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Family Avicenniaceae
Avicennia officinalis Linn.

Scientific names Common names
Avicennia obovata Griff. Api-api (Tag.)
Avicennia oepata Buch.-Ham. Bungalon (Tag., Bik.)
Avicennia officinalis Linn. Miaapi (S. L. Bis.)
Halodendrum thouarsii Roem. & Schult. Piaapi (Tag.)
Racka ovata Roem. & Schult. Indian mangrove (Engl.)
Racka torrida J.F.Gmel. Smooth-barked grey mangrove (Engl.)
Avicennia officinalis L. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Bina, Baen.
GUJARATI: Baklananjhad, Cheriyan, Tavar, Tavariyan.
HINDI: Bina, Baen.
KANNDA: Ipati, Uppati.
MALAYALAM: Orei, Uri, Orayi.
SANSKRIT: Sagorodurga.
TAMIL: Madaipattai.
TELUGU: Madda, Nallamada.

Api-api is a shrub or small tree reaching a height of 8 meters, often flowering when less than 1 meter high. Bark is light gray to brown, smooth but with small cracks. Leaves are leathery, opposite, dark green above and pale and hairy below, oblong-ovate to elliptic, 5 to 10 centimeters long, 2.5 to 5 centimeters broad, usually rounded at the apex and narrow at the base. Flowers are small, without individual stalks, appearing in small heads on stiff, angular and flowering stalks, occurring two together in the axils of the upper leaves, or several at the end of the branch. There are 3 to 7 flowers in each head. Corolla is orange-yellow, about 5 millimeters long, corolla tube being very short and cylindrical, with four lobes, 5 millimeters in length, hairy without and nearly smooth within. Calyx has five lobes, 2 to 8 millimeters long, hairy on the margins; and the lower part of the back is hairy and the rest, smooth. Fruit is an ovoid capsule, 2.5 to 4 centimeters long and contains a single seed which completely fills the capsule. Like other mangroves, the tree has numerous, leafless, blind, erect, conical root-suckers or air-roots, about 8 to 20 centimeters high.

- In Quezon and Camarines Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro, Palawan, Samar, Negros and Mindanao, Along muddy seashores and tidal streams.
- Also occurs in India to southern China and Taiwan and through Malaya to New Guinea.

- Wood cortex yields a crystalline substance, lapachol.
- Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, triterpenes and tannins. Test yielded a triterpene, betulinic acid.
- Ethyl acetate extract of stem bark of A. officinalis yielded triterpenoids, betulinic acid, lupeol, and betulinaldehyde. (10)
- Phytochemical screening of ethanol extract of leaves yielded carbohydrates, reducing sugar, combined reducing sugar, glycosides, tannins, alkaloids, proteins, terpenoids, and flavonoids. (see study below) (14)

- Bark is astringent and diuretic.
- Considered an aphrodisiac, cicatrizant.
- Studies have suggested anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, antibacterial, antioxidant, anticancer, phytoremediative, antioxidant, antiarthritic, diuretic, immunomodulatory properties.

Parts used
Resin, seeds, bark.


- In the Celebes, seeds, soaked in water overnight and boiled, used as famine food.
- In Celebes and Java, fruit sometimes eaten by fishermen.
- Bitter fruits and seeds sometimes used as food. Eater after baking or steaming.
- Resin from the sapwood used locally for snake bites.
- Seeds boiled in water used as maturative poultices and cicatrizant of ulcers.
- Fruits plastered on boils and tumors.
- Used for leprosy and hepatitis.
- In Arabia, roots used as aphrodisiac.
- Unripe seeds used as poultice to hasten suppuration of boils and abscesses.
- In Madras, used for small pox.
- In Java, resin oozing from the bark used as contraceptive.
- Bark used as diuretic.
- In Indo-China, bark used for skin afflictions, especially scabies.
- In India, used for rheumatism, paralysis, asthma, snake-bites, skin disease and ulcers. Fruits are used as plaster for tumors.
- In Sundarban, India, warm juice extracted from the screen fruits of the Jat Baine tree used in the treatment of sores or blisters.
- Plant decoction with sugar and cumin used in dyspepsia with acid eructations.
- Fuel: Used for fuel in smoking fish, and as firewood.
- Wood: Used for cabinetry work and making rice mortars; used in building boats and houses.
- Tar: Yields a wood-tar.
- Dye: In India, bark used as dyeing agent. Bark and roots used for tanning.
- Washing: In Madras, the ashes from the wood used for washing clothes.
- Fodder: Branches are lopped and given to cattle as fodder. (15)

Anti-Ulcer / Gastroprotective / Leaves:
Study of the plant extract of leaves of AO showed it was able to decrease the acidity and increase the mucosal defense in the gastric areas, justifying its use as an antiulcerogenic agent. (1) Study evaluated the anti-ulcer potential of methanol leaf extracts of Avicennia officinalis by two different models: ethanol hydrochloric acid induced and modified pyloric ligation in Wistar albino rats. Results showed significant (p<0.01) antiulcer activity by ulcer inhibition and decrease of the ulcer score in both models. (11)
Antibacterial / Stems and Roots: Various extracts of stem and root of Avicennia officinalis were evaluated for antibacterial activity against E coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, K pneumonia, B subtilis, S aureus among others. Acetone extracts showed the best antibacterial activity. (2)
Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of crude methanolic extract of A. officinalis leaves on acute, subacute, and chronic rat paw edema models. Results showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity. Extract yielded a triterpene - betulinic acid - which may be responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity. (3)
Anticancer / Leaves: Study investigated the anticancer activity of methanolic leaves extract on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell lines in rodents. The extract reversed the hematological changes induced by cell lines. Results showed highly significant dose-dependent cytotoxic effect. (4)
Antioxidant / Radical Scavenging Effect / Leaves: Study of leaves extracts using in vitro assay systems showed antioxidative and free radical scavenging effect. (5)
Phytoremediation Potential: Study evaluated the absorption, accumulation, and partitioning of Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr and Cd in Avicennia officinalis. Metal accumulation in roots was comparable to adjacent sediments. Metal concentration was lower in the bark, and lowest in the leaves. Results showed A. officinalis tend to exclude non-essential metals and regulate the uptake of essential metals. (6)
Anti-Arthritic Activity / Free Radical Scavenging Effects: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of A. officinalis for lipid peroxidation inhibitory and anti-arthritic activities. Results showed free radical scavenging activity towards lipid peroxidation and DPPH radicals. AO also exhibited moderate anti-arthritic activity. The activities may be due to the total phenolic content. (7)
Diuretic / Neuropharmacologic Activities / Leaves: Study evaluated crude methanolic extract of leaves for diuretic and neuropharmacologic activities. Neuropharmacologic effects were evidenced by potentiation of pentobarbital induced sleeping time in mice and findings in open field test, hole cross test, and hole board test. Diuretic activity was evidenced by electrolyte loss ratio with Na+/K+ excretion ration of 1.52 and 1.33 at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. (13)
• Antioxidant / Antibacterial / Analgesic / Leaves: Study evaluated the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of Avicennia officinalis leaves. DPPH showed an IC50 of 160.92 µg/ml and total phenolic content of 208.57 mg GAE/100 g of dry powder. There was 18.75% and 51.88% (p<0.01) writhing inhibition at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kbw, respectively, in acetic-acid induced writhing model in Swiss albino mice. There was antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. typhi with MIC of 62.5 µg/ml and 125 µg/ml, respectively. (see constituents above) (14)
• Antidiabetic / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study of PE and aqueous extracts of leaves evaluated the antidiabetic activity activity by inhibition of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes α-amylase and a-glucosidase and antioxidant capacity by DPPH, superoxide and H2O2 scavenging activity. Results confirmed antidiabetic and radical scavenging effects of A. officinalis leaves extracts. (16)
• In-Vitro Immunomodulatory Effect / Leaves: Study evaluated the immunomodulatory activity of various extracts of powdered leaves Avicennia officinalis against autoimmune disease. Results showed the ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate extracts to have effective immunomodulatory effect via suppression of leucocytes and neutrophils. (17)


Updated February 2018 / September 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: From: Minor Products of Philippine Forests / Vol 1 / Philippine Mangrove Swamps / William Brown and Arthur Fisher / Plate XXXVII / Avicennia officinalis (Api-api) / 1920
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: /File:Avicennia officinalis Blanco1.73-cropped.jpg / Flora de Filipinas / 1880 - 1883 / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A) / Modifications by Carol Spears / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo / Fruits / File:Avicennia officinalis fruit.jpg / Vengolis / 2 August 2012 / Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license / click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Anti-Ulcer Effect of Avicennia officinalis Leaves in Albino Rats / P Thirunavukkarasu, T ramanathan et al / World Applied Sciences Journal, 9(1)' 55-58, 2010
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF STEM AND ROOT EXTRACTS OF Avicennia officinalis L / N Sharief Md and Uma Maheswara Rao V / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Applications ISSN 0976-2639. Vol 2, Issue 4, 2011, pp 231-236
Influence of Methanolic Extract of Avicennia officinalis leaves on Acute, Subacute and Chronic Inflammatory Models / Sumithra M, Janjanam Vijay kumar, Vidhya sagar Kancharana / International Journal of PharmTech Research, JPRIF, Vol. 3, No.2, pp 763-768, April-June 2011
Anticancer activity of Methanolic leaves extract of Avicennia officinalis on Ehrlich ascitis Carcinoma cell lines in Rodents / Sumithra M, Anbu J, Nithya S ,Ravichandiran V. / International Journal of PharmTech Research, JPRIF, Vol.3, No.3,pp 1290-1292, July-Sept 2011
The antioxidant and free radical scavenging effect of Avicennia officinalis / P. Thirunavukkarasu, T. Ramanathan, L. Ramkumar, R. Shanmugapriya and G. Renugadevi / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 5(19), pp. 4754-4758, 23 September, 2011
Heavy metal pollution and Phytoremediation potential of Avicennia officinalis L. in the southern coast of the Hoogly estuarine system / Debargha Chakraborty, Subhajit Bhar, Jayjit Majumdar, S C Santra / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES 05/2013; 3(6):2292-2303. / DOI:10.6088/ijes.2013030600045
In vitro Anti-lipid Peroxidation and Anti-arthritic Activities of Avicennia officinali
s / Anuya A. Rege, Parikshit R. Juvekar, Archana R. Juvekar / Journal of Natural Remedies, Volume 12, Issue 2, July 2012
Indian Mangrove / Indian common names / Flowers of India
Avicennia officinalis / Synonyms / The Plant List
Triterpenoids from the Stem Bark of Avicennia officinalis / Md. Enamul Haque, Hussain Uddin Shekhar, Akim Uddin Mohamad, Hafizur Rahman, AKM Mydul Islam and M. Sabir Hossain / Dhaka Univ. J. Pharm. Sci. 5(1-2): 53-57, 2006 (June-December)
Ulcer-protective effect of Avicennia officinalis L., A common mangrove plant / N. Aparna, Saumya Ranjan Pani, Suman Kumar Mekap, Nabin Kumar Dhal, Sabuj Sahoo*, Sagar Kumar Mishra / Pharmaceutical and Biological Evaluations 2014; vol. 1: 1-8.
CUSTOMARY USE OF MANGROVE TREE AS A FOLK MEDICINE AMONG THE SUNDARBAN RESOURCE COLLECTORS / TAPAN RAY / International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Literature, Vol. 2, Issue 4, Apr 2014, 43-48
Evaluation of Diuretic and Neuropharmacological Properties of the Methanolic Extract of Avicennia officinalis L. leaves from Bangladesh [2012] / Md. Hemayet Hossain, Md. Sariful Islam Howlader, Shubhra Kanti Dey, Arpona Hira, Arif Ahmed / AGRIS: INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR THE AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Medicinal Activity of Avicennia officinalis: Evaluation of Phytochemical and Pharmacological Properties /
Shamsunnahar Khushi, Md. Mahadhi Hasan, A.S.M. Monjur-Al-Hossain, Md. Lokman Hossain*, Samir Kumar Sadhu / Saudi Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 2, Issue 9; (Sep, 2016): pp 250-255 / DOI: 10.21276/sjmps.2016.2.9.5
Avicennia officinalis / James A Duke 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops
Evaluation of In Vitro Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Activities and Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Leaf Extracts of Avicennia officinalis  / Swagat Kumar Das, Dibyajyoti Samantaray and Hrudayanath Thatoi / Bioanal Biomed 9:173-176. / doi: 10.4172/1948-593X.1000174
In-Vitro Immunomodulatory Effect of Hydroalcoholic Leaves Extract of Avicennia officinalis / Sumithra M and Chitra V. / Biosci Biotech Res Asia 2017;14(3) / DOIhttp://dx.doi.org/10.13005/bbra/2549

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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