Jocelyn L Caro, Chien-chang Shen / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 2014; 4(10): pp 7-11 / ISSN: 2231-3354 /
DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2014.401002
Cholesterol-lowering activity of Artocarpus ovatus Blanco (Moraceae) ethanolic leaf extract in animal models / Joseph Mari B Querequincia, Mariana O Osi, Sandra C Sy / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2015; 7(3): pp 861-864 / ISSN: 0975-7384
Artocarpus ovatus / Ken Fern: Tropical Plants Database / Useful Tropical Plants
Artocarpus / Wikipedia
Phytochemical Analysis And Assessment Of The Free Radical Scavenging Activities Of The Extracts Of Artocarpus Ovatus Blanco (Moraceae) Leaves / Joseph Mari B Querequincia, Marina O Osi, Sandra C Sy / International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 2021; 10(4) / ISSN: 2277-8616
Pysico-chemical and mechanical characterization of lates from Artocarpus heterophyllus lam. (jackfruit) and four related artocarpus spp. /  Maria Rejane J Nepacina / Master Thesis, 2018: De La Salle University, Manila

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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