HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT


Family Cuppressaceae
Arbor vitae
Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco
BIOTA
Ce bai

Scientific names Common names
Biota chengii (Borderes & Gaussen) Bord. & Gaus. Biota (Engl.)
Biota coraeana Siebold ex Gordon Chinese thuja (Engl.)
Biota dumosa Carriere Chinese arbor-vitae (Engl.)
Biota elegantissima Beissn. Oriental arbor-vitae (Engl.)
Biota ericoides Carriere Oriental thuja (Engl.)
Biota falcata Carriere Tree of life (Engl.)
Biota freneloides Gordon  
Biota funiculata Gordon  
Biota glauca Carriere  
Biota gracilifolia Knight  
Biota intermedia Gordon  
Biota japonica Siebold ex Gordon  
Biota orientalis (L.) Endl.  
Biota pyramidalis Carriere  
Biota semparaurescens Beissn  
Chamaecdyparis decussata Carriere  
Cupressus filiformis Beissn.  
Cupressus thuja O. Targ. Tozz.  
Platycladus chengii (Borderes & Gaussen) A.V.Bobrov  
Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco  
Platycladus stricta Spach  
Retinispora ericoides Zucc. ex Gordon  
Retinospora rigida Carriere  
Thuja acuta Moench  
Thuja antartica Gordon  
Thuja ericoides Carriere  
Thuja antartica Gordon  
Thuja intermedia Gordon  
Thuja orientalis L.  
Thuja stricta Gordon  
Widdringtonia glauca (Carriere) Carriere  
Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Xiang bai, Bian bai, Bian gui, Bai shu, Xiang shu, Xiang ke shu, Huang bai, Ce bai.
CZECH: Túje východní, Zeravec východní.
DUTCH: Oosterse levensboom.
FRENCH: Thuya d'Orient, Thuya de Chine.
GERMANY: Morgenländischer Lebensbaum, Orientalischer Lebensbaum.
HUNGARY: Keletfa.
ITALIAN: Albero della vita, Tuia orientale.
JAPANESE: Konotegashiwa.
KOREA: chuk paek namu.
PORTUGUESE: Biota-da-china.
RUSSIAN: Biota vostochnaya, Tuya vostochnaya.
SLOVAKIAN: Tuja východná.
SPANISH: Arbol de la vida, Arbol de la vida chino, Uya de la China.

Etymology
Name derives from Platycadus meaning "broad or flattened shoots" and orientalis referring to its native habitat, China. Arbor vitae is Latin for "tree of life."

Botany
Oriental arbor-vitae is a small, slow growing tree, growing to a height of 15 to 20 meters, the trunk about 0.5 meters in diameter, up to 2 meters in very old trees. Stems are multiple. Bark is thin, reddish brown and peeling in longitudinal strips. Branches are ascending, ramified in a vertical plane. Leaves are decussately opposite, scale-like, 2 millimeters long, tightly appressed. Male cones are terminal, 2 to 3 millimeters long; female cones are axillary, oblong, 20 to 25 millimeters by 10 to 18 millimeters, with fleshy scales. Seeds are ovoid, flattened, 5 to 7 by 3 to 4 millimeters, and wingless. (9)

It is similar to Thuja occidentalis in general appearance, but has upright cones and thickened scales.

Distribution
- Planted in gardens in the Philippines.
- Native to China.
- Widely naturalized from east Asia to Korea and Japan, south to northern India and west to northern Iran.

- Often planted as ornamental or as hedge plant.

Constituents
- Essential oil of leaves and fruits yielded a-pinene, sabinene, 3-carene, limonene, and cedrol as major components.
- Defatted ethanol extract of leaves and fruits were rich in flavonoids and tannins.
- Hydrodistilled essential oils of fresh fruits and leaves yielded 24 and 21 compounds respectively. Major components were a-pinene, a-phellandrene, a-terpinene, and camphene in fruit oil, and a-pinene, benzyl benzoate, caryophyllene and a-cedrol in leaf oil.
- Leaf extract yield pinusolide, a labdane-type diterpene, and pinusolidic acid.

- Flavonoid constituents are rutin, quercitrin, quercitrin, amentoflavone.
- Study on chemical composition of leaves and fruit oils yielded 23 constituents (97.8 %) with major constituents viz. α-pinene (35.2%, 50.7%), α-cedrol (14.6%, 6.9%) and Δ-3-carene (6.3%, 13.8%), respectively. (see study below) (10)
- Study of hydrodistilled essential oil of fresh leaves yielded 32 compounds representing 96.62% of total oil identified. The main constituents were IR-α-pinene (15.92%), α-caryophyllene (10.42%), trans-ß-ocimene (8.71%), limonene (8.25%), and patchoulane (7.46%). Oil was rich in monoterpene hydrocarbons (55.04%), followed by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (28.96%), among others. (23)
- Phytochemical screening of dried leaves yielded alkaloids, tannins, flavonoid, terpenoid, cardiac glycosides, sterols, and anthraquinones. (23)
- Hydrodistillation and GC/MS study of fresh leaves for essential oil yielded 22 compounds representing 94.0% of total oil. Major constituents were α-pinene (29.2%),
Δ-3-carene (20.1%), α-cedrol (9.8%), caryophyllene (7.5%), α-humulene (5.6%), limonene (5.4%), α-terpinolene (3.8%) and α-terpinyl acetate (3.5%). (see study below) (29)

Properties
- Traditionally considered diuretic, anticancer, anticonvulsant, stomachic, stomachic, antipyretic, analgesic, anthelmintic.
- In Chinese medicine, considered blood-cooling and hemostatic.

Parts used
Leaves, fruits, essential oils.

Uses

Folkloric
- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- In Reunion, used mainly as antirheumatic: cones crushed and soaked in alcohol for 2 to 3 days, and the extract rubbed on painful joints. Decoction of small branches used for varicose veins, hemorrhoids, and menopausal problems. Also used for fever and to treat gastric ulcers.
- Used to treat scurvy.
- In Mauritius, decoction of branches and leaves used for throat inflammation, fever, influenza.
- In traditional Chinese medicine, leaves used as stomachic, refrigerant, diuretic, tonic and antipyretic. Leaves used to treat coughs, excessive mucus secretion, chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis and asthma.
- In Indo-China, ground leaves used as emmenagogue and antitussive; seeds as tonic, sedative, tranquilizer, and aphrodisiac. Decoction of twigs used for dysentery, skin infections, and cough. (9)
- In East Asia, Thuja orientalis has been traditionally used for baldness and hair loss.
- In Iran, used for pain and inflammation.
- In Chinese traditional medicine, leaf extract used for antibacterial properties and for hair restoration. (28)
Others
- Fragrance: Used as fragrance in the manufacture of cosmetics and soaps.
- Timber:
Used for gateposts and furniture.
- Ritual:
Tree held in high mystical esteem in Chinese folklore; planted within tombs of ancient emperors; seeds placed in caskets. (14)


Studies
Essential Oil / Antimicrobial:
Study screened the essential oils of fresh fruits and branchlets with leaves of P. orientalis for bacteriostatic and fungistatic activities. Essential oil of leaves had no antimicrobial activity, while the essential oil from fruit showed modest and slightly antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis, C. albicans, E. coli, and S, aureus. Major constituents were a-pinene, sabinene, 3-carene, limonene, and cedrol. (3)
Essential Oil / Insecticidal: Study evaluated the essential oil of leaves and fruits from oriental arborvitae against adults of cowpea weevil (C. maculatus), rice weevil (S. oryzae) and red flour beetle (T. castaneum). Major component of both leaves and oils were α-pinene, α-cedrol, and Δ-3-carene. Results showed leaf oils were more toxic than fruit oils against the three species of insects. (4) Study was done on the fumigant toxicity of essential oils of leaves and fruits of P. orientalis against the adults of cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne. Results showed fumigant toxicity with the leaf oil showing more toxicity than fruit oils. (see constituents above) (10)
Essential Oil / Diuretic / Antioxidant: Essential oil of fruits and leaves were tested for diuretic activity. Results showed an increase in urinary excretion, rise in sodium excretion, with hypokalemia. Oils of both leaves and fruit restored reduced levels of glutathione in alloxan-diabetic rats, showing antioxidant activity comparable to that of vitamin E.
Anthelmintic: Ethanol extract of leaves of P. orientalis was investigated for anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma. The extract exhibited significant dose-dependent anthelmintic activity comparable to piperazine citrate. (6)
Antipyretic: (1) Ethanol extract of leaf showed antipyretic effect in induced fever in albino rabbits. Effect comparable with standard aspirin. (2) Alcoholic extract of leaf showed dose-dependent antipyretic activity by Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats.
Anti-Inflammatory: Total flavonoids isolated from P. orientalis showed significant anti-inflammatory effect in inflammatory rat models induced by dimethylbenze and carrageenan. Activity was attributed to decreasing the content of PGE2 and NO.
Antiproliferative: Study of leaf essential oil showed cytotoxic activity on renal adenocarcinoma cell line and against amelanotic melanoma.
Antioxidant / Antibacterial / Leaves: Study showed of a methanol:distilled water extract of leaves showed highest antioxidant effect in a DPPH assay while crude extracts showed significant inhibitory activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. (8)
Hair Growth-Promoting Activity: Study evaluated the hair growth-promoting activity of Thuja orientalis hot water extract and its underlying mechanism of action. Extract was applied topically to shaved dorsal skin of telogenic C57BL/6N mice to study the induction of the hair follicle cycle. Results showed promotion of hair growth by induction of anagen phase. Immunochemical analysis reveals earlier induction of -catenin and Shh proteins in hair follicles of the extract-treated group. Results suggest a potential as hair growth-promoting agent. (12)
Anti-Inflammatory / Blocking of NF-ikB and p38 MAPK: Study showed the methylene chloride fraction of Thuja orientalis potentially inhibits biomarkers (LPS-induced iNOS, COX-2 protein, TNF--α and IL-6) related to inflammation in vivo and in vitro, and may be a potential candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. (13)
Pinusolide / Anti-Platelet: Pinusolide, a labdane-tye diterpene, and pinusolidic acid have been isolated from leaf extracts. Pinusolide is a potent platelet-activating factor (PAF) antagonist. In mice, study suggested value in the treatment of hypotension and pinusolide analogues with a potential as PAF specific antagonist. (9)
Anti-Inflammatory: Chloroform fractions and pure compounds were evaluated for their ability to inhabit pro-inflammatory enzymes in vitro, and production of TNF-α and nitric oxide lipopolysaccharide stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Results showed anti-inflammatory activity probably through the inhibitory effects of the CHL and its components (hinokiol and acacetin) on 5-lipoxygenase. (14)
Diuretic / Leaves: Study evaluated aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Platycadus orientalis leaves for diuretic activity in rats. Results showed increase in urine volume, cation and anion excretion. Furosemide was used as reference drug, (17)
Antipyretic / Leaves: Study evaluated an alcoholic extract of leaf of Platycladus orientalis for antipyretic activity on Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. Results showed significant dose dependent antipyretic activity (p<0.05) (18)
Antihyperlipidemic / Antioxidant in Diabetic Rats: Study evaluated the antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts of P. orientalis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Results showed potent antihyperlipidemic activity in hyperglycemic rats along with good antioxidant activity and suggests a potential for use in treating diabetic complications of hyperlipidimia. (19)
Antidiarrheal Activity: Study evaluated iridoid glycosides isolated from a bioactive fraction for antidiarrheal activity against various experimental models. Extract inhibited castor oil-induced diarrhea and PGE-2 induced enteropooling in rats and also reduced gastrointestinal motility after charcoal meal administration. (20)
Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated T. orientalis water and alcohol extracts for reducing power, total phenolic content, DPPH scavenging activity, inhibitory effect on Fe induced DNA damage and inhibitory effect on RBC hemolysis. Results showed the extracts are rich source of natural antioxidants and can protect DNA and human red blood cells against free radical induced oxidative damage. (21) Stems: In a study of extracts of stem powder, a methanol extract exhibited good scavenging response of 74.3%, 59.51%, and 0.997% in DPPH, chelating power, and reducing power assay, respectively. (27)
Antibacterial: Chloroform:methanol (1:1 v/v) extract of strobilus of Thuja orientalis has potential to act as a novel source of antibacterial agent. The strobilus extract showed remarkable antimicrobial activity against test fish pathogenic bacteria. (22)
Cytotoxicity / Leaves: Study of leaves yielded to new stereoisomers (1,2) and seven known compounds. Compounds 1,2 and 4-9 were evaluated for cytotoxicity against A549 (non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma), SK-OV-3 (ovarian cancer cells), A498 (renal cell carcinoma) and HCT-15 (colon cancer cells) human tumor cell lines. (24)
Inhibition of TNF-α-Induced Vascular Inflammation: An aqueous extract of T. orientalis was found to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Study showed the extract can suppress TNF-α-induced inflammatory process possibly through inhibition of ROS and NF-kB activation, in HUVEC. (25)
Antinociceptive / Leaves: Study evaluated polyphenolic and total extract of leaves of P. orientalis for antinociceptive effect in mice using acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin and light tail flick tests. Results suggest the extracts have moderate analgesic effects. (26)
• Suppression of Sebum / Stimulation of Hair Growth: Study investigated the mechanism of hair restoration by BO leaf extract via sebum suppresant effect and hair loss prevention. BOLE showed a sebum depletion effect in cultured sebocytes. A hair growth plant ethanol extract showed a growth promotion/hair restoration effect and a sebum suppression effect. (28)
• Fungitoxic / Natural Biocide / Essential Oil: Hydrodistillation and GC/MS study of fresh leaves for essential oil yielded 22 compounds representing 94.0% of total oil. The essential oil showed antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata. Results indicated need for application of natural biocides in the field and during post-harvest storage. (29)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic: Study of Thuja orientalis aqueous methanolic fruit extract in albino rats using carrageenan-induced paw edema, acetic acid induced writhing test and hot plate methods showed significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. (30)

Availability
- Wild-crafted.
- Essential oils from leaves, seeds, cones and wood in the cybermarket.
- Traded internationally
- Dried herbal materials, dried leaves, extract granules traded from Asia.


Updated June 2016 / November 2014

IMAGE SOURCE: File:Platycladus orientalis SZ118.png / Drawing / Plate from Book / 1870 / Flora Japonica, Sectio Prima (Tafelband)Philipp Franz von Siebold and Joseph Gerhard Zuccarin / Public Domain i / Wikimedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / File:Thuja-orientalis.jpg / Luis Fernández García L. Fdez. / 2005-06-04 / Parque Ana Tutor, Madrid. / Creative Commons / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo /Platycladus orientalis / Photo by Vito Buono - Bari / alterVISTA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco / Common names / Conifer Database / Catalogue of Life, 2012
(2)
Platycladus orientalis L. / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(3)
Chemical and Antimicrobial Studies of Platycladus orientalis Essential Oils / Hassanzadeh M.K.; Rahimizadeh M.; Bazzaz B.S.F.; Emami S.A.; Assili J. / Pharmaceutical Biology (Formerly International Journal of Pharmacognosy), Volume 39, Number 5, October 2001 , pp. 388-390(3)
(4)
CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND TOXICITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS OF ORIENTAL ARBORVITAE, Platycladus orientalis (L.) FRANCO, AGAINST THREE STORED-PRODUCT BEETLES / Seyed Mehdi Hashemi*, and Seyed Ali Safavi / CHILEAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH 72(2) APRIL-JUNE 2012
(5)
13- GC/MS ANALYSIS AND BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF THUJA ORIENTALIS L. GROWING IN EGYPT. / Magda T. Ibrahim, Nevein M. Abdel-Hady and Lamiaa N. Hammad / Bull. Fac. Pharm. Cairo Univ., Vol. 42, No. 1 (2004)
(6)
Anthelmintic activity of Platycladus orientalis leaves extract / Niranjan Sutar*, Ranju Garai, Uma Shankar Sharma, Umesh Kumar Sharma, Amit jaiswal / International Journal of Parasitology Research, ISSN: 0975-3702, Volume 2, Issue 2, 2010, pp-01-03
(8)
Antibacterial, antioxidant and phytochemical investigation of Thuja orientalis leaves
/ Nakuleshwar Dut Jasuja*, Suresh K. Sharma, Richa Saxena, Jyoti Choudhary, Ramavtar Sharma and Suresh C. Joshi / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Vol. 7(25), pp. 1886-1893, 3 July, 2013 / DOI: 10.5897/JMPR12.1323
(9)
Review / Pharmacological of Platycladus orientalis / Jaiswal Amit et al / International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 2011, 2 (11), 58-61
(10)
Fumigant toxicity of essential oils of leaves and fruits of Platycladus orientalis to Lasioderma serricorne (F.)
/ Seyed Mehdi HASHEMI and Seyed Ali SAFAVI* / BIHAREAN BIOLOGIST 6 (1): pp.65-69
(11)
Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco is an accepted name / Synonyms / The Plant List
(12)
Hair growth-promoting activity of hot water extract of Thuja orientalis / Nan-nan Zhang, Dong Ki Park and Hye-Jin Park / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013, 13:9 / doi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-9
(13)
Methylene chloride fraction of the leaves of Thuja orientalis inhibits in vitro inflammatory biomarkers by blocking NF-κB and p38 MAPK signaling and protects mice from lethal endotoxemia. / Kim JY, Kim HJ, Kim SM, Park KR, Jang HJ, Lee EH, Jung SH, Ahn KS. / J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Jan 27;133(2):687-95. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.10.051. Epub 2010 Oct 30.
(14)
The anti-inflammatory activities of an extract and compounds isolated from Platycladus orientalis (Linnaeus) Franco in vitro and ex vivo. / Fan SY, Zeng HW, Pei YH, Li L, Ye J, Pan YX, Zhang JG, Yuan X, Zhang WD. / J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Jun 1;141(2):647-52. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.05.019. Epub 2011 May 17.
(15)
Platycadus orientalis / Synonyms (Partial List) / The Plant List
(16)
Chinese arborvitae / Platycladus orientalis / WorldAgroforestryOrg
(17)
Evaluation of Diuretic Activity of Platycladus orientalis Leaves Extract / Garai Ranju, Sutar Niranjan, Yadav Pradip, Pati Manoj Kumar, Jana Goutam Kumar / IRJP 2 (3) 20133, pp 117-120
(18)
ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITY OF PLATYCLADUS ORIEANTALIS LEAVES EXTRACT IN RAT / Amit Jaiswal*, Rajesh Kumar, Kumar Abhinav, Avanish Kumar / International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology, Vol 2, Issue 1, Jan-Mar 2011
(19)
Antidiabetic along with antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of Platycladus orientalis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats / Alok Kumar Dashcorrespondenceemail, Jhansee Mishra, Deepak Kumar Dash / Current Medicine Research & Practice, Vol 4, Issue 6, pp 255-262, Nov-Dec 2014 / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmrp.2014.11.012
(20)
ANTIDIARRHOEAL ACTIVITY ON PLATYCLADUS ORIEANTALIS EXTRACT / Amit jaiswal*, Kumar Abhinav, Gyanendra Pratap Singh / International Journal of Applied Biology and Phamaceutical Technology, Vol 2, Issue 2, April-June 2011
(21)
Antioxidant activity of water and alcohol extracts of Thuja orientalis leaves / Nizam, Iram; Mushfiq, M / Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine, Vol 7, Issue 1, pp 65-73 (2007) / DOI : 10.3742/OPEM.2007.7.1.065
(22)
STROBILUS EXTRACTIVES OF THUJA ORIENTALIS AS NOVEL ANTIBACTERIAL AGENT AGAINST SOME PATHOGENIC BACTERIA / DEVALEENA MUKHERJEE, ANUSHREE SINGHA RAY, KUNTAL BHATTACHARYA, AND GOUTAM CHANDRA* / International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, 7(1): 156-160, Jan 2016
(23)
Volatile Constituents & Phytochemical Studies of Platycladusorientalis Grown In North Central Nigeria / Larayetan R.A; Sodamade A; Owonikoko Ad / IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry (IOSR-JAC), Volume 7, Issue 12 Ver. II. (Dec. 2014), PP 06-10
(24)
Two New Diterpenoids from Thuja orientalis and Their Cytotoxicity / Chung Sub Kim, Won Se Suh, Sang Un Choi, Ki Hyun Kim, and Kang Ro Lee* / Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 2014, Vol. 35, No. 9 2855 http://dx.doi.org/10.5012/bkcs.2014.35.9.2855
(25)
Inhibitory effect of Thuja orientalis on TNF-α-induced vascular inflammation. / Lee YunJung; Hwang SunMi; Yoon JungJoo; Lee SoMin; Kyung EunHo; Kim JinSook; Kang DaeGill; Lee HoSub / Phytotherapy Research 2010 Vol. 24 No. 10 pp. 1489-1495 / DOI 10.1002/ptr.3131
(26)
Antinociceptive study of extracts of Platanus orientalis leaves in mice / V Hajhashemi, A Ghannadi, S Mousavi / Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 6, No 2 (2011)
(27)
ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF VARIOUS EXTRACTS OF STEM OF THUJA ORIENTALIS: IN VITRO STUDY / Pooja Saharan, Joginder Singh Duhan, Suresh Kumar Gahlawat and Surekha / International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology, Vol 3, Issue 4, Oct-Dec 2012
(28)
Evaluation of the Effect of Plant Mixture Ethanol Extracts Containing Biota orientalis L. Extract on Suppression of Sebum in Cultured Sebocytes and on Stimulation of Growth of Keratinocytes Co-cultured with Hair Papilla Cells
/ Haifeng Zeng, Lihao Gu and Kazuhisa Maeda* / Cosmetics 2017, 4, 29 / doi:10.3390/cosmetics4030029
(29)
Chemical Composition and Fungitoxic Activity of Essential Oil of Thuja orientalis L. Grown in the North-Western Himalaya / Sanjay Guleria*, Ashok Kumar, and Ashok Kumar Tiku / 2008 Verlag der Zeitschrift für Naturforschung
(30)
EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC POTENTIAL OF AQUEOUS METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF THUJA ORIENTALIS IN ALBINO RATS / M. Z. Tanveer, A. Javeed, M. Ashraf, M. U. Rehman and S. M. M. Anjum / The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, 25(4): 2015, Page: 1183-1186
(31)
Volatile Constituents of the Fruit and Leaf Oils of Thuja orientalis L. Grown in Iran / Bahman Nickavar*, Gholamreza Amin, and Sara Parhami / Z. Naturforsch. 58c, 171Ð172 (2003)

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT