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Family Sapindaceae
Ganophyllum falcatum Blume

Scientific names Common names
Dictyoneura integerrima Radk.            Arangen (Philippines)
Ganophyllum falcatum Blume            Gogolingin (Pamp.)
  Lulibas (Philippines)
  Matang-ulang (Bataan)
  Panda-panda (Philippines)
  Pararan (Philippines)
  Saleng (Philippines)
  Tapuyay (Philippines)
  Daintree hickory (Engl.)
  Scaly ash (Engl.)
Ganophyllum falcatum Blume is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
INDONESIAN: Kayu mangir, Ki angir, Tapus.
SABAH: Panapok ayer.

Gen info
- Ganophyllum is a genus of flowering plants in the soapberry family, Sapindaceae.
- Etymology
The genus name Ganophyllum derives from Greek words ganos meaning 'beauty' and phyllon meaning leaf, alluding to the attractive leaf.
- The species was described by German-Dutch botanist Carl Ludwig Blume in 1851.

Ganophyllum falcatum is a large tree (up to 50 m high) and trunk can be up to 150 cm dbh with buttresses. Bark is grayish brown and usually shed in large flakes.
Foliage: Leaves are compound and each compound leaf usually 5 – 8 leaflets (sometimes 4 – 10 leaflets). Leaflets are about 3 - 9.5 cm long and 1.5 - 5 cm wide, and also slightly asymmetrical at the base. Flowers: Inflorescence (up to 20 cm long) comprises of small bisexual flowers (10 mm diameter). Sepals is 1.2 – 1.5 mm long, green and hairy inside.
Fruits: Fruit is tear-drop shaped (about 10 - 20 mm long and 6 - 13 mm wide) and matures red with persistent sepals.  (3)

- Native to the Philippines.
- Also native to
Andaman Is., Borneo, Jawa, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Northern Territory, Queensland, Solomon Is., Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam, Western Australia. (1)
- Scattered in rain forests at low altitudes, usually in well-drained locations. (2)

- Phytochemical analysis yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, sterols, tannins, and saponins. (see study below) (11)

- Study suggested vibriocidal, termiticidal, antibacterial, antioxidant properties.

Parts used
Bark, leaves.


-Fruits are edible; sweet.
- In India, bark used for treatment of snake bites. (7)
- Nicobarese tribe use paste of leaves for treatment of menstrual disorders, chest pain, and diarrhea. (8)
- Oil / Illuminant: Seeds are the source of "Arangan oil"; used as illuminant.
- Wood: Strong and durable; used for house construction and bridges. (4)

- Fiber: Study showed potential for pulp, paper, and construction use. (see study below) (9)

Vibriocidal Activity / Leaves:
Vibrio cholera is the causative agent of cholera, a life threatening diarrheal disease that cause large pandemics. In a study of crude leaf extracts of 18 ethnomedicinal plants used by Nicobarese tribe of Andaman for vibriocidal activity, seven exhibited vibriocidal activity. Ganophyllum falcatum showed second highest percentage inhibition with 78.88% with inhibition zone of 13.67 mm. (6)
Fiber Potential: Study evaluated the fiber morphology and derived values of arangen (Ganophyllum falcatum) stemwood and branchwood and variation between wood types. Based on fiber length and lumer diameter, arangen would be suitable for pulp and paper with a good beating process. However, the fibers might be stiff and difficult to collapse signifying less suitability for pulp and paper production  but with potential for building or construction purposes. (9)
Termiticidal: The wood of Ganophyllum falcatum has shown strong termite toxicity. The termicidal components can be removed from the wood by extraction with hot methanol. Highest toxicity was found in fraction A with peak G-9 on gas liquid chromatography. The compound responsible for termite toxicity did not belong to the common classes of extractives. (10)
Antimicrobial / Antioxidant: Study of methanol extract for antimicrobial by agar well diffusion method showed activity against E. coli (14.7) and IC50 of 149.5 µg/ml on antioxidant testing using DPPH method. (see constituents above) (11)


December 2023

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Sapindaceae : Ganophyllum falcatum / Fruiting tree / Copyright © 2012 by P.B. Pelser & J.F. Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL50616] / Non-Commercial Use  / click on image or link to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Sapindaceae : Ganophyllum falcatum / Fruits and leaves / © Australian National Botanic Gardens ANBG / click on image or link to go to source page / Useful Tropical Plants
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Sapindaceae : Ganophyllum falcatum / Fruits and leaves / © Donald Simpson / Non-commercial use / Image modified / click on image or link to go to source page / Territory Native Plants

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Ganophyllum falcatum / KEW: Plants of the World Online

Mangin / ITTO: Lesser Used Species
Ganophyllum falcatum / National Parks / FLORA & FAUNA WEB
Ganophyllum falcatum / Ken Fern: Tropical Plants Database / Useful Tropical Plants
A Dictionary of the Plant Names of the Philippine Islands / Elmer D Merrill, Botanist / 1903
Vibriocidal Activity of Selected Medicinal Plants Used by Nicobarese Tribe of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India / Manda Punnam Chander, Paluru Vijayachari / Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 2017; 5: pp 164-168 / DOI: 10.17265/2328-2150/2017.03.008
Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants used by ethnic communities of South India / Santhosh Kumar JU, Krishna Chaitanya MJ et al / Ethnobotany Research and Applications / DOI: 10.32859/era.4.1-112
Ethnomedicinal Knowledge among the Tribes of the Little Andaman Island, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India /  M Punnam Chander, Paluru Vijayachari / Pharmacogn. Mag., 2018; 14:  pp 488-493 /
DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_585_17
Fiber morphology of arangen (Ganophyllum falcatum Blume) stemwood and branchwood in San Gabriel, La Union, Philippines / Jayric F Villareal, Wyndell B de Guzman, Jay Mark G Cortado, Cindy E Poclis / Ecosystems and Development Journal, 2022; 12(2)
Termiticidal Extracts from the Wood ofGanophyllum falcatum Bl / Y Yazaki / Holzforschung, 1982; 36: pp 249-253
In vitro antimicrobial and anti-oxidant potentials ofselected medicinal plants used by the indigenoustribes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India / Bangladesh J Pharmacol, 2016; 11: pp 330-332 /
ISSN: 1991-0088 / DOI: 10.3329/bjp.v11i2.26771

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
                                          New plant names needed
The compilation now numbers over 1,300 medicinal plants. While I believe there are hundreds more that can be added to the collection, they are becoming more difficult to find. If you have a plant to suggest for inclusion, native or introduced, please email the info: scientific name (most helpful), local plant name (if known), any known folkloric medicinal use, and, if possible, a photo. Your help will be greatly appreciated.

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